Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Parabemisia myricae
(bayberry whitefly)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Parabemisia myricae (bayberry whitefly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Parabemisia myricae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bayberry whitefly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Parabemisia myricae adult.
TitleP. myricae adult
CaptionParabemisia myricae adult.
Copyright©Natural History Museum, London
Parabemisia myricae adult.
P. myricae adultParabemisia myricae adult.©Natural History Museum, London

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana, 1927)

Preferred Common Name

  • bayberry whitefly

Other Scientific Names

  • Bemisia myricae Kuwana, 1927

International Common Names

  • English: Japanese bayberry whitefly; myrica, whitefly

EPPO code

  • PRABMY (Parabemisia myricae)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aleyrodoidea
  •                                 Family: Aleyrodidae
  •                                     Genus: Parabemisia
  •                                         Species: Parabemisia myricae

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Apr 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
GhanaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
MoroccoPresent
TunisiaPresent, Localized

Asia

ChinaPresent
-GuangxiPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresent, Widespread
JapanPresent, Widespread
-HonshuPresent
-ShikokuPresent
LebanonPresentFirst reported: 198*
MalaysiaAbsent, Formerly present
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, Formerly present
-SarawakPresentGunung Mulu National Park.
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
TaiwanPresent, Few occurrences
TurkeyPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

CroatiaPresent, LocalizedLumbarda, Korcula.
CyprusPresent, Localized
FrancePresent, Few occurrences
-CorsicaPresent
GreecePresent
-CretePresent
ItalyPresent, Localized1990
-SardiniaPresent
-SicilyPresent
PortugalPresent, Localized
SpainPresent, Localized
-Canary IslandsPresent
UkrainePresent, Localized

North America

DominicaPresentPottersville.
GuadeloupePresent
HondurasPresent
MexicoPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-HawaiiPresent

Oceania

Papua New GuineaPresent

South America

BrazilPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
ColombiaPresent, Localized
EcuadorPresentGalapagos islands.
French GuianaPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

Top of page
Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Amblyseius rubini Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Amblyseius swirskii Predator Eggs/Nymphs
Cales noacki Parasite Pupae
Chilocorus renipustulatus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Chrysoperla carnea Predator
Encarsia meritoria Parasite Pupae
Encarsia pergandiella Parasite
Encarsia protransvena Parasite
Encarsia sophia Parasite
Encarsia strenua Parasite
Encarsia transvena Parasite Pupae
Eretmocerus debachi Parasite Pupae Italy; Turkey
Eretmocerus furuhashii Parasite Pupae
Sympherobius sanctus Predator Eggs/Pupae
Typhlodromus carnea Predator Eggs/Pupae

References

Top of page

Berkani A; Dridi B, 1992. Presence in Algeria of Parabemisia myricae Kuwana (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), a pest species of Citrus. Fruits (Paris), 47(4):539-540

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

Chermiti B; Onillon JC; Dali M; Messelmani H, 1993. First observations on population dynamics of Parabemisia myricae (Homopt., Aleyrodidae) on citrus in Tunisia. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 16(7):77-85

CIE, 1992. Distribution map of pests No. 479, first revision. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

EPPO, 1992. Quarantine pests for Europe. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 210-212.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Gözel Ç; Gözel U, 2014. The potential use of entomopathogenic nematodes against tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Lep: Gelechiidae) [Conference poster]. In: Proceedings, 4th ESENIAS Workshop: International Workshop on IAS in Agricultural and Non-Agricultural Areas in ESENIAS Region, Çanakkale, Turkey, 16-17 December 2013 [ed. by Uludag, A.\Trichkova, T.\Rat, M.\Tomov, R.]. Ankara, Turkey: Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 116.

Hamon AB; Nguyen R; Browning H, 1990. The bayberry whitefly, Parabemisia myricp, in Florida (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae: Aleyrodinp). Entomology Circular (Gainesville), No. 328:2 pp.

Mazih A, 2015. Status of citrus IPM in the southern Mediterranean basin Morocco, North Africa. Acta Horticulturae [XII International Citrus Congress - International Society of Citriculture, Valencia, Spain.], No.1065:1097-1103. http://www.actahort.org/books/1065/1065_138.htm

Meyerdirk DE; Moreno DS, 1984. Flight behavior and color-trap preference of Parabemisia myricp (Kuwana) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in a citrus orchard. Environmental Entomology, 13(1):167-170

Onillon JC, 1990. The use of natural enemies for the biological control of whiteflies. In: Gerling D, ed. Whiteflies: their bionomics, pest status and management. Andover, Hants, UK: Intercept Ltd, 287-313.

Orphanides GM, 1991. Biology and biological control of Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Cyprus. Technical Bulletin - Cyprus Agricultural Research Institute, No. 135:6 pp.

Pinto ML, 1993. Relative host preference of Cales noacki How. (Hym.: Aphelinidae) for Aleurothrixus floccosus (Mask.) and Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Hom.: Aleyrodidae). Bulletin OILB/SROP, 16(7):55-61

Rose M; Rosen D, 1991. Eretmocerus debachi n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), an effective parasite of Parabemisia myricae (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Israel Journal of Entomology, 25-26:199-207

Sengonca C; Uygun N; Kersting U; Ulusoy MR, 1993. Successful colonization of Eretmocerus debachi (Hym.: Aphelinidae) in the Eastern Mediterranean Citrus region of Turkey. Entomophaga, 38(3):383-390

Sundararaj R; Dubey AK, 2005. Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new record from India. Zoos' Print Journal, 20(7):1933.

Swirsky E; Blumberg D; Wysoki M; Izhar Y, 1985. Data on the phenology and biological control of the Japanese bayberry whitefly, Parabemisia myricae, in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 13:73.

Takahashi R, 1952. Aleurotuberculatus and Parabemisia of Japan (Aleyrodidae, Homoptera). Miscellaneous Report of the Research Institute for Natural Resources Tokyo, 25:17-24.

UK CAB International, 1986. Parabemisia myricae. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, December. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 479.

United States Department of Agriculture, 1978. A whitefly (Parabemisia myricp (Kuwana)) - California - new continental United States record. Cooperative Plant Pest Report, 3(44/47):617

Uygun N; Sengonca C; Ulusoy MR, 1993. Laboratory studies of the effect of temperature and humidity on development and fecundity of Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 100(2):144-149

van Lenteren JC; Noldus PJJ, 1990. Whitefly-plant relationships: behavioural and ecological aspects. In: Gerling D, ed. Whiteflies: their bionomics, pest status and management. Andover, Hants, UK: Intercept Ltd, 47-89.

Viggiani G; Laudonia S, 1991. On the presence in Italy of Encarsia meritoria Gahan (Hym.: Aphelinidae), an exotic parasitoid of aleyrodids. Redia, 74(1):135-140

Walker GP; Aitken DCG, 1985. Oviposition and survival of bayberry whitefly, Parabemisia myricp (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on lemons as a function of leaf age. Environmental Entomology, 14(3):254-257

Walker GP; Aitken DCG, 1993. Developmental time of Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Hom., Aleyrodidae) in different seasons and a degree-day model. Journal of Applied Entomology, 115(4):398-404

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Özturk, N., Ulusoy, M. R., 2009. Pests and natural enemies determined in pomegranate orchards in Turkey. Acta Horticulturae, (No.818), 277-284. http://www.actahort.org

Distribution References

Anon, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. [ed. by Smith I M, McNamara D G, Scott P R, Holderness M]. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL. vii + 1425 pp.

Aslam M, 1995. Population estimation of Japanese bayberry whitefly, Parabemisia myricae (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on citrus. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 27 (3), 261-264.

Benfatto D, 1990. Infestations of Parabemisia myricae Kuwana in citrus groves in Italy. (Infestazioni di Parabemisia myricae Kuwana negli agrumeti italiani.). Annali dell'Istituto Sperimentale per l'Agrumicoltura. 111-119.

Berkani A, Dridi B, 1992. Presence in Algeria of Parabemisia myricae Kuwana (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), a pest species of Citrus. (Présence en Algérie de Parabemisia myricae Kuwana (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), espèce nuisible aux Citrus.). Fruits (Paris). 47 (4), 539-540.

CABI, 2021. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chermiti B, Onillon J C, Dali M, Messelmani H, 1993. First observations on population dynamics of Parabemisia myricae (Homopt., Aleyrodidae) on citrus in Tunisia. In: Bulletin OILB/SROP, 16 (7) 77-85.

Dhouibi M H, 1992. Efficacy of certain chemical products with regard to the whiteflies: Aleurothrixus floccosus Mask. and Parabemisia myricae Kuw (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and their impact on the beneficials Cales noacki Howard and Encarsia transvena Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). (Efficacité de certains produits chimiques a l'égard des mouches blanches: Aleurothrixus floccosus Mask. et Parabemisia myricae Kuw (Homoptères: Aleyrodidae) et leur impact sur les auxiliaires Cales noacki Howard et Encarsia transvena Timberlake (Hyménoptères: Aphelinidae).). In: Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 57 (2b) 493-503.

El-Nasr A S, Abd-Rabou S, 2012. Common pests of psyllids and whiteflies (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Aleyrodoidea) infesting orchard trees in Egypt. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences: Entomology. 5 (3), 147-152. http://entomology.eajbs.eg.net/pdf/vol5-num3/17.pdf

EPPO, 2008. Studies on whiteflies occurring in Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana. In: EPPO Reporting Service, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/reporting/article-680

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Franco J C, Cavaco M, Carvalho J P, Fernandes J E, 1996. First records of Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Portugal. (Sobre a presença de Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) em Portugal.). Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas. 22 (3), 521-536.

Gerling D, Argov Y, 2008. Citrus whiteflies in Israel. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin. 210-213. http://www.iobc-wprs.org/pub/bulletins/bulletin_2008_38_table_of_contents_abstracts.pdf

Ghahari H, Abd-Rabou S, Zahradnik J, Ostovan H, 2009. Annotated catalogue of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) from Arasbaran, Northwestern Iran. Journal of Entomology and Nematology. 1 (1), 007-018. https://academicjournals.org/journal/JEN/article-full-text-pdf/03208A4583

Hamon A B, Nguyen R, Browning H, 1990. The bayberry whitefly, Parabemisia myricae, in Florida (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae: Aleyrodinae). In: Entomology Circular (Gainesville), 2 pp.

Hernández-Suárez E, Martin J H, Gill R J, Bedford I D, Malumphy C P, Reyes Betancort J A, Carnero A, 2012. The aleyrodidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) of the Canary Islands with special reference to Aleyrodes, Siphoninus, and the challenges of puparial morphology in Bemisia. Zootaxa. 1-76. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2012/f/zt03212p076.pdf

Huang LiFei, Du XiaoLi, Wang WeiLan, Li LiuFeng, Zou Yuan, Jiang JianJun, Yang Lang, 2013. Community structure and seasonal dynamics of arthropod in Guangxi mulberry field. Journal of Southern Agriculture. 44 (6), 943-948. http://www.nfnyxb.com/EN/Default.aspx

Italy, Consorzio di Bonifica della Piana di Catania, 1990. A new pest of citrus fruits: Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana). (Un nuovo parassita degli agrumi: Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana).). Tecnica Agricola. 42 (3-4), 375-376.

Longo S, Rapisarda C, Russo A, Siscaro G, 1990. Preliminary studies on the bioethology of Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) and its natural enemies in Sicily and Calabria. (Rilievi bio-etologici preliminari su Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) e sui suoi entomofagi in Sicilia e Calabria.). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura. 22 (2), 161-171.

Luo ZhiYi, Zhou ChanMin, 1997. Record of whitefly (Aleyrodidae) on tea plants. Journal of Tea Science. 17 (2), 201-206.

Martin J H, Lau C S K, 2011. The Hemiptera-Sternorrhyncha (Insecta) of Hong Kong, China - an annotated inventory citing voucher specimens and published records. Zootaxa. 1-122. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2011/f/z02847p122f.pdf

Martin J H, Mifsud D, Rapisarda C, 2000. The whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) of Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 90 (5), 407-448. DOI:10.1017/S0007485300000547

Mazih A, 2015. Status of citrus IPM in the southern Mediterranean basin Morocco, North Africa. Acta Horticulturae. 1097-1103. http://www.actahort.org/books/1065/1065_138.htm

Michalopoulos G, 1989. First records of the bayberry whitefly, Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) in Greece. Entomologia Hellenica. 43-45.

Mifsud D, Cocquempot C, Mühlethaler R, Wilson M, Streito J C, 2010. Other Hemiptera Sternorrhyncha (Aleyrodidae, Phylloxeroidea, and Psylloidea) and Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha. BIORISK - Biodiversity and Ecosystem Risk Assessment. 511-552. http://pensoftonline.net/biorisk/index.php/journal/article/view/63/63

Mound L A, Halsey S H, 1978. Whitefly of the world. A systematic catalogue of the Aleyrodidae (Homoptera) with host plant and natural enemy data. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons. [6+] 340 pp.

Nada S M A, 1988. Three species of Aleyrodidae new to Egypt (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte. 55-59.

NHM, 1978. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1983. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1986. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1988. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1989. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1990. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1993. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1994. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1996. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1997. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1998. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 2001. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 2009. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum, London., London, UK: NHM. https://data.nhm.ac.uk/

Orphanides G M, 1991. Biology and biological control of Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Cyprus. In: Technical Bulletin - Cyprus Agricultural Research Institute, 6 pp.

Özturk N, Ulusoy M R, 2009. Pests and natural enemies determined in pomegranate orchards in Turkey. Acta Horticulturae. 277-284. http://www.actahort.org

Rapisarda C, Siscaro G, Leocata S, Asero C, 1990. Parabemisia myricae a new aleyrodid pest of citrus crops in Italy. (Parabemisia myricae un nuovo aleirode degli agrumi in Italia.). Informatore Fitopatologico. 40 (12), 25-30.

Roll U, Dayan T, Simberloff D, 2007. Non-indigenous insect species in Israel and adjacent areas. Biological Invasions. 9 (6), 629-643. DOI:10.1007/s10530-006-9064-y

Rose M, Zolnerowich G, 1994. Eretmocerus furuhashii sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae), a parasite of Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) in Japan. Japanese Journal of Entomology. 62 (2), 285-292.

Sengonca C, Uygun N, Kersting U, Ulusoy M R, 1998. Population dynamics of Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoid Eretmocerus debachi Rose and Rosen (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) on non-citrus host plants. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. 105 (2), 149-156.

Šimala M, Pintar M, Milek T M, Markotić V, 2016. First record of whitefly Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana 1927) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Croatia. (Prvi nalaz štitastog moljca Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana 1927) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) u Hrvatskoj.). Glasilo Biljne Zaštite. 16 (3), 307-317. http://www.hdbz.hr

Šimala M, Pintar M, Milek T M, Markotić V, 2017. Results of a two year survey (2015-2016) of quarantine whitefly species from genus Aleurocanthus Quaintance & Baker 1914 on citrus in Croatia. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov, 13. Slovenskega posvetovanja o varstvu rastlin z mednarodno udeležbo, Rimske Toplice, 7.-8 marec 2017 [Lectures and papers: presented at the 13th Slovenian conference on plant protection with international participation Rimske Toplice, March 7-8 2017.], Ljubljana, Slovenia: Društvo za Varstvo Rastlin Slovenije. 278-283.

Soto A, Ohlenschläeger F, García-Marí F, 2002. Distribution and sampling of the whiteflies Aleurothrixus floccosus, Dialeurodes citri, and Parabemisia myricae (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in citrus in Spain. Journal of Economic Entomology. 95 (1), 167-173. DOI:10.1603/0022-0493-95.1.167

Soto A, Ohlenschläger F, García-Marí F, 2001. Population dynamics and biological control of the whiteflies Aleurothrixus floccosus, Dialeurodes citri and Parabemisia myricae (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in citrus orchards of Valencia (Spain). (Dinámica poblacional y control biológico de las moscas blancas Aleurothrixus floccosus, Dialeurodes citri y Parabemisia myricae (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) en los cítricos valencianos.). Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas. 27 (1), 3-20.

Sottoriva L D M, Roel A R, Lima A F de, Souza R O de, Souza A P de, 2011. Survey of Aleirodidae in Campo Grande, MS and region. (Levantamento de aleirodídeos em Campo Grande (MS) e região.). Revista Agrarian. 4 (13), 251-257. http://www.periodicos.ufgd.edu.br/index.php/agrarian/article/view/373/765

Streito J C, Étienne J, Balmès V, 2007. Aleyrodidae of the French West Indies and Guyana (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha). (Aleyrodidae des Antilles et de la Guyane Française [Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha].). Revue Française d'Entomologie. 29 (2/3), 57-72.

Sundararaj R, Dubey A K, 2005. Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new record from India. Zoos' Print Journal. 20 (7), 1933.

UK, CAB International, 1992. Parabemisia myricae. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 479. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20046600479

Uygun N, Ohnesorge B, Ulusoy R, 1990. Two species of whiteflies on citrus in eastern Mediterranean: Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) and Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead). Morphology, biology, host plants and control in southern Turkey. Journal of Applied Entomology. 110 (4), 471-482. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.1990.tb00147.x

Viggiani G, 1993. The aleyrodids or 'whitefly' of citrus and their control. (Gli aleirodi o 'mosche bianche' degli agrumi e il loro controllo.). Informatore Agrario. 49 (49), 59-66.

Walker G P, Aitken D C G, 1985. Oviposition and survival of bayberry whitefly, Parabemisia myricae (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on lemons as a function of leaf age. Environmental Entomology. 14 (3), 254-257. DOI:10.1093/ee/14.3.254

Walker G P, Aitken D C G, 1993. Developmental time of Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Hom., Aleyrodidae) in different seasons and a degree-day model. Journal of Applied Entomology. 115 (4), 398-404. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.1993.tb00407.x

Wang JiRui, Song ZaoQin, Du YuZhou, 2014. Six new record species of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infesting Morus alba in China. Journal of Insect Science (Annapolis). 14 (136), 1-5. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1093/jisesa/ieu136

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: