Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pratylenchus brachyurus
(root-lesion nematode)

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Datasheet

Pratylenchus brachyurus (root-lesion nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pratylenchus brachyurus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • root-lesion nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Pratylenchidae
  •         Genus: Pratylenchus
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pratylenchus brachyurus (Godfrey, 1929) Filipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941

Preferred Common Name

  • root-lesion nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Anguillulina (Pratylenchus) brachyura (Godfrey, 1929) Goodey, 1932 (W. Schneider, 1939)
  • Anguillulina brachyura (Godfrey, 1929), Goodey, 1932
  • Pratylenchus leiocephalus Steiner, 1949
  • Pratylenchus pratensis Thorne, 1949
  • Pratylenchus steineri Lordello, Zamith & Boock, 1954
  • Tylenchus (Chitinotylenchus) brachyurus Godfrey, 1929 (Filipjev, 1934)
  • Tylenchus brachyurus Godfrey, 1929

International Common Names

  • English: meadow nematode; smooth headed nematode

EPPO code

  • PRATBR (Pratylenchus brachyurus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Pratylenchidae
  •                 Genus: Pratylenchus
  •                     Species: Pratylenchus brachyurus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 29 Apr 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresent
BotswanaPresent
Cabo VerdePresent2015
CameroonPresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
GambiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
SenegalPresent
South AfricaPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
BruneiPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TripuraPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresent, Widespread
JapanPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SarawakPresent
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresent, Few occurrences
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TurkeyPresent
UzbekistanPresent
VietnamPresent, Widespread

Europe

BulgariaPresent
CyprusPresent
ItalyPresent
RussiaPresent

North America

BelizePresent
CanadaPresent
-OntarioPresent, Widespread
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent, Widespread
GuatemalaPresent
HondurasPresent
MexicoPresent
Puerto RicoPresent, Widespread
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent, Widespread
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-KentuckyPresent, Widespread
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MississippiPresent, Widespread
-North CarolinaPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent, Widespread
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-QueenslandPresent, Widespread
-Western AustraliaPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
FijiPresent
NiuePresent
SamoaPresent
TongaPresent

South America

BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-AcrePresent
-AlagoasPresent
-BahiaPresent
-CearaPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-GoiasPresent
-Mato GrossoPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent
-ParaibaPresent
-ParanaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do NortePresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent
French GuianaPresent
GuyanaPresent
PeruPresent, Widespread
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / wilting
Roots / cortex with lesions
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / reduced root system
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsWith plant material Yes
Containers and packaging - woodInvolving plants Yes
Land vehiclesFarm machinery Yes
MailImporting host plants Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Acosta N, Malek RB, 1981. Symptomatology and histopathology of soybean roots infected by Pratylenchus scribneri and P. alleni. Journal of Nematology, 13(1):6-12

Alexander PM, 1963. Stylet bearing nematodes associated with various plants in South Carolina, 1962-63. Plant Disease Reporter, 47:978-982

Anon., 1972. Annual Report of the Research Branch, Department of Agriculture for the year 1972. Sarawak, Ministry of Agriculture and Drainage and Irrigation. Plant Nematology 5:40-71.

Anon., 1989. Bureau of nematology: nematode detections of special interest. Triology Technical Report, 28(8):8-9.

Anwar SA, Gorsi SD, Shakoor A, 1993. Effect of Longidorus elongatus, Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus brachyurus on peanut growth. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 11(2):115-124; 20 ref

Araújo Filho JVde, Castro-Moretti FR, Bonfim Junior MF, 2014. Pratylenchus brachyurus (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) in Guariroba in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Helminthologia, 51(4):352-354. http://link.springer.com/article/10.2478%2Fs11687-014-0252-5

Asmus GL, 2004. Occurrence of plant-parasitic nematodes in cotton crops in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. (Ocorrência de nematóides fitoparasitos em algodoeiro no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul.) Nematologia Brasileira, 28(1):77-86

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Ayala AE, González-Tejera E, Irizarry H, 1969. Pineapple nematodes and their control. In: Peachey JE, ed. Nematodes of Tropical Crops. St. Albans, UK: Tech. Commun. Commonw. Bur. Helminth., No. 40, 210-224

Badra T, Steele WM, Caveness FE, 1980. The employment of a non-fumigant nematicide for control of the root-knot and lesion nematodes on yams and crop preservation in storage. Nematropica, 10(2):81-85

Bafokuzara ND, 1982. Nematodes associated with pineapples in Uganda. Nematropica, 12(1):45-49

Baicheva O, 1982. The nematode fauna of tobacco from some districts of the Rhodope tobacco region. Khelmintologiya, No.13:3-11

Basu SD, 1968. Eelworms- A progress report on a few more groups found in N.E. Indian Tea Soils. Two and a Bud, 15:70-71

Basu SD, 1978. Root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus sp.) in bamboo hedge. Two and a Bud, 25(2):98-99

Baudin P, Huu-Hai V, 1973. Tobacco diseases in Madagascar. Agronomie Tropicale, II, 28(2):189-207

Bhattacharya C, Dasgupta MK, Mukherjee B, 2012. Biodiversity of plant parasitic nematodes of cashew plantations in Tripura, India. Nematologia Mediterranea, 40(2):163-168. http://www.edizioniets.com

Birchfield W, 1960. A new species Catenaria parasitic on nematodes of sugarcane. Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata, 12:331-338

Birchfield W, 1972. Effects of some nematicides on plant nematodes and sugarcane yields. Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, 14th Congress 1971. Baton Rouge, USA: Franklin Press Inc., 1022-1029

Birchfield W, Hollis JP, Martin WJ, 1978. A list of nematodes associated with some Louisiana plants. Technical Bulletin, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, No. 101

Bird GW, McCarter SM, Roncadori RW, 1971. Role of nematodes and soil-borne fungi in cotton stunt. Journal of Nematology, 3:17-22

Bonfim Júnior MF, Machado ACZ, Araújo Filho JV, 2012. Pratylenchus brachyurus (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) on macadamia in Brazil. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1):5-6. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-011-0032-8/fulltext.html

Boswell TE, 1968. Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus brachyurus to Spanish peanuts. PhD thesis. Texas, USA: Texas A&M University

Boswell TE, Grichar WJ, 1983. Nematicide trial for control of lesion nematodes, 1980. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, 38:3

Boyd FT, Dickson DW, 1971. Plant-parasitic nematodes: occurrence in Florida, sensitivity to temperatures, and effect on tropical forage yields. Proceedings of the Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida, 31:267-268

Boyle LW, 1950. Several species of parasitic nematodes on peanuts in Georgia. Plant Disease Reporter, 34:61-62

Bridge J, 1988. Plant parasitic nematode problems in the Pacific islands. Journal of Nematology, 20:173-183

Bridge J, Hunt DJ, Hunt P, 1996. Plant-parasitic nematodes of crops in Belize. Nematropica, 26(2):111-119; 13 ref

Bridge J, Luc M, Plowright RA, 1990. Nematode parasites of rice. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 69-108

Broadley RA, 1981. Distribution and control of root-knot and root lesion nematodes on peanuts in north Queensland. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 21(109):223-226

Brodie BB, 1976. Vertical distribution of three nematode species in relation to certain soil properties. Journal of Nematology, 8(3):243-247

Brodie BB, Good JM, Jaworski CA, 1970. Population dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil: Effect of summer cover crops in newly cleared land. Journal of Nematology, 2(3):217-222

Brodie BB, Murphy WS, 1975. Population dynamics of plant nematodes as affected by combinations of fallow and cropping sequence. Journal of Nematology, 7(1):91-92

Brodie BB, Quattlebaum BH, 1970. Vertical distribution and population fluctuations of three nematode species as correlated with soil temperature, moisture and texture. Phytopathology, 60:1286

Brooks TL, Perry VG, 1967. Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus brachyurus to citrus. Plant Disease Reporter, 51:569-73

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Pratylenchus brachyurus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 887. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Cadet P, van den Berg E, 1995. Plant parasitic nematodes of cultivated plants in French Guyana. Phytoma, 474:41-44

Campos P, 1997. Nematodes of the fig crop. Informe Agropecuario Belo Horizonte, 18(188):33-38

Campos P, Sivapalan P, Gnanapragasam NC, 1990. Nematode parasites of Coffee, Cocoa and Tea. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Sub Tropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 387-430

Campos VP, Lima RD, 1986. Nematoides parasitas do cafeeiro. In: Rena AB, Malavolta E, Rocha M, Yamada T, eds. Cultura do Cafeeiro, fatores que aftetam a produtividade. Piracicaba, SP, Brazil: Associacao Brasileira para Pesquisa da Potassa e do Fosfato, 379-389

Caswell EP, Sarah JL, Apt WJ, 1990. Nematode Parasites of Pineapple In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Sub tropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 519-537

Caveness FE, 1967. Nematology Studies 1960-1965. End tour Progress Report. Nigeria: Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources

Caveness FE, Olayode G, Couper DC, Claassen SL, 1987. Nematodes in soybean plots identified, yield losses assessed. IITA Research Briefs, 8(2):4

Chapman RA, 1956. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with strawberry in Kentucky. Plant Disease Reporter, 40:179-81

Charchar JM, Huang CS, 1980. Host range of Pratylenchus brachyurus. I. Graminep. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 5(3):351-357

Charchar JM, Huang CS, 1981. Host range of Pratylenchus brachyurus II. Vegetables. Fitopatologia-Brasileira, 6(1):67-72

Charchar JM, Huang CS, 1981. Host range of Pratylenchus brachyurus. III. Different species. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 6(3):469-473

Chernyak EK, 1968. Reproduction of Pratylenchus brachyurus Godfrey, 1929 on root callus tissue. Mater. nauch. Konf. Obshch. Gel'mint. Uzbek., September 1968. Tashkent: Izdat. Akad. Nauk Uzbek., SSR, pp. 135-137

Chin CL, 1969. Lesion nematode, Pratylenchus brachyurus, attacking Cryptomeria japonica in Singapore. Plant Disease Reporter, 53 (10):798

Christie JR, 1959. Plant Nematodes: Their Bionomics and Control. Gainesville, USA: University of Florida

Coelho SMBM, Filho H da SM, Franco JF, 1984. Effect of systemic insecticides-nematicides in control of nematodes on potatoes. Revista de Agricultura, Piracicaba, Brazil, 59(2):127-136

Cohn E, 1972. Nematode diseases of citrus. In: Webster JM, ed. Economic Nematology. London, UK: Academic Press, 215-244

Colbran RC, 1968. Nematodes- important pests of peanuts. Division of Plant Industry, Department of Primary Industries, Queensland, Australia, Advisory Leaflet No. 955

Colbran RC, 1969. Cover crops and nematode control in pineapples. Qd. Agric. J. 95:658-661

Corbett DCM, 1967. Nematodes as plant parasites in Malawi. PANS, 13:151-162

Corbett DCM, 1976. Pratylenchus brachyurus. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 6 ( No. 89) Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 4 pp

Corbett DCM, Clark SA, 1983. Surface features in the taxonomy of Pratylenchus species. Revue de Nematologie, 6(1):85-98

Costa AS, 1977. Investigations on soybean diseases carried out in the State of Sao Paulo. Summa Phytopathologica, 3(1):3-30

Coyne DL, Plowright RA, Fofana I, 1996. Preliminary investigations of nematodes associated with rice in Guinea, Benin and Togo. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 6(1):70-73; 16 ref

da Ponte, JJ, 1987. The nematodes of cowpeas and their importance. Nematologia Brasileira, 11:36-41

D'Antonio AM, Libeck PR, Coelho AJE, de Paulo V, 1980. Zlevssntamento de nematoides parasitass do cafeeiro que ocorrem no sul de Minas Gerais. In: Congresso Brasileiro de Pesquisas Cafeeiras, Campos do Jordao. Rio de Janeiro, IBC/GERCA: 440

Davies TG, 1965. The occurrence of a dagger nematode in North Wales. Plant Pathology, 14: 92-93

Dickerson OJ, Darling JM, Griffin GD, 1964. Pathogenicity and population trends of Pratylenchus penetrans on potato and corn. Phytopathology, 54:317-322

Dickson DW, 1985. Nematode diseases of peanut. Nematology Circular No.121, Florida, USA: Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

Dickson DW, Smart GC, Jr. , 1971. Control of Meloidogyne arenaria and Pratylenchus penetrans on peanut with foliar applications of a systemic nematicide. Journal of Nematology, 3:307-308

Dinardo-Miranda LL, Spironello A, Martins ALM, 1997. Population dynamics of plant parasitic nematodes in pineapple cultivations. Nematologia Brasileira, 21(1):49-57; 14 ref

Ducharme EP, Suit RF, 1953. Nematodes associated with avocado roots in citrus spreading decline areas. Plant Disease Reporter, 37:427-428

Dunn RA, 1973. Resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum) to Pratylenchus penetrans. International Congress of Plant Pathology (2nd) Minneapolis, Minnesota, September 5-12. Abstracts of the papers. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society Inc., No. 0860

Egunjobi OA, 1974. Nematodes and maize growth in Nigeria. I. Population dynamics of Pratylenchus brachyurus in and about the roots of maize and its effects on maize production at Ibadan. Nematologica, 20(2):181-186

Egunjobi OA, 1984. Effects of intercropping maize with grain legumes and fertilizer treatment on populations of Pratylenchus brachyurus Godfrey (Nematoda) and on the yield of maize (Zea mays L.). Protection Ecology, 6(2):153-167

Egunjobi OA, 1987. An integrated control strategy for a nematode pest of maize in Nigeria. International Nematology Network Newsletter, 4(4):40-49; 32 ref

Egunjobi OA, Afolami SO, 1976. Effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extracts on populations of Pratylenchus brachyurus and on the growth and yield of maize. Nematologica, 22(2):125-132

Egunjobi OA, Larinde MA, 1975. Nematodes and maize growth in Nigeria. II. Effects of some amendments on populations of Pratylenchus brachyurus and on the growth and production of maize (Zea mays) in Nigeria. Nematologia Mediterranea, 3(1):65-73

Endo BY, 1959. Responses of root lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. zeae to various plants and soil types. Phytopathology, 49(7):417-421

Esser RP, 1980. A bacterial spore parasite of nematodes. Nematology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, No. 63:3 pp

Fauna Europaea, 2014. Fauna Europaea version 2. Web Service available online at http://www.faunaeur.org

Feldmesser J, Feder WA, Rebois RV, Hutchins PC, 1960. Longevity of Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus brachyurus in the green-house. Anat. Rec. 137(3):355

Feldmesser JWA, Hannon CI, 1965. An evaluation of the role of Pratylenchus in the decline of citrus. Phytopathology, 55:1058

Feldmesser JWA, Rebois RV, 1965. Temperature and moisture effects on Pratylenchus brachyurus. Nematologica, 11(1):37-38

Ferraz LCCB, 1995. Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus brachyurus to three soyabean cultivars. Nematologia Brasileira, 19(1/2):1-8; 8 ref

Ferraz LCCB, 1996. Reaction of soyabean cultivars to Pratylenchus brachyurus. Nematologia Brasileira, 20(1):22-31; 7 ref

Gandoy P, Ortego J, 1980. Nematodes parasitic on pineapple in Cuba and possibilities for their control. Ciencias de la Agricultura, 7:19-28

Gay CM, Bird GW, 1973. Influence of concomitant Pratylenchus brachyurus and Meloidogyne spp. on root penetration and population dynamics. Journal of Nematology, 5:212-217

Gnanapragasam NC, 1991. Report of Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka. Talawakelle, Sri Lanka: Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka

Gnonhouri PG, Ouya A, AssiTnan B, AtsT Y, 2000. Resistance and tolerance of Ananas comosus to Pratylenchus brachyurus in Ivory Coast. Cahiers Agricultures, 9(2):145-147; 8 ref

Godfrey GH, 1929. A destructive root disease of pineapples and other plants due to Tylenchus brachyurus n.sp. Phytopathology, 19:611-629

Goes A de, Vieira A, Gadelha RS de S, Zem AC, 1982. Nematodes associated with pineapple in Rio de Janeiro. Trabalhos apresentados a V Reuniao Brasileira de Nematologia, 9-13 fevereiro de 1981, Londrina, PR, Brasil. Publicacao No.5, 1981. Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil: Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia, 183-189

Goly PG, TThT H, 1997. Effects of pineapple weeds on Pratylenchus brachyurus in C(te d'Ivoire. Cahiers Agricultures, 6(3):199-202; 17 ref

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Good JM, Boyle LW, Hammons RO, 1958. Studies on Pratylenchus brachyurus on peanuts. Phytopathology, 48:530-535

Good JM, Robertson WK, Thompson LG, 1954. Effect of crop rotation on populations of meadow nematode, Pratylenchus leicocephalus in Norfolk loamy fine sand. Plant Disease Reporter, 38:178-180

Good JM, Stansell JR, 1965. Effect of irrigation, soil fumigation, and date of harvest on Pratylenchus brachyurus (Godfrey). Nematologica, 11:38-39

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Graham TW, 1951. Nematode root rot of tobacco and other plants. South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 390

Graham TW, 1965. Tobacco varieties used to show differential response to root lesion nematodes. Plant Disease Reporter, 49:822-826

Guerout R, 1969. Action des plantes ameliorantes en culture d'ananas III Bilan nematologique. Fruits, 24(9-10):436-443

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Guiran Gde, 1965. Nematodes on cassava in southern Togo. Congres de la protection des cultures tropicales, 23-27 mars, 1965, Marseille. Compte rendu des travaux. Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de Marseille. France, 677-680

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Han HyeRim, Lee JaeKook, Choi DongRo, Han ManJong, Park ByeongYong, 2006. Occurrence of plant parasitic nematodes in chrysanthemum and ITS and D3-28S rDNA characterization of Pratylenchus spp. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 45(3):293-299. http://www.entomology.or.kr/e_4s_2.html

Ibrahim IKA, El-Saedy MA, 1976. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with peanuts in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology, 8:31-35

Ichinohe M, 1972. Nematode Diseases of Rice. In: Webster JM ed. Economic Nematology. New York, USA: Academic Press, 127-143

Inagaki H, Powell NT, 1969. Influence of the root-lesion nematode on Black shank symptom development in flue cured tobacco. Phytopathology, 59:1350-1355

Ingram EG, Rodriguez-Kabana R, 1977. Susceptibility of pigeon pea to plant parasitic nematodes. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 4:177

Ingram EG, Rodriguez-Kabana R, 1980. Nematodes parasitic on peanuts in Alabama and evaluation of methods for detection and study of population dynamics. Nematropica, 10(1):21-30

Inomoto MM, Oliveira CMG, Mazzafera P, Gon¦alves W, 1998. Effects of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae on seedlings of Coffea arabica. Journal of Nematology, 30(3):362-367; 32 ref

Jackson CR, Minton NA, 1968. Pod invasion by fungi in the presence of lesion nematodes in Georgia. Oleagineux, 23:531-534

Jackson CR, Sturgeon RV, 1973. Effects of nematicides upon root lesion nematode populations. Journal of the American Peanut Research and Education Association, 5:178-181

Jatala P, Bridge J, 1990. Nematode parasites of root and tuber crops. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 137-180

Jenkins WR, 1969. Nematodes associated with lemon grass in Guatemala. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Tropical Nematology, 29 November to 1 December, 1967, University of Puerto Rico, 80-83

Jenkins WR, Bird GW, 1962. Nematodes associated with wild yam, Dioscorea sp., with special reference to the pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita. Plant Disease Reporter, 46:858-860

Jenkins WR, Taylor DP, Rohde RA, Coursen BW, 1957. Nematodes associated with crop plants in Maryland. Bulletin of the University of Maryland Agricultural Experimental Station, No A87

Jensen HJ, 1972. Nematode Pests of Vegetable and Related Crops. In: Webster JM, ed. Economic Nematology. New York, USA: Academic Press, 377-408

Jensen HJ, Martin JP, Wismer CA, Koike H, 1959. Nematodes associated with varietal yield decline of sugar cane in Hawaii. Plant Disease Reporter, 43:253-260

Johnson AW, 1970. Influence of organic pesticides on nematode populations and seed production of centipede grass. Journal. of Nematology, 2:252-254

Johnson AW, Burton GW, 1973. Comparison of millet and sorghum-Sudan grass hybrids grown in untreated soil and soil treated with two nematicides. Journal of Nematology, 5:54-59

Jordan EM, Lots GC, Jooste WJ, de Waele D, 1987. Effects of root-lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus brachyurus, Godfrey and P. zeae, Graham) and Fusarium monoliforme Sheldon alone or in combination, on maize. Nematologica, 33(2):213-219

Kaplan DT, 1985. Plant parasitic nematodes affecting citrus. Fruit Varieties Journal, 39(3):26-30

Keetch DP, 1982. Nematode pests of pineapple. In: Keetch DP, Heyns J, ed. Nematology in southern Africa. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa: Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 19-29

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