Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Pratylenchus brachyurus
(root-lesion nematode)



Pratylenchus brachyurus (root-lesion nematode)


  • Last modified
  • 15 May 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pratylenchus brachyurus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • root-lesion nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Pratylenchidae
  •         Genus: Pratylenchus
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    CAB International
    OX10 8DE
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report


Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pratylenchus brachyurus (Godfrey, 1929) Filipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941

Preferred Common Name

  • root-lesion nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Anguillulina (Pratylenchus) brachyura (Godfrey, 1929) Goodey, 1932 (W. Schneider, 1939)
  • Anguillulina brachyura (Godfrey, 1929), Goodey, 1932
  • Pratylenchus leiocephalus Steiner, 1949
  • Pratylenchus pratensis Thorne, 1949
  • Pratylenchus steineri Lordello, Zamith & Boock, 1954
  • Tylenchus (Chitinotylenchus) brachyurus Godfrey, 1929 (Filipjev, 1934)
  • Tylenchus brachyurus Godfrey, 1929

International Common Names

  • English: meadow nematode; smooth headed nematode

EPPO code

  • PRATBR (Pratylenchus brachyurus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Pratylenchidae
  •                 Genus: Pratylenchus
  •                     Species: Pratylenchus brachyurus

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AfghanistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Brunei DarussalamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Georgia (Republic of)PresentMotsinger et al., 1976
IndiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-AssamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-BiharPresentBasu, 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-DelhiPresentSethi and Swarup, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Himachal PradeshPresentPrasad, 1988; Sethi and Swarup, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Indian PunjabPresentSethi and Swarup, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-KarnatakaPresentKhan and Reddy, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-KeralaPresentReddy et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-MaharashtraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-RajasthanPresentSethi and Swarup, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Tamil NaduPresentKumar, 1997; Reddy et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-TripuraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Uttar PradeshPresentSingh, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-UttarakhandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-West BengalPresentRama and Dasgupta, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2003
IndonesiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-JavaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
IranPresentTanhamaafi et al., 2005; Mirghasemi et al., 2014
IsraelWidespreadWinslow, 1960; CABI/EPPO, 2003
JapanPresentGotoh, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Korea, Republic ofPresentHan et al., 2006
MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-SarawakPresentAnon, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003
OmanPresentMani et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2003
PakistanPresentBridge et al., 1990; Anwar et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003
PhilippinesPresentBridge et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SingaporePresent, few occurrencesChin, 1969; AVA, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Sri LankaPresentGnanapragasam, 1991; Kumarasinghe et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2003
TurkeyPresentTemiz, 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2003
UzbekistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
VietnamWidespreadSharma et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003


BeninPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
BotswanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
CameroonPresentSakwe and Geraert, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Côte d'IvoirePresentMeige, 1957; Guerout, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003
EgyptPresentOteifa, 1962; CABI/EPPO, 2003
GambiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
GhanaPresentOsei et al., 2005
GuineaPresentCoyne et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2003
KenyaPresentKimenju et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MadagascarPresentBaudin & Huu Hai, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MalawiPresentCorbett, 1967; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MauritiusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
MozambiquePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
NigeriaPresentEgunjobi, 1974; Khan and Misari, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003
RéunionPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
SenegalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
South AfricaPresentWillers and Smart, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
TogoPresentde Guiran, 1965; CABI/EPPO, 2003
UgandaPresentBafokuzara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ZambiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
ZimbabwePresentAnon, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003

North America

CanadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-OntarioWidespreadMountain, 1954; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MexicoPresentRoman, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2003
USAPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-AlabamaPresentSteiner, 1949; MINTON et al., 1963; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-ArkansasPresentJackson and Sturgeon, 1973; Thames, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-CaliforniaWidespreadSiddiqi et al., 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-FloridaPresentMcGowan, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-GeorgiaPresentThames, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-HawaiiPresentGodfrey, 1929; Rohrbach and Apt, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-KentuckyWidespreadChapman, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-LouisianaPresentJensen, 1972; Birchfield et al., 1978; Rebois and Golden, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-MarylandPresentJenkins et al., 1957; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-MississippiWidespreadRebois and Golden, 1978; Thames, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-North CarolinaPresentShepherd and Barker, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-OklahomaPresentSturgeon and Russell, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-South CarolinaPresentAlexander, 1963; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-TennesseeWidespreadThames, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-TexasPresentThames, 1982; Wheeler and Starr, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-VirginiaPresentSteiner, 1945; CABI/EPPO, 2003

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentBridge et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Costa RicaPresentLopez and Salazar, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
CubaWidespreadGandoy & Ortega, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2003
GuatemalaPresentJenkins and Bird, 1962; CABI/EPPO, 2003
HondurasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Puerto RicoWidespreadAyala et al., 1969; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003

South America

BoliviaPresentCorbett and Clark, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BrazilPresentLordello, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-AcrePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-BahiaPresentSharma and Sher, 1973; Zem et al., 1978; Zem, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-CearaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Espirito SantoPresentLordello & Viega, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-GoiasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; Araújo et al., 2014
-Mato GrossoPresentSilva et al., 2004
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentAsmus, 2004
-Minas GeraisPresentD'Antonio et al., 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-ParaibaPresentde Moura & de Moura, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-ParanaPresentGotoh, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-PernambucoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Rio de JaneiroPresentGoes et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Rio Grande do NortePresentSouza, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2003; Torres et al., 2015
-Rio Grande do SulPresentLordello and Marini, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Santa CatarinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Sao PauloPresentCosta, 1977; D'Antonio et al., 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2003; Bonfim et al., 2012
ColombiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
French GuianaPresentCadet et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003
GuyanaPresentSingh, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003
PeruWidespreadWhitehead, 1968; Lordello, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003
VenezuelaPresentLoof, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2003


BulgariaPresentBaicheva, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003
CyprusPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
ItalyPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
Russian FederationPresentChernyak, 1968


AustraliaPresentColbran, 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-QueenslandWidespreadBroadley, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Cook IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
FijiPresentBridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003
NiuePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
SamoaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
TongaPresentBridge, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / wilting
Roots / cortex with lesions
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / reduced root system
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
True seeds (inc. grain)


Top of page

Acosta N, Malek RB, 1981. Symptomatology and histopathology of soybean roots infected by Pratylenchus scribneri and P. alleni. Journal of Nematology, 13(1):6-12

Alexander PM, 1963. Stylet bearing nematodes associated with various plants in South Carolina, 1962-63. Plant Disease Reporter, 47:978-982

Anon., 1972. Annual Report of the Research Branch, Department of Agriculture for the year 1972. Sarawak, Ministry of Agriculture and Drainage and Irrigation. Plant Nematology 5:40-71.

Anon., 1989. Bureau of nematology: nematode detections of special interest. Triology Technical Report, 28(8):8-9.

Anwar SA, Gorsi SD, Shakoor A, 1993. Effect of Longidorus elongatus, Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus brachyurus on peanut growth. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 11(2):115-124; 20 ref

Araújo Filho JVde, Castro-Moretti FR, Bonfim Junior MF, 2014. Pratylenchus brachyurus (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) in Guariroba in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Helminthologia, 51(4):352-354.

Asmus GL, 2004. Occurrence of plant-parasitic nematodes in cotton crops in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. (Ocorrência de nematóides fitoparasitos em algodoeiro no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul.) Nematologia Brasileira, 28(1):77-86

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Ayala AE, González-Tejera E, Irizarry H, 1969. Pineapple nematodes and their control. In: Peachey JE, ed. Nematodes of Tropical Crops. St. Albans, UK: Tech. Commun. Commonw. Bur. Helminth., No. 40, 210-224

Badra T, Steele WM, Caveness FE, 1980. The employment of a non-fumigant nematicide for control of the root-knot and lesion nematodes on yams and crop preservation in storage. Nematropica, 10(2):81-85

Bafokuzara ND, 1982. Nematodes associated with pineapples in Uganda. Nematropica, 12(1):45-49

Baicheva O, 1982. The nematode fauna of tobacco from some districts of the Rhodope tobacco region. Khelmintologiya, No.13:3-11

Basu SD, 1968. Eelworms- A progress report on a few more groups found in N.E. Indian Tea Soils. Two and a Bud, 15:70-71

Basu SD, 1978. Root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus sp.) in bamboo hedge. Two and a Bud, 25(2):98-99

Baudin P, Huu-Hai V, 1973. Tobacco diseases in Madagascar. Agronomie Tropicale, II, 28(2):189-207

Bhattacharya C, Dasgupta MK, Mukherjee B, 2012. Biodiversity of plant parasitic nematodes of cashew plantations in Tripura, India. Nematologia Mediterranea, 40(2):163-168.

Birchfield W, 1960. A new species Catenaria parasitic on nematodes of sugarcane. Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata, 12:331-338

Birchfield W, 1972. Effects of some nematicides on plant nematodes and sugarcane yields. Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, 14th Congress 1971. Baton Rouge, USA: Franklin Press Inc., 1022-1029

Birchfield W, Hollis JP, Martin WJ, 1978. A list of nematodes associated with some Louisiana plants. Technical Bulletin, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, No. 101

Bird GW, McCarter SM, Roncadori RW, 1971. Role of nematodes and soil-borne fungi in cotton stunt. Journal of Nematology, 3:17-22

Bonfim Júnior MF, Machado ACZ, Araújo Filho JV, 2012. Pratylenchus brachyurus (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) on macadamia in Brazil. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1):5-6.

Boswell TE, 1968. Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus brachyurus to Spanish peanuts. PhD thesis. Texas, USA: Texas A&M University

Boswell TE, Grichar WJ, 1983. Nematicide trial for control of lesion nematodes, 1980. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, 38:3

Boyd FT, Dickson DW, 1971. Plant-parasitic nematodes: occurrence in Florida, sensitivity to temperatures, and effect on tropical forage yields. Proceedings of the Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida, 31:267-268

Boyle LW, 1950. Several species of parasitic nematodes on peanuts in Georgia. Plant Disease Reporter, 34:61-62

Bridge J, 1988. Plant parasitic nematode problems in the Pacific islands. Journal of Nematology, 20:173-183

Bridge J, Hunt DJ, Hunt P, 1996. Plant-parasitic nematodes of crops in Belize. Nematropica, 26(2):111-119; 13 ref

Bridge J, Luc M, Plowright RA, 1990. Nematode parasites of rice. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 69-108

Broadley RA, 1981. Distribution and control of root-knot and root lesion nematodes on peanuts in north Queensland. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 21(109):223-226

Brodie BB, 1976. Vertical distribution of three nematode species in relation to certain soil properties. Journal of Nematology, 8(3):243-247

Brodie BB, Good JM, Jaworski CA, 1970. Population dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil: Effect of summer cover crops in newly cleared land. Journal of Nematology, 2(3):217-222

Brodie BB, Murphy WS, 1975. Population dynamics of plant nematodes as affected by combinations of fallow and cropping sequence. Journal of Nematology, 7(1):91-92

Brodie BB, Quattlebaum BH, 1970. Vertical distribution and population fluctuations of three nematode species as correlated with soil temperature, moisture and texture. Phytopathology, 60:1286

Brooks TL, Perry VG, 1967. Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus brachyurus to citrus. Plant Disease Reporter, 51:569-73

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Pratylenchus brachyurus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 887. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Cadet P, van den Berg E, 1995. Plant parasitic nematodes of cultivated plants in French Guyana. Phytoma, 474:41-44

Campos P, 1997. Nematodes of the fig crop. Informe Agropecuario Belo Horizonte, 18(188):33-38

Campos P, Sivapalan P, Gnanapragasam NC, 1990. Nematode parasites of Coffee, Cocoa and Tea. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Sub Tropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 387-430

Campos VP, Lima RD, 1986. Nematoides parasitas do cafeeiro. In: Rena AB, Malavolta E, Rocha M, Yamada T, eds. Cultura do Cafeeiro, fatores que aftetam a produtividade. Piracicaba, SP, Brazil: Associacao Brasileira para Pesquisa da Potassa e do Fosfato, 379-389

Caswell EP, Sarah JL, Apt WJ, 1990. Nematode Parasites of Pineapple In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Sub tropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 519-537

Caveness FE, 1967. Nematology Studies 1960-1965. End tour Progress Report. Nigeria: Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources

Caveness FE, Olayode G, Couper DC, Claassen SL, 1987. Nematodes in soybean plots identified, yield losses assessed. IITA Research Briefs, 8(2):4

Chapman RA, 1956. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with strawberry in Kentucky. Plant Disease Reporter, 40:179-81

Charchar JM, Huang CS, 1980. Host range of Pratylenchus brachyurus. I. Graminep. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 5(3):351-357

Charchar JM, Huang CS, 1981. Host range of Pratylenchus brachyurus II. Vegetables. Fitopatologia-Brasileira, 6(1):67-72

Charchar JM, Huang CS, 1981. Host range of Pratylenchus brachyurus. III. Different species. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 6(3):469-473

Chernyak EK, 1968. Reproduction of Pratylenchus brachyurus Godfrey, 1929 on root callus tissue. Mater. nauch. Konf. Obshch. Gel'mint. Uzbek., September 1968. Tashkent: Izdat. Akad. Nauk Uzbek., SSR, pp. 135-137

Chin CL, 1969. Lesion nematode, Pratylenchus brachyurus, attacking Cryptomeria japonica in Singapore. Plant Disease Reporter, 53 (10):798

Christie JR, 1959. Plant Nematodes: Their Bionomics and Control. Gainesville, USA: University of Florida

Coelho SMBM, Filho H da SM, Franco JF, 1984. Effect of systemic insecticides-nematicides in control of nematodes on potatoes. Revista de Agricultura, Piracicaba, Brazil, 59(2):127-136

Cohn E, 1972. Nematode diseases of citrus. In: Webster JM, ed. Economic Nematology. London, UK: Academic Press, 215-244

Colbran RC, 1968. Nematodes- important pests of peanuts. Division of Plant Industry, Department of Primary Industries, Queensland, Australia, Advisory Leaflet No. 955

Colbran RC, 1969. Cover crops and nematode control in pineapples. Qd. Agric. J. 95:658-661

Corbett DCM, 1967. Nematodes as plant parasites in Malawi. PANS, 13:151-162

Corbett DCM, 1976. Pratylenchus brachyurus. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 6 ( No. 89) Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 4 pp

Corbett DCM, Clark SA, 1983. Surface features in the taxonomy of Pratylenchus species. Revue de Nematologie, 6(1):85-98

Costa AS, 1977. Investigations on soybean diseases carried out in the State of Sao Paulo. Summa Phytopathologica, 3(1):3-30

Coyne DL, Plowright RA, Fofana I, 1996. Preliminary investigations of nematodes associated with rice in Guinea, Benin and Togo. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 6(1):70-73; 16 ref

da Ponte, JJ, 1987. The nematodes of cowpeas and their importance. Nematologia Brasileira, 11:36-41

D'Antonio AM, Libeck PR, Coelho AJE, de Paulo V, 1980. Zlevssntamento de nematoides parasitass do cafeeiro que ocorrem no sul de Minas Gerais. In: Congresso Brasileiro de Pesquisas Cafeeiras, Campos do Jordao. Rio de Janeiro, IBC/GERCA: 440

Davies TG, 1965. The occurrence of a dagger nematode in North Wales. Plant Pathology, 14: 92-93

Dickerson OJ, Darling JM, Griffin GD, 1964. Pathogenicity and population trends of Pratylenchus penetrans on potato and corn. Phytopathology, 54:317-322

Dickson DW, 1985. Nematode diseases of peanut. Nematology Circular No.121, Florida, USA: Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

Dickson DW, Smart GC, Jr. , 1971. Control of Meloidogyne arenaria and Pratylenchus penetrans on peanut with foliar applications of a systemic nematicide. Journal of Nematology, 3:307-308

Dinardo-Miranda LL, Spironello A, Martins ALM, 1997. Population dynamics of plant parasitic nematodes in pineapple cultivations. Nematologia Brasileira, 21(1):49-57; 14 ref

Ducharme EP, Suit RF, 1953. Nematodes associated with avocado roots in citrus spreading decline areas. Plant Disease Reporter, 37:427-428

Dunn RA, 1973. Resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum) to Pratylenchus penetrans. International Congress of Plant Pathology (2nd) Minneapolis, Minnesota, September 5-12. Abstracts of the papers. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society Inc., No. 0860

Egunjobi OA, 1974. Nematodes and maize growth in Nigeria. I. Population dynamics of Pratylenchus brachyurus in and about the roots of maize and its effects on maize production at Ibadan. Nematologica, 20(2):181-186

Egunjobi OA, 1984. Effects of intercropping maize with grain legumes and fertilizer treatment on populations of Pratylenchus brachyurus Godfrey (Nematoda) and on the yield of maize (Zea mays L.). Protection Ecology, 6(2):153-167

Egunjobi OA, 1987. An integrated control strategy for a nematode pest of maize in Nigeria. International Nematology Network Newsletter, 4(4):40-49; 32 ref

Egunjobi OA, Afolami SO, 1976. Effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extracts on populations of Pratylenchus brachyurus and on the growth and yield of maize. Nematologica, 22(2):125-132

Egunjobi OA, Larinde MA, 1975. Nematodes and maize growth in Nigeria. II. Effects of some amendments on populations of Pratylenchus brachyurus and on the growth and production of maize (Zea mays) in Nigeria. Nematologia Mediterranea, 3(1):65-73

Endo BY, 1959. Responses of root lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. zeae to various plants and soil types. Phytopathology, 49(7):417-421

Esser RP, 1980. A bacterial spore parasite of nematodes. Nematology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, No. 63:3 pp

Fauna Europaea, 2014. Fauna Europaea version 2. Web Service available online at

Feldmesser J, Feder WA, Rebois RV, Hutchins PC, 1960. Longevity of Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus brachyurus in the green-house. Anat. Rec. 137(3):355

Feldmesser JWA, Hannon CI, 1965. An evaluation of the role of Pratylenchus in the decline of citrus. Phytopathology, 55:1058

Feldmesser JWA, Rebois RV, 1965. Temperature and moisture effects on Pratylenchus brachyurus. Nematologica, 11(1):37-38

Ferraz LCCB, 1995. Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus brachyurus to three soyabean cultivars. Nematologia Brasileira, 19(1/2):1-8; 8 ref

Ferraz LCCB, 1996. Reaction of soyabean cultivars to Pratylenchus brachyurus. Nematologia Brasileira, 20(1):22-31; 7 ref

Gandoy P, Ortego J, 1980. Nematodes parasitic on pineapple in Cuba and possibilities for their control. Ciencias de la Agricultura, 7:19-28

Gay CM, Bird GW, 1973. Influence of concomitant Pratylenchus brachyurus and Meloidogyne spp. on root penetration and population dynamics. Journal of Nematology, 5:212-217

Gnanapragasam NC, 1991. Report of Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka. Talawakelle, Sri Lanka: Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka

Gnonhouri PG, Ouya A, AssiTnan B, AtsT Y, 2000. Resistance and tolerance of Ananas comosus to Pratylenchus brachyurus in Ivory Coast. Cahiers Agricultures, 9(2):145-147; 8 ref

Godfrey GH, 1929. A destructive root disease of pineapples and other plants due to Tylenchus brachyurus n.sp. Phytopathology, 19:611-629

Goes A de, Vieira A, Gadelha RS de S, Zem AC, 1982. Nematodes associated with pineapple in Rio de Janeiro. Trabalhos apresentados a V Reuniao Brasileira de Nematologia, 9-13 fevereiro de 1981, Londrina, PR, Brasil. Publicacao No.5, 1981. Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil: Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia, 183-189

Goly PG, TThT H, 1997. Effects of pineapple weeds on Pratylenchus brachyurus in C(te d'Ivoire. Cahiers Agricultures, 6(3):199-202; 17 ref

Gongcalves W, Thomaziello RA, Moraes MV, Fernandes JAE, Costa AM, Corsi T, Jungueira CA, Lacerda LAO, 1978. Estimativas de danos ocasionados pelos nematoides do cafeeiro. In: 6 o Congresso Brasileiro de Pesquisas Cafeeiras de Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paolo, Brazil- IBC/GERCA: 182-186

Good JM, Boyle LW, Hammons RO, 1958. Studies on Pratylenchus brachyurus on peanuts. Phytopathology, 48:530-535

Good JM, Robertson WK, Thompson LG, 1954. Effect of crop rotation on populations of meadow nematode, Pratylenchus leicocephalus in Norfolk loamy fine sand. Plant Disease Reporter, 38:178-180

Good JM, Stansell JR, 1965. Effect of irrigation, soil fumigation, and date of harvest on Pratylenchus brachyurus (Godfrey). Nematologica, 11:38-39

Gotoh A, 1974. Geographic distribution of Pratylenchus spp. (Nematoda: Tylenchida) in Japan. Bulletin of the Kyushu Agricultural Experiment Station, 17:139-224

Gotoh A, 1985. Nematodes noxious to coffee cultivation in the State of Parana. Informe da Pesquisa Instituto Agronomico do Parana IX, No. 58

GouvOa CMCP, Lima MMA, Oliveira ARde, 1997. Establishment of monoxenic cultures and electrophoretic analysis of protein and DNA of Pratylenchus zeae, P. penetrans and P. brachyurus. Summa Phytopathologica, 23(3/4):243-247; 20 ref

Graham TW, 1951. Nematode root rot of tobacco and other plants. South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 390

Graham TW, 1965. Tobacco varieties used to show differential response to root lesion nematodes. Plant Disease Reporter, 49:822-826

Guerout R, 1969. Action des plantes ameliorantes en culture d'ananas III Bilan nematologique. Fruits, 24(9-10):436-443

Guerout R, 1975. Nematodes of pineapple: a review. Pest Articles & News Summaries, 21(2):123-140

Guerout R, 1976. Usefulness of plots without nematodes in pineapple experiments. Nematropica, 6(1):1

Guiran Gde, 1965. Nematodes on cassava in southern Togo. Congres de la protection des cultures tropicales, 23-27 mars, 1965, Marseille. Compte rendu des travaux. Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de Marseille. France, 677-680

Gupta JC, 1975. Evaluation of various treatments and varietal resistance for the control of banana nematodes. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 4(3/4):152-156

Han HyeRim, Lee JaeKook, Choi DongRo, Han ManJong, Park ByeongYong, 2006. Occurrence of plant parasitic nematodes in chrysanthemum and ITS and D3-28S rDNA characterization of Pratylenchus spp. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 45(3):293-299.

Ibrahim IKA, El-Saedy MA, 1976. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with peanuts in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology, 8:31-35

Ichinohe M, 1972. Nematode Diseases of Rice. In: Webster JM ed. Economic Nematology. New York, USA: Academic Press, 127-143

Inagaki H, Powell NT, 1969. Influence of the root-lesion nematode on Black shank symptom development in flue cured tobacco. Phytopathology, 59:1350-1355

Ingram EG, Rodriguez-Kabana R, 1977. Susceptibility of pigeon pea to plant parasitic nematodes. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 4:177

Ingram EG, Rodriguez-Kabana R, 1980. Nematodes parasitic on peanuts in Alabama and evaluation of methods for detection and study of population dynamics. Nematropica, 10(1):21-30

Inomoto MM, Oliveira CMG, Mazzafera P, Gon¦alves W, 1998. Effects of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae on seedlings of Coffea arabica. Journal of Nematology, 30(3):362-367; 32 ref

Jackson CR, Minton NA, 1968. Pod invasion by fungi in the presence of lesion nematodes in Georgia. Oleagineux, 23:531-534

Jackson CR, Sturgeon RV, 1973. Effects of nematicides upon root lesion nematode populations. Journal of the American Peanut Research and Education Association, 5:178-181

Jatala P, Bridge J, 1990. Nematode parasites of root and tuber crops. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 137-180

Jenkins WR, 1969. Nematodes associated with lemon grass in Guatemala. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Tropical Nematology, 29 November to 1 December, 1967, University of Puerto Rico, 80-83

Jenkins WR, Bird GW, 1962. Nematodes associated with wild yam, Dioscorea sp., with special reference to the pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita. Plant Disease Reporter, 46:858-860

Jenkins WR, Taylor DP, Rohde RA, Coursen BW, 1957. Nematodes associated with crop plants in Maryland. Bulletin of the University of Maryland Agricultural Experimental Station, No A87

Jensen HJ, 1972. Nematode Pests of Vegetable and Related Crops. In: Webster JM, ed. Economic Nematology. New York, USA: Academic Press, 377-408

Jensen HJ, Martin JP, Wismer CA, Koike H, 1959. Nematodes associated with varietal yield decline of sugar cane in Hawaii. Plant Disease Reporter, 43:253-260

Johnson AW, 1970. Influence of organic pesticides on nematode populations and seed production of centipede grass. Journal. of Nematology, 2:252-254

Johnson AW, Burton GW, 1973. Comparison of millet and sorghum-Sudan grass hybrids grown in untreated soil and soil treated with two nematicides. Journal of Nematology, 5:54-59

Jordan EM, Lots GC, Jooste WJ, de Waele D, 1987. Effects of root-lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus brachyurus, Godfrey and P. zeae, Graham) and Fusarium monoliforme Sheldon alone or in combination, on maize. Nematologica, 33(2):213-219

Kaplan DT, 1985. Plant parasitic nematodes affecting citrus. Fruit Varieties Journal, 39(3):26-30

Keetch DP, 1982. Nematode pests of pineapple. In: Keetch DP, Heyns J, ed. Nematology in southern Africa. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa: Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 19-29

Kehe M, Gnonhouri P, Adikoko A, Martin Prevel P, Hugon R, 1997. Time course of infestation by Hanseniella ivorensis and Pratylenchus brachyurus on pineapple crop in Cote d'Ivoire. Proceedings of the second international pineapple symposium, Troisllets Martinique 20-24 February, 1995. Acta Horticulturae, 425:465-474

Khan FA, 1992. Multiplication rates of Pratylenchus brachyurus in some vegetable crops in northern Nigeria. Crop Protection, 11:127-130; 31 ref

Khan FA, Misari SM, 1992. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with groundnut crop in four ecological zones of Nigeria. Journal of African Zoology, 106(3):263-271; 28 ref

Khan MR, Reddy PP, 1991. Occurrence and distribution of potentially pathogenic endophytic nematodes associated with some ornamental, medicinal and aromatic crops. Indian Phytopathology, 44(4):501-504; 15 ref

Khan RM, Reddy PP, 1990. An association of Pratylenchus brachyurus with Pogostemon cablin. Indian Journal of Nematology, 20(1):116-119; 12 ref

Kimenju JW, Waudo SW, Mwang'Ombe AW, Sikora RA, Schuster RP, 1998. Distribution of lesion nematodes associated with maize in Kenya and susceptibility of maize cultivars to Pratylenchus zeae. African Crop Science Journal, 6(4):367-375; 33 ref

Kinkaid RR, 1946. Soil factors affecting incidence of root-knot. Soil Science, 61:101-109

Koen H, 1967. Notes on the host range, ecology and population dynamics of Pratylenchus brachyurus. Nematologica, 13:118-24

Koen H, 1969. Thermotherapeutic control of Pratylenchus brachyurus in potato tubers. Phytophylactica, 1:67-69

Koenning SR, Schmitt DP, 1986. Integrated Pest Management of Pratylenchus brachyurus on soybean. Nematropica, 16(2):237-244

Koenning SR, Schmitt DP, Barker KR, 1985. Influence of planting date on population dynamics and damage potential of Pratylenchus brachyurus on soybean. Journal of Nematology, 17(4):428-434

Koenning SR, Schmitt DP, Barker KR, 1985. Influence of selected cultural practices on winter survival of Pratylenchus brachyurus and subsequent effects on soybean yield. Journal of Nematology, 17(4):464-469

Koike H, Roman J, 1970. Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus brachyurus and Pythium graminicola to sugarcane. Phytopathology, 60:1562-1565

Kumar S, 1998. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with groundnut in Trichy district. Madras Agricultural Journal, 84(8):520-521

Kumarasinghe NC, Ekanayake HMRK, 1998. Incidence of sugarcane parasitic nematodes in the Siymabalanduwa area and the effect of physical factors on their population levels. Nematology: challenges and opportunities in 21st Century. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium of Afro-Asian Society of Nematologists (TISAASN), Sugarcane Breeding Institute (ICAR), Coimbatore, India, April 16-19, 1998., 63-67; 9 ref

L=pez R, Salazar L, 1990. Morphology of some Pratylenchus spp. (Nemata: Pratylenchidae) found in Costa Rica, as seen with the scanning electron microscope. Agronomi^acute~a Costarricense, 14(2):189-195; 17 ref

Lacoeuilhe JJ, Guerout R, 1976. Action du nematode Pratylenchus brachyurus sur la croissance, la nutrition et les rendements de l'ananas. Influence de la localisation de la fumure. Fruits, 33:147-156

Lehman PS, 1991. Bureau of nematology - detections of special interest. Tri-ology Technical Report, 30(12):1-2

Lewis SA, Skipper HD, Musen HL, 1977. Nematode and nodulation studies in coastal plain soybean fields of South Carolina. Journal of Nematology, 9(4):275

Lindsey DW, Cairns EJ, 1971. Pathogenicity of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus brachyurus, on six soybean cultivars. Journal of Nematology, 3:220-226

Loof PAA, 1960. Taxonomic studies on the genus Pratylenchus (Nematoda). Tijdschr. Plantenziekten, 66:29-90

Loof PAA, 1978. The genus Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae): a review of its anatomy, morphology, distribution, systematics and identification. The genus Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae): a review of its anatomy, morphology, distribution, systematics and identification. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Research Information Centre. Uppsala Sweden, iv + 50 pp

Lordello LGE, 1967. A root-lesion nematode found infesting eucalyptus trees in Brazil. Plant Disease Reporter, 51:791

Lordello LGE, 1972. Nematode pests of coffee. In: Webster JM, ed. Economic Nematology. New York, USA: Academic Press, 268-284

Lordello LGE, 1984. Nematoides das Plantas cultivadas. 8 o Edicao, S. A., Livaria Nobel

Lordello LGE, de Mendonta MM, 1970. Nematodes associated with roots of sugarcane in Piauf, Brazil. Revta bras. Biol., 30 (4):617-618

Lordello LGE, de Toledo Mello Filho A, 1969. Capins gordura e jaragu, hospedeiros novos de um nematicide migrador. Solo, 61 (2):27

Lordello LGE, de Toledo Mello Filho A, 1971. Occurrence of nematodes in onion planting. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira. Agronomia, 6:127-128

Lordello LGE, Marini PR, 1974. Some nematode parasites of plants from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Revista de Agricultura, 59(1):15-18

Lordello LGE, Veiga AS, 1983. Nematodes in rubber trees. Revista de Agricultura (Sao Paulo), 58(3):203-207

Lordello RRA, Lordello AIL, Sawazaki E, Aloisi-Sobrinho J, 1985. Resistance of maize in the field to Pratylenchus infection. Nematologia Brasileira, 9:163-173

Lordello RRA, Sabino NP, 1985. Effect of nematode control on fibre properties of upland cotton. Bragantia, 44:695-699

Lordello RRA, Sawazaki E, Lordello AIL, Aloisi Sobrinho J, 1983. Control of Pratylenchus spp. on maize with systemic nematicides and castor bean cake. Trabalhos apresentados a VII Reuniao Brasileira de Nematologia, Brasilia, DF, 21-25 de fevereiro de 1983. Publicacao No.7. Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia Piracicaba, SP Brazil, 241-250

Lucas GB, 1975. Diseases of tobacco. 3rd edn. Raleigh, North Carolina, USA: Biological Consulting Associates

Mani A, Al-Hinai MS, Handoo ZA, 1997. Occurrence, population density, and distribution of root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus spp., in the Sultanate of Oman. Nematropica, 27(2):209-219; 25 ref

Martin GC, 1972. Potatoes and Plant Parasitic Nematodes. Stocks and Crops, 3(7):27, 29, 31 and 3(8):38, 39

Martinez AA, Lordello LGE, Lordello RRA, 1972. A note on nematodes that attack rubber trees in Sao Paulo State. Revista de Agricultura, 47(3-4):159-160

McElroy FD, 1972. Nematodes of tree fruits and small fruits. In: Webster JM, ed. Economic Nematology. New York, USA: Academic Press, 335-376

McGowan JB, 1978. The lesion nematode, Pratylenchus brachyurus infecting citrus. Nematology Circular No. 42. Florida, USA: Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

McGowan JB, 1989. Bureau of nematology-nematode detections of special interest. Triology Technical Report, 28(12):1-3

McSorley R, Dickson DW, 1990. Vertical distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in sandy soil under soybean. Journal of Nematology, 22(1):90-96; 33 ref

McSorley R, Parrado JL, 1983. Effect of Nemacur on phytoparasitic nematodes of mango, 1982. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, American Phytopathological Society, 39:92-93

Mead FW, 1987. Bureau of nematology - detections of special interest. Triology Technical Report, 26(1):5-6

Mead FW, 1988. Bureau of Nematology - detections of special interest. Triology Technical Report, 27(4):5

Mead FW, 1989. Bureau of Nematology-detections of special interest. Tri-ology Technical Report, 28(4):7-8

Meige J, 1957. Influences de quelques caracteres des tubercules semences sur la levee et le rendement des ignames cultivees. Journal d'Agriculture Tropicale et de Botanique Appliquee, 4:315-342

Miller CR, Clark F, Perry VG, 1970. Chemical control of nematodes on flue-cured tobacco. Proc. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Fla, 1969, 29:369-372

Miller LI, Duke GB, 1961. Peanut nematode disease control. Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 520

Milne DL, 1982. Nematode pests of citrus. In: : Keetch DP, Heyns J, ed. Nematology in southern Africa. Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa, 12-18

Minton NA, Baujard P, 1990. Nematode parasites of peanut. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture, CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 285-320

MINTON NA, CAIRNS EJ, MINTON EB, HOPPER BE, 1963. Occurrence of plant-parasitic nematodes in Alabama. Plant Disease Reporter, 47(8):743-745

Minton NA, Cairns EJ, Smith AL, 1960. Effect on root-knot nematode populations of resistant and susceptible cotton. Phytopathology, 50(11):784-787

Minton NA, Hammons RO, Parham SA, 1970. Infection of shell and peg tissues of six peanut cultivars by Pratylenchus brachyurus. Phytopathology, 60:472-474

Minton NA, Morgan LW, 1974. Evaluation of systemic and nonsystemic pesticides for insect and nematode control in peanuts. Peanut Science, 1:91-98

Mirghasemi SN, Seraji A, Jamali S, Choshali AH, 2014. Reported some new species of plant parasitic nematodes from rhizosphere of tea plantation in Iran. International Journal of Biosciences (IJB), 5(9):37-46.

Monteiro AR, Lordello LGE, 1972. Nematode parasites of pineapples. Revista de Agricultura, Piracicaba, 47(3-4):163

Motalaote B, Starr JL, Fredericksen RA, Miller FR, 1987. Host status and susceptibility of sorghum to Pratylenchus species. Revue de Nematologie, 10(1):81-86

Motsinger RE, Crawford JL, Thompson SS, 1976. Nematode survey of peanuts and cotton in Southwest Georgia. Peanut Science, 3:72-74

Mounport D, Baujard P, Martiny B, 1990. Transmission electron microscopy studies on cuticle of Pratylenchus brachyurus, P. loosi and P. sefaensis (Nemata: Pratylenchidae). Revue de Ne^acute~matologie, 13(3):249-254; 9 ref

Mountain WB, 1954. Studies of nematodes in relation to brown root rot of tobacco in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Botany, 32:737-759

Moura RMde, Moura AMde, 1989. Incidence of Pratylenchus brachyurus on yam in Parafba State, Brazil. Nematologia Brasileira, 13:51-58; [^italic~Paper presented at the 13th Brazilian Congress of Nematology, held at Maceio^acute~, AL, Brazil on 20-24 Feb. 1989^roman~]; 7 ref

Naveda I, Crozzoli R, Greco N, Zambrano B, 1999. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with cucurbits in Paraguanß Peninsula, Falcon state, Venezuela. Fitopatologi^acute~a Venezolana, 12(1):14-17; 19 ref

Netscher C, Sikora RA, 1990. Nematode Parasites of Vegetables. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, Plant Parasitic Nematodes of Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 237-284

Novaretti WRT, Miranda MAC, Alcantara VSB, 1982. Chemical treatment for control of soyabean nematodes. Trabalhos apresentados a V Reuniao Brasileira de Nematologia, 9-13 fevereiro de 1981, Londrina, PR, Brasil. Publicacao No.5, 1981. Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia. Piracicaba, SP Brazil, 247-255

O'Bannon JH, 1980. Migration of Pratylenchus coffep and P. brachyurus on citrus and in soil. Nematropica, 10(2):70

O'Bannon JH, Radewald JD, Tomerlin AT, 1972. Population fluctuation of three parasitic nematodes in Florida citrus. Journal of Nematology 4:194-199

O'Bannon JH, Tarjan AC, Bistline FW, 1974. Control of Pratylenchus brachyurus on citrus and tree response to chemical treatment. Proceedings of the Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida, 33:65-67

O'Bannon JH, Tomerlin AT, 1970. Pratylenchus spp. as citrus pathogens. Phytopathology, 60:1540

Oliveira CMG, Inomoto MM, Vieira AMC, Monteiro AR, 1999. Effect of initial population densities of Pratylenchus brachyurus on the growth of Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo and C. canephora cv. Apoata seedlings. Nematropica, 29(2):215-221; 24 ref

Oliveira CMG, Monteiro AR, AntedomOnico SR, Inomoto MM, 1999. Host reaction of Coffea spp. to Pratylenchus brachyurus. Nematropica, 29(2):241-244; 12 ref

Olowe T, 1977. Histological changes in maize root induced by Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. zeae in the absence of other micro-organisms. Nigerian Journal of Plant Protection, 3:41-51

Olowe T, Corbett DCM, 1976. Aspects of the biology of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. zeae. Nematologica, 22(2):202-211

Olowe T, Corbett DCM, 1984. Morphology and morphometrics of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. zeae. II. Influence of environmental factors. Indian Journal of Nematology, 14(1):6-17

Onapitan JA, Amosu JO, 1982. Pathogenicity and histopathology of Pratylenchus brachyurus and Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus on sugarcane. Nematropica, 12(1):51-60

Orui Y, Mizukubo T, 1999. Discrimination of seven Pratylenchus species (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) in Japan by PCR-RFLP analysis. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 34(2):205-211; 17 ref

Osei K, Owusu-Akyaw M, Twumasi JK, Afun JVK, Anno-Nyako FO, Adu-Mensah J, Moses E, Bolfrey-Arku G, Osei-Yeboah S, Mochiah MB, Adama I, Dankyi AA, Brandenburg RL, Bailey JE, Jordan DL, 2005. Incidence and potential host-plant resistance of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to plant parasitic nematodes in Southern Ghana, West Africa. Peanut Science, 32(2):91-97.

Osseni B, Sarah JL, Hugon R, Martin Prevel P, Hugon R, 1997. Effect of soil pH on the population development of pratylenchus brachyurus (Godfrey) in pine apple roots and on the growth and yield of the plant. Proceedings of the Second International pineapple symposium, TroisIlets, Martinique, 20-24 February, 1995. Acta Horticulturae, 425:423-433

Oteifa BA, 1962. Species of root-lesion nematodes commonly associated with economic crops in the Delta of the U.A.R. Plant Disease Reporter, 46:712-714

Petenucci W, 1971. Coffee nematodes and their economic importance. Divulgacoes Agronomicas, Brasil, 31:4-11

Prasad SK, 1972. Nematode Diseases of Sugarcane. In: Webster JM, eds. Economic Nematology. London, UK: Academic Press, 144-158

Prasad, KSR, 1986. Nematode problems of potato. In: Gopal Swarup, Dasgupta DR, eds. Plant parasitic nematodes of India - problems and progress. New Delhi, India: Indian Agricultural Institute, 350-370

Py C, Lacoeuilhe JJ, Teisson C, 1984. L'ananas; sa culture, ses produits. Paris, France: Maisonneuve and Larose, and Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique, 562 pp

Qamar F, Khan SA, Khan HA, Shakir MA, 1996. Comparative studies of different nematicides against plant parasitic nematodes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 39(5/8):144-145; 10 ref

Rabie EC, Tustin HA, Martin Prevel P, Hugon R, 1997. Pre-plant control of nematodes in pineapple. Proceedings of the second international pineapple symposium, Troisllets, Martinique 20-24 February, 1995. Acta Horticulture, 425:435-442

Rama K, Dasgupta MK, 2000. Population ecology and community structure of plant parasitic nematodes associated with ginger in northern West Bengal. Indian Journal of Nematology, 30(1):42-45

Rebois RV, Golden AM, 1978. Nematode occurrences in soybean fields in Mississippi and Louisiana. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(5):433-437

Reddi CK, 1983. Nitrogen fixation and nematode resistance of 13 tropical legumes. Dissertation-Abstracts International, 44(2):380B

Reddy BMR, Sharma SB, Krishnappa K, 1991. New record on the occurrence of lesion nematode, Pratylenchus brachyurus on groundnut in Kerala. Indian Journal of Nematology, 21(1):91; 3 ref

Rhodesia, Secretary for Agriculture, 1973. Report for the period 1st October, 1971 to 30th September, 1972. Report for the period 1st October, 1971 to 30th September, 1972. Salisbury. Rhodesia, 76 pp

Rich JR, Dunn RA, 1982. Pathogenicity and control of nematodes affecting sunflower in North Central Florida. Plant Disease, 66(4):297-298

Rodriguez-Kabana R, King PS, 1976. Nematicidal activity of the fungicide ethazole. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 3:297

Rohrbach KG, Apt WJ, 1986. Nematode and disease problems of pineapple. Plant Disease, 70(1):81-87

Roman J, 1977. Observations on the association of Pratylenchus brachyurus with the dry rot of yam, Dioscorea floribunda in the tropical area of Mexico. Nematropica, 7(1):25-26

ROMAN J, HIRSCHMANN H, 1969. Morphology and morphometrics of six species of Pratylenchus. Journal of Nematology, 1(4):363-386

Roman J, Triantaphyllou AC, 1969. Gametogenesis and Reproduction of Seven Species of Pratylenchus. Journal of Nematology, 1:357-362

Ruehle JL, 1972. Nematodes of Forest Trees. In: Webster JM, ed. Economic Nematology. New York, USA: Academic Press, 312-334

Ruehle JL, 1973. Influence of plant-parasitic nematodes on longleaf pine seedlings. Journal of Nematology, 5(1):7-9

Sakwe PN, Geraert E, 1994. Species of the genus Pratylenchus Filip'jev, 1936 (Nematode: Tylenchida) from Cameroon. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 17(2):161-173; 27 ref

Sandoval Hernßndez J, TTliz Ortiz D, 1990. Nematodes associated with strawberry in Mexico. Revista Chapingo, 15(67-68):98-101; 15 ref

Sanogho M, Guerout R, 1970. Persistance de Pratylenchus brachyurus dans les racines l'ananas. Zesz. probl. Postep. Nauk. roln., 92:187-188

Sarah JL, 1980. Nematodes of pineapple and their control in the Ivory Coast. European Society of Nematologists: Abstracts of the 15th International Nematology Symposium of the European Society of Nematologists, Bari, Italy, 24-30 August, 1980. Bari, Italy, 44-45

Sarah JL, 1983. The use of systemic nematicides in the control of Pratylenchus brachyurus on pineapple plantations. IV. Secondary effects of foliar application on plant development and fruit maturation after flower induction treatment. Fruits, 38(7-8):523-540

Sarah JL, 1986. Influence of Pratylenchus brachyurus on the growth of development of pineapple in the Ivory Coast. In: Summaries of communications and posters presented at the XVIII International Symposium of the European Society of Nematologists, Antibes, France, 7-12 September 1986. Revue de Nématologie, 9 (3):308-309

Sarah JL, 1987. Influence of nematicide treatment on pineapple sucker production. Fruits, 42:71-75

Sarah JL, OssTni B, Hugon R, 1991. Effect of soil pH on development of Pratylenchus brachyurus population in pineapple roots. Nematropica, 21(2):211-216; 17 ref

Sasser JN, 1972. Nematode Diseases of Cotton. In: Webster JM, ed. Economic Nematology. New York, USA: Academic Press, 187-214

Sayre RM, Wergin WP, 1977. Bacterial parasite of a plant nematode: morphology and ultrastructure. Journal of Bacteriology, 129(2):1091-1101

Sethi CL, Swarup G, 1971. Plant parasitic nematodes of North-Western India. III. The genus Pratylenchus. Indian Phytopathology, 24(2):410-412

Sharma RD, Amabile RF, 1998. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sesame genotypes under Cerrado conditions. Nematologia Brasileira, 23(1):84-87; 10 ref

Sharma RD, Scolari DDG, 1984. Efficiency of green manure and crop rotation in the control of nematodes under savannah conditions. In: Nematologia Brasileira, 8. 193-218

Sharma RD, Sher SA, 1973. Nematodes associated with coffee in Bahia, Brazil. Arquivos do Instituto Biologico, 40(2):131-135

Sharma SB, Siddiqi MR, Van NV, Hong NX, 1994. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with groundnut in North Vietnam. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 4(2):185-189; 11 ref

Shepherd JA, 1982. Nematode pests of tobacco. In: Keetch DP, Heyns J, ed. Nematology in southern Africa. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa: Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 58-68

Shepherd JA, Barker KR, 1990. Nematode parasites of tobacco. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, (eds) Plant-parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 493-517

Siddiqi MR, 1974. Plant-parasitic nematodes of sugarcane in northwestern Venezuela. Nematropica, 4(1):6

Siddiqui IA, Sher SA, French AM, 1973. Distribution of plant parasitic nematodes in California. Sacramento, USA: Division of Plant Industry, Department of Food and Agriculture, 1-324

Sikora A, Greco N, 1990. Nematode Parasites of Food Legumes In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK:CAB International, 181-235

Silva RAda, Serrano MAS, Gomes AC, Borges DC, Souza AAde, Asmus GL, Inomoto MM, 2004. Occurrence of Pratylenchus brachyurus and Meloidogyne incognita in cotton plantations of Mato Grosso State. (Ocorrência de Pratylenchus brachyurus e Meloidogyne incognita na cultura do algodoeiro no estado do Mato Grosso.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 29(3):337.

Singh BP, 1999. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) and Albizia procera L. Benth. Annals of Forestry, 7(1):153-154; 2 ref

Singh ND, 1972. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with some economic crops in Guyana. Plant Disease Reporter, 56(12):1059-1062

Sivapalan P, 1972. Nematode Pests of Tea. In: Webster JM, ed. Economic Nematology. New York, USA: Academic Press, 285-310

Smart GC Jr., 1967. Florida Agricultural Experimental Station. Report for 1965-1966. 119pp.

Smith OD, Boswell TE, Thames WH, 1978. Lesion nematode resistance in peanuts. Crop Science, 18(6):1008-1011

Southards CJ, 1965. Host-parasite relations of the lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus brachyurus, P. zeae, and P. scribneri, and flue cured tobacco. PhD thesis. Raleigh, USA: North Carolina State University

Southards CJ, 1968. The influence of the stage of development of lesion nematodes on population dynamics and subsequent host response. Nematologica, 14:15-16

Southards CJ, Nusbaum CJ, 1967. Genetic variability of tobacco response to Pratylenchus brachyurus. Phytopathology, 57:18-21

Souza JT de, Campos VP, Maximiniano C, 1998. Occurrence and distribution of phytonematodes accociated with vegetable crops and medicinal plants. Summa-Phytopathologica, 24(3-4):283-291

Spaull VW, 1981. Bacillus penetrans in South African plant-parasitic nematodes. Nematologica, 27(2):244-245

Starr JL, 1984. Expression of resistance in peanuts to Pratylenchus brachyurus: impact on screening for resistance. Journal of Nematology, 16(4):404-406

Starr MP, Sayre RM, 1988. Pasteuria thornei sp. nov. and Pasteuria penetrans sensu stricto emend., mycelial and endospore-forming bacteria parasitic respectively, on plant-parasitic nematodes of the genera Pratylenchus and Meloidogyne. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur, Microbiology, 139(1):11-31; 32 ref

Steiner G, 1945. Meadow nematodes as the cause of root destruction. Phytopathology, 35:935-937

Steiner G, 1949. Plant nematodes the grower should know. Proceedings of the Soil Science Society of Florida 1942, 4-B:72-117

Stoyanov D, Frank C, 1967. Acad. Cien. Cuba. Ser. Isla de Pinos No 18

Sturgeon RV Jr., Russell CC, 1972. Spanish peanut yield response to nematicide-soil-fungicide combinations. Oleagineux, 27(5):261-262.

Suatmadji RW, Rao BS, 1977. Outbreaks and new records. Malaysia. Two new nematodes on rubber. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 25(1):44

Tanhamaafi Z, Omati F, Parvizi R, 2005. Endoparasitic nematodes and their population densities in potato fields of Tehran, Semnan and West Azarbayejan Provinces. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 41(3):Pe425-Pe435, en187-en191

Tarjan AC, Frederick JJ, 1978. Intra-specific morphological variation among populations of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae. Journal of Nematology, 10:152-60

Tarjan AC, O'Bannon JH, 1969. Observations on meadow nematodes (Pratylenchus sp.) and their relation to decline of citrus in Florida. Plant Disease Reporter, 53:683-686

Temiz K, 1968. Pseudomonas solanacearum `un bazi domates tesitlerine enfeksiyon unda bitki paraziti nematodlarin rolü üzerine arastirmalar. Yalova-Bathe. Kult. Arast. Egit. merkezi Derg., 1(2):17-28

Thames WH, 1982. The genus Pratylenchus In: Riggs RD, ed. Nematology in the Southern United States. Southern Regional Research Committees S76-S154. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin, No. 276:108-126

Thorne G, 1940. Duboscqia penetrans n. sp. (Sporozoa, Microsporidia, Nosematidae), a parasite of the nematode, Pratylenchus pratensis (de Man) Filipjev. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 7:51-53

Torres GRde C, Sales Júnior R, Houllou LM, Negreiros AMP, 2015. Root lesion nematode associated to mango seedling in Assu-RN. (Nematóide das lesões associado a mudas de mangueira em Assu-RN.) Revista Caatinga, 28(4):135-141.

Vijay B, Raj BT, 1988. A new record of Pratylenchus brachyurus on potato. Indian Journal of Nematology, 18(2):389-390; 2 ref

Walia RK, 1986. The root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus. In: Swarup G, Dasgupta DR, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes of India, Problems and Progress. New Delhi, India: Indian Agricultural Research Institute, 211-222

Wheeler EJ, Starr JL, 1987. Incidence and economic importance of plant parasitic nematodes on peanut in Texas. Peanut Science, 14:94-96

Whitehead AG, 1968. Nematodea. In: Le Pelley RH, ed. Pests of coffee. Longmans, Green and Co

WHITEHEAD AG, 1969. Nematodes attacking coffee, tea and cocoa, and their control. Nematodes of tropical crops, 40:238-250

Wilcken SRS, Ferraz LCCB, 1998. Reproduction of species of Meloidogyne and Pratylenchus (Nemata: Tylenchoidea) in different types of ornamental plants. Summa Phytopathologica, 24(2):171-176; 19 ref

Willers P, 1993. Lesion nematode damage in Hluhluwe-influence of the environment. Inligtingsbulletin - Instituut vir Tropiese en Subtropiese Gewasse, No. 253:6-7; 1 ref

Willers P, Smart G, 1990. Lesion nematode-an under estimated problem for pineapple growers in Hluhluwe. Inligtingsbulletin, Navorsingsinstituut vir Sitrus en Subtropiese Vrugte, No:213, 1-13

Winslow RD, 1960. Some Aspects of the Ecology of Free-Living and Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. In: Sasser JN, Jenkins WR, eds. Nematology Fundamental and Recent Advances with emphasis on Plant Parasitic and Soil Forms. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA: University of North Carolina Press, 342-413

Winslow RD, Willis RJ, 1972. Nematode diseases of potatoes. In: Webster JM, ed. Economic Nematology. New York, USA: Academic Press, 17-48

Yokoo T, Matsunobu K, 1975. On thermal death point of the potato lesion nematode, Pratylenchus pratensis. Agricultural Bulletin, Saga University, 5:97-102

Zem AC, 1979. New observations on nematodes and their hosts in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Summa Phytopathologica, 5(1/2):19-20, 43-44

Zem AC, Monteiro AR, 1978. Pratylenchus brachyurus, a parasite of tobacco in Bahia. Revista de Agricultura, Piracicaba, Brazil, 53(3):144

Zem AC, Reinhardt DHRC, Mendes BV (eds. ), 1978. Nematodes associated with the cultivation of pineapples in Bahia State. In: Mendes BV, ed. Resumos dos trabalhos cientificos e conferencias, III Reuniao Brasileira de Nematologia, Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia et da Escola Superior de Agricultura, Mossoro, 1978, 86; Colecao Mossoroense Vol. 62

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map