Potamopyrgus antipodarum (New Zealand mudsnail)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Water Tolerances
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Potamopyrgus antipodarum (J. E. Gray, 1853)
Preferred Common Name
- New Zealand mudsnail
Other Scientific Names
- Hydrobia jenkinsi (Synonym) E. A. Smith 1884
- Potamopyrgus jenkinsi (synonym) E. A. Smith 1889
International Common Names
- English: jenkins' spire shell; New Zealand mudsnail
- Spanish: caracol del cieno de Nueva Zelanda
- POTAAN (Potamopyrgus antipodarum)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
P. antipodarum is an aquatic snail native to New Zealand. It has been introduced to Europe, North America, Australia, Iraq, Turkey and Japan. In several ecosystems it is considered invasive because it becomes highly abundant, impacting the structure and function of the invaded ecosystems. Females are parthenogenetic, meaning they can reproduce without males, so a population can be founded by a single female. Most the non-native populations are female. There can be up to six generations per year, with an average number of 230 offspring per adult per year. P. antipodarum can also tolerate desiccation for several days, which allows for rapid spread (such as by birds and fishing tools) throughout different aquatic ecosystems. In several countries, including Spain, USA and Australia, it is considered as an invasive species.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Mollusca
- Class: Gastropoda
- Subclass: Caenogastropoda
- Order: Littorinimorpha
- Unknown: Rissooidea
- Family: Hydrobiidae
- Genus: Potamopyrgus
- Species: Potamopyrgus antipodarum
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Potamopyrgus antipodarum is an aquatic snail of the family Hydrobiidae which is placed in the clade Littorinimorpha of the Caenogastropoda according to teh classification of Bouchet and Rocroi (2005). This is a cosmopolitan family comprising over 100 genera of small snails (Kabat and Hershler, 1993). Other names given to this species include Potamopyrgus jenkinsi (E. A. Smith, 1889) and Hydrobia jenkinsi (E. A. Smith, 1884). The common name is the New Zealand mudsnail. Several clones of this species have been identified in the invaded areas of Europe, America and Japan (Jensen and Forbes, 2001; Hershler et al., 2010; Hamada et al., 2013a).
DescriptionTop of page
P. antipodarum is a prosobranch snail (Tateidae, Mollusca). In its non-native range it has a maximum shell size of 6-7 mm, but shell size can be up to 12 mm in its native New Zealand (Winterbourn, 1970). P. antipodarum has a solid operculum (i.e. a cover in the shell aperture) (Alonso and Castro-Díez, 2008) and its shell colour ranges from light to dark brown. Both males and females are morphologically very similar, but females have developing embryos in their reproductive systems (Jokela et al., 1997). The surface of the shell is characterized by right-handed coiling of 5-6 whorls. Some individuals have spines in the middle of each shell whorl.
DistributionTop of page
P. antipodarum is native to New Zealand and adjacent islands (Ponder, 1988). It has been introduced to Europe, Iraq, Turkey, Japan, the Americas and Australia.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Atlantic, Northeast||Widespread||Introduced||1887||Grant and Briggs, 1998; Leppäkoski and Olenin, 2000||Baltic Sea|
|Iraq||Localised||Introduced||Naser and Son, 2009||Garmat Ali River|
|Japan||Widespread||Introduced||1990||Shimada and Urabe, 2003; Masuda, 2010|
|-Honshu||Localised||Introduced||Shimada and Urabe, 2003; Katayama and Ryoji, 2004||Moriyama Channel|
|Turkey||Localised||Introduced||2003||Kalyoncu et al., 2008||Akçapinar and Akyaka Kadin Azmagi streams|
|Canada||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-British Columbia||Localised||Introduced||2007||Davidson et al., 2008||Port Alberni, Vancouver Island|
|-Ontario||Widespread||Introduced||1991||Zaranko et al., 1997||Lake Ontario|
|USA||Restricted distribution||EPPO, 2014|
|-Arizona||Widespread||Introduced||1995||Not invasive||Cross et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014||Colorado River just below Lake Powell in Glen Canyon|
|-California||Widespread||Introduced||Herbst et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014||Upper Owens River|
|-Idaho||Widespread||Introduced||Richards et al., 2001||Higher densities than native snails. Snake River|
|-Montana||Widespread||Introduced||Kerans et al., 2005; EPPO, 2014||Lower colonisation of substrates by native species. Madison river basin (Montana and Wyoming)|
|-New York||Widespread||Introduced||1991||Zaranko et al., 1997; EPPO, 2014||Lake Ontario|
|-Oregon||Localised||Introduced||Not invasive||Brenneis et al., 2010||Columbia river estuary|
|-Utah||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Vinson and Baker, 2008||It causes a reduction of fish health. Green River|
|-Washington||Localised||Introduced||2002||Davidson et al., 2008||Long Beach|
|-Wyoming||Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Hall et al., 2006; Riley et al., 2008; Arango et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014||Increase in secondary productivity of invertebrate community. Polecat Creek|
|Austria||Localised||Introduced||Zieritz and Waringer, 2008||Weidlingbach River near Vienna|
|Denmark||Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Thomsen et al., 2009||West, north-east and south-east open and estuarine waters. A likely impact of this species but not confirmed|
|Finland||Widespread||Introduced||Carlsson, 2000||Lakes of the Aland Islands|
|France||Widespread||Introduced||Mouthon and Dubois, 2001; Gerard et al., 2003; Zettler and Richard, 2004||Domination of gastropod communities. Basin of Mont St-Michel Bay.|
|Germany||Localised||Introduced||Wagner, 2000; Arle and Wagner, 2013||Main River|
|Greece||Localised||Introduced||Radea et al., 2008||Dominant among the gastropod community where it dwells. central ad western Greece: littoral zone of Lake Trichonis, permanent, slowly flowing stream discharging into Trichonis near Dougri|
|Italy||Widespread||Introduced||Cianfanelli et al., 2007||Large distribution in Italy|
|Netherlands||Localised||Introduced||Dorgelo, 1987; Berg et al., 1997||Lake Veluwemeer and Lake Wolderwijd|
|Poland||Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Brzezinski and Kolodziejczyk, 2001; Lewin and Smolinski, 2006||Domination of gastropod communities. The Katowicka Upland, Upper Silesia|
|Portugal||Localised||Introduced||Simoes, 1988; Sousa et al., 2005||Freshwater tidal area of River Minho estuary|
|Russian Federation||Localised||Introduced||Son et al., 2008||Don River and in a spring in the Botanic Garden of Southern Federal University (Rostov-on-Don) at the Russian part of the Azov Sea - Black Sea basin|
|Spain||Widespread||Introduced||Not invasive||Hinz et al., 1994; Alonso, 2006; Soler, 2006; Múrria et al., 2008||Vallvidrera stram (Barcelona province)|
|Switzerland||Widespread||Introduced||Walter, 1980; Schmidlin et al., 2012||It causes changes to the native invertebrates that dwell in the hard bottom. Lake Neuchatel|
|UK||Present||Introduced||Boycott, 1936; Heywood and Edwards, 1962; Grant and Briggs, 1998; EPPO, 2014||Norfolk (sea)|
|Australia||Present||Introduced||Schreiber et al., 2002||Tarra River (south-eastern Australia)|
|-Victoria||Present||Introduced||Quinn et al., 1998; Schreiber et al., 1998; Schreiber et al., 2003||Lake Purrumbete|
|New Zealand||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Winterbourn, 1969; EPPO, 2014||Widespread in lakes, ponds, rivers and streams|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
P. antipodarum is native to New Zealand and adjacent islands (Ponder, 1988). Its first occurrence in Europe was in England in 1859 (Ponder, 1988). In Australia it was first reported in Tasmania in 1872 and in continental Australia in 1895 (Ponder, 1988). In America it was first recorded in 1987 in middle reaches of the Snake River, Idaho, probably escaped from a fish farm (Bowler, 1991). The species was recorded in Lake Ontario in 1991 and in the Columbia River, Oregon, in 1997, where it probably arrived via ballast water from commercial ships (Zaranko et al., 1997). The species has also been recorded in Japan (Shimada and Urabe, 2003), Iraq (Nasser and Son, 2009) and Turkey (Kalyoncu, et. al, 2008). The causes of introductions to new ecosystems are not very clear, but ballast waters and fish farms are among the most commonly cited (Zaranko et al., 1997; Bowler, 1991).
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|Tasmania||New Zealand||1872-1879||Yes||Ponder (1988)||Other cause - (e.g. drinking water supplies on ships)|
|UK||New Zealand||1859||Yes||Ponder (1988)||Other cause - (e.g. drinking water supplies on ships)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
The wide range of active and passive methods for dispersal of P. antipodarum makes the control of this species very difficult. Anglers and fish farms may spread it to new waterways (Loo et al., 2007). This species is able to move upstream or float downstream (Haynes et al., 1985). As P. antipodarum is parthenogenetic and has a high reproductive capacity, in theory only one female need arrive at a new ecosystem for a new population to establish.
HabitatTop of page
Within its native range P. antipodarum lives in freshwater ecosystems, except temporary ponds, as well as brackish waters (Winterbourn, 1973). However, in its non-native range, it can be found in either in freshwater, brackish and even salty water, and has been recorded in streams, rives, lakes, reservoirs, channels, isolated coastal lakes, shallow lakes, estuaries and open seas (Alonso and Castro-Díez, 2008; 2012a).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Inland saline areas||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Estuaries||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Lagoons||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Coastal areas||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Mud flats||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Intertidal zone||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Salt marshes||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Present, no further details||Natural|
|Irrigation channels||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Lakes||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Lakes||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Reservoirs||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Rivers / streams||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Rivers / streams||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Ponds||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Ponds||Present, no further details||Natural|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
In its native (New Zealand) range, P. antipodarum is thought to be composed of sexually reproducing diploids and parthenogenetic (apomictic) triploid females (Wallace, 1992). In introduced populations, most individuals are triploid clonal females (Hauser et al., 1992; Hughes, 1996).
Although, in its natural range, both sexual and asexual reproduction coexists, non-native populations are parthenogenetic and consist almost exclusively of females (Jokela et al., 1997; Alonso and Castro-Díez, 2008). P. antipodarum is ovoviviparous, and females brood their offspring in a brood pouch until they reach the 'crawl-away' developmental stage (Jokela et al., 1997). Individuals reach sexual maturity at a shell length of 3-3.5 mm of shell length (Moller et al., 1994; Richards, 2002). There are between 1 and 6 generations per year, and one adult can produce an average of 230 juveniles per year (Moller et al., 1994; Richards, 2002).
Physiology and phenology
P. antipodarum has gills for aquatic respiration. It has a wide range of tolerance to different environmental parameters (such as salinity and water temperature). A study by Hoy et al. (2012) suggested that P. antipodarum may adapt to salty water. Alonso and Camargo (2003) showed it has a high tolerance to the toxicity of nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrate and nitrite). P. antipodarum also possess a high tolerance to air exposure (Alonso and Castro-Díez, 2012b). Given that most physiological studies have been focused on exotic populations, comparison of tolerances between native and exotic populations are not available. Kistner and Dybdahl (2013) suggested that phenotypic plasticity in conjunction with evolution may be driving variation of shell morphology.
P. antipodarum can bury itself into the sediment during dry or cold periods (Duft et al., 2003).
Population size and structure
P. antipodarum presents contrasting densities and population sizes within its invaded range. Several studies (e.g. Richards et al., 2001; Hall et al., 2003) have shown high densities of up to 500,000 snails/m2 in some streams in the USA, or even up to 800,000 in a lake in Switzerland (Dorgelo, 1987). Lower densities do occur, however (Brzezinski and Kolodziejczyk, 2001; Lewin and Smolinski, 2006). Additionally, population sizes change throughout the year, with higher densities in summer and very low densities in winter, especially at temperatures near freezing (Moffitt and James, 2012).
P. antipodarum has a broad diet that includes organic matter (detritus), living plants (macrophytes) and micreoorganisms (periphyton) (Alonso and Castro-Díez, 2008).
Water TolerancesTop of page
|Parameter||Minimum Value||Maximum Value||Typical Value||Status||Life Stage||Notes|
|Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l)||0.02||Harmful|
|Ammonium [ionised] (mg/l)||Harmful||High levels tolerated if water temperature and pH are low|
|Conductivity (µmhos/cm)||Optimum||This species is limited by low conductivity|
|Dissolved oxygen (mg/l)||Harmful||Wide range of tolerances|
|Salinity (part per thousand)||15||Optimum|
|Salinity (part per thousand)||32||Harmful|
|Turbidity (JTU turbidity)||Harmful||Wide range of tolerances|
|Velocity (cm/h)||86400||Harmful||it prefers low water velocities|
|Water temperature (ºC temperature)||18||Optimum|
|Water temperature (ºC temperature)||0||31||Harmful|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Some predators (such as rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) and parasites (such as the digenetic trematode Microphallus sp.) have been reported for P. antipodarum (Kopp and Jokela, 2007; Vinson and Baker, 2008). A high proportion of P. antipodarum are able to survive the passage through the digestive tracts of fish such as rainbow trout, although Hellmair et al. (2011) reported that the endangered tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi) may digest it more effectively. In the case of parasites, the number of parasite species and their incidence on P. antipodarum populations in invaded ecosystems has been reported to be very low (Zbikowski and Zbikowska, 2009).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
P. antipodarum is able to spread upstream up to 60 meters in three months (Adam, 1942). It can also move downstream by drifting in the current, or on floating aquatic plants (Alonso and Castro-Díez, 2008).
Vector transmission (biotic)
P. antipodarum can be transported in the gut of fish. A high proportion of mud snails are able to survive the pass through the digestive tracts of different fish species; up to 50% in the case of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (Vinson and Baker, 2008). P. antipodarum can be also carried in the digestive tract of birds, or attached to their legs or feathers.
Most accidental introductions are caused by ballast waters and aquatic movements of boats, or by recreational vessels such as rafts and kayaks (Zaranko et al., 1997; Hosea and Finlayson, 2005). It can also be introduced in water tanks or via trade of aquatic plants, or via fish farms (Bowler, 1991). Anglers may introduce P. antipodarum to new waterways.
There is no commercial interest in P. antipodarum as food nor as a pet and so most or all introductions are thought to be accidental. There are no documented intentional introductions.
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Aquaculture||Transport of aquaculture products (trout eggs, live fish); in the guts of introduced fish farm fish||Yes||Zaranko et al., 1997|
|Digestion and excretion||Mudsnails are able to survive the pass through the digestive tracts of different fish species||Yes||Vinson and Baker, 2008|
|Hunting, angling, sport or racing||Movement of anglers between different aquatic ecosystems||Yes||Alonso and Castro-Díez, 2008|
Pathway VectorsTop of page
|Aquaculture stock||Transport of aquaculture products (trout eggs, live fish); in the guts of introduced fish farm fish||Yes||Zaranko et al., 1997|
|Floating vegetation and debris||Downstream movements||Yes||Alonso and Castro-Díez, 2008|
|Ship ballast water and sediment||One of the main causes of long distance transport of mudsnail||Yes||Yes||Alonso and Castro-Díez, 2008|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Environment (generally)||Positive and negative|
Environmental ImpactTop of page
At high densities, P. antipodarum it can dominate secondary production and is capable of increasing it to some of the highest values ever reported among stream invertebrates (194 g of ash free dry mass/m2/year) (Hall et al., 2006). This allows P. antipodarum to alter the overall nitrogen fixation rate of an ecosystem by consuming a high proportion of green algae, which causes an increase of nitrogen-fixing diatoms (Arango et al., 2009). Some studies show domination of mollusc communities by this species (Gerard et al., 2003; Lewin and Smolinski, 2006) and also a reduction in the growth of native molluscs (Riley et al., 2008) due to competition for space and food. Because P. antipodarum can survive travelling through the digestive tract of fish, fish that eat lots of P. antipodarum tend to lose weight compared to those which do not (Vinson and Baker, 2008).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Reproduces asexually
- Altered trophic level
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Modification of natural benthic communities
- Modification of nutrient regime
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Rapid growth
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
Uses ListTop of page
- Research model
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Adult and juvenile P. antipodarum can be seen without equipment, but newborn snails have such a light shell and small size (0.4 mm shell length) that their detection is difficult. DNA detection methods have been developed to detect P. antipodarum at densities as low as one animal per 1.5 liters of water for two days (Goldberg et al., 2013). As P. antipodarum can be confused with many other aquatic snails, reliable identification requires a specialist in the Tateidae family.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
P. antipodarum can be confused with others species belonging to different genera of the Hydrobiidae family (Plesiella, Belgrandia, Mercuria, Pseudamnicola, Colligyrus, Pyrgulopsis, Eremopyrgus) and even with species of the genus Fluminicola (Lithoglyphidae family). Therefore, a reliable identification requires a specialist in the Tateidae and Hydrobiidae families.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
SPS measures and Early warning systems
Although no specific methods to prevent the introduction of P. antipodarum have been described, techniques applied to other molluscs may prove effective for this species too. For instance, the treatment of ballast water in local and international trade can be applied to P. antipodarum. Additionally, examination of aquaculture products (live trout, eggs, etc.) is necessary to avoid the new introductions of this species. In the case of transporting live fish a quarantine to avoid the introduction of live P. antipodarum in the digestive tract is recommended.
In the case of recent introductions several steps should be followed: firstly, reports of the presence of P. antipodarum are confirmed by an expert along with the population density and distribution. Once confirmed, the feasibility of eradication/control has to be assessed. These actions have to be communicated to environmental agencies. Additionally, a monitoring program needs to be established to ensure that the action taken is successful.
Public awareness campaigns would have to be aimed at anglers, fish farm owners, hunters, natural resource management personnel, hikers and any people that could come in contact with aquatic ecosystems. Anglers should be encouraged to carefully clean their equipment and waders.
Most of the cited control practices focused on chemical control (Oplinger et al., 2009; Oplinger and Wagner, 2009; 2010; 2011; Myrick and Conlin, 2011; Hoyer and Myrick, 2012) with some cases of physical control by temperature, desiccation and hydrocyclonic separation (Strzelec, 2000; Richards et al., 2004; Nielson et al., 2012).
No information on eradication programs for P. antipodarum is available. Generally speaking, eradication may be possible in isolated ecosystems, such as small lakes or ponds that can be temporally isolated from water sources, whereas in rivers, streams or lakes the chemical or physical eradication is not feasible as the damage to other elements of the ecosystems will be unacceptable. In the case of fish farms this species can be completely eradicated by desiccation or chemical treatments of ponds.
Isolated ecosystems (such as small lakes or ponds) may be contained, but this control method is practically impossible in rivers, streams or big lakes.
Monitoring and surveillance (incl. remote sensing)
Sampling protocols used for invertebrate monitoring (such us Surber and Hess samplers and kick-net samplers) could be used to detect the presence of P. antipodarum in aquatic ecosystems.
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
There are several topics that need further research:
1. Identifying the properties of ecosystems (such as degree of environmental degradation, or biodiversity) that allow for a rapid spread of P. antipodarum, as this species has not always shown invasive behaviour. Such knowledge would help to develop programs to prevent the introduction of P. antipodarum into vulnerable ecosystems.
2. Assessing the effectiveness of control and eradication methods is necessary. There are several studies focused on control, but most of them are under laboratory conditions. Research in invaded natural ecosystems is necessary to test if these methods are effective in natural scenarios, including biological control by natural parasites.
3. Understanding the long-term dynamic of P. antipodarum populations in invaded ecosystems will help explain whether the high densities that are found in some ecosystems can be maintained or whether these populations may experience a collapse.
4. Regarding P. antipodarum distribution, more information is needed for Central and South America and Africa.
ReferencesTop of page
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Alonso A; Camargo JA, 2003. Short-term toxicity of ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate to the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 70(5):1006-1012.
Alonso A; Castro-Díez P, 2008. What explains the invading success of the aquatic mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)? Hydrobiologia, 614:107-116. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/1573-5117/
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Alonso Â; Castro-Díez P, 2012. Tolerance to air exposure of the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca) as a prerequisite to survival in overland translocations. NeoBiota, No.14:67-74. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/neobiota/article/3140/tolerance-to-air-exposure-of-the-new-zealand-mudsnail-potamopyrgus-antipodarum-hydrobiidae-mollusca-as-a-prerequisite-to
ANS-Aquatic Nuisance Species, 2007. National management and control plan for the New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force by the New Zealand Mudsnail Management and Control Plan Working Group, US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) United States Federal Aquatic Nuisance species Task Force.
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Brzezinski T; Kolodziejczyk A, 2001. Distribution of Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843) in waters of the Wigry National Park and the effect of selected habitat factors on its occurrence. Folia Malacologica, 9:125-135.
Carlsson R, 2000. The distribution of the gastropods Theodoxus fluviatilis (L.) and Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray) in lakes on the Aland Islands, southwestern Finland. Boreal Environment Research, 5:187-195.
Cianfanelli S; Lori E; Bodon M, 2007. Alien freshwater molluscs in Italy and their distribution. In: Biological invaders in inland waters: profiles, distribution, and threats [ed. by Gherardi, F.]. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer, 103-121.
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Cross WF; Rosi-Marshall EJ; Behn KE; Kennedy TA; Hall RO Jr; Fuller AE; Baxter CV, 2010. Invasion and production of New Zealand mud snails in the Colorado River, Glen Canyon. Biological Invasions, 12(9):3033-3043. http://www.springerlink.com/content/bv834031865h2077/
Davidson TM; Brenneis VEF; Rivera Cde; Draheim R; Gillespie GE, 2008. Northern range expansion and coastal occurrences of the New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum Gray, 1843) in the northeast Pacific. Aquatic Invasions [Special Issue: "Invasive Aquatic Molluscs - ICAIS 2007 Conference Papers and Additional Records", Nijmegen, the Netherlands, September 2007.], 3(3):349-353. http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2008/AI_2008_3_3_Davidson_etal.pdf
Dorgelo J, 1987. Density fluctuations in populations 1982-1986 and biological observations of Potamopyrgus jenkinsi in two trophically differing lakes. Hydrobiological Bulletin, 21:95-110.
Duft M; Schulte-Oehlmann U; Tillmann M; Markert B; Oehlmann J, 2003. Toxicity of triphenyltin and tributyltin to the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum in a new sediment biotest. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 22:145-152.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
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OrganizationsTop of page
USA: California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW), http://www.dfg.ca.gov/
USA: United States Department of Agriculture, 1400 Independence Avenue, Washingon DC 20250, www.usda.gov
ContributorsTop of page
08/10/13 Original text by:
Alvaro Alonso, University of Alcala, Spain
Distribution MapsTop of page
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