Invasive Species Compendium

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Pepino mosaic virus

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Datasheet

Pepino mosaic virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pepino mosaic virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Tymovirales
  •         Family: Alphaflexiviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mosaic and chlorosis on old tomato leaves induced by PepMV.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMosaic and chlorosis on old tomato leaves induced by PepMV.
CopyrightPiero Roggero
Mosaic and chlorosis on old tomato leaves induced by PepMV.
SymptomsMosaic and chlorosis on old tomato leaves induced by PepMV.Piero Roggero
Mosaic on apical tomato leaves induced by PepMV.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMosaic on apical tomato leaves induced by PepMV.
CopyrightPiero Roggero
Mosaic on apical tomato leaves induced by PepMV.
SymptomsMosaic on apical tomato leaves induced by PepMV.Piero Roggero
Symptoms on immature and mature tomato fruits induced by PepMV.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSymptoms on immature and mature tomato fruits induced by PepMV.
CopyrightPiero Roggero
Symptoms on immature and mature tomato fruits induced by PepMV.
SymptomsSymptoms on immature and mature tomato fruits induced by PepMV.Piero Roggero

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pepino mosaic virus

Local Common Names

  • Netherlands: pepino mozaïek virus

EPPO code

  • PEPMV0 (Pepino mosaic potexvirus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Tymovirales
  •                 Family: Alphaflexiviridae
  •                     Genus: Potexvirus
  •                         Species: Pepino mosaic virus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a definitive species of the genus Potexvirus. This genus, with potato virus X (PVX) as the type species, includes a number of agronomically important viruses. Currently two strains of the virus are recognized; the pepino strain as described by Jones et al (1980) and the tomato strain (Van der Vlugt et al., 2000).

Description

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PepMV particles show typical potexvirus morphology; flexible filaments and measure 510 x 12.5 nm (Jones et al. 1980). Ultrathin sections of infected Nicotiana glutinosa leaves show inclusions containing arrays of filamentous virus-like particles.

Distribution

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Pepino mosaic virus was first described in 1980 (Jones et al., 1980) when isolated from pepino (Solanum muricatum) plants collected in 1974 from the coastal region of Peru. After this initial description no further findings were recorded. In 1999 the virus was again diagnosed from greenhouse-grown tomato plants in the Netherlands. In early 2000 the virus was officially reported from three additional European countries: the UK, France and Germany (EC directive 325). Unofficially the virus has been found in plant material originating from other European and non-European countries. Given its transmission characteristics it is likely that the virus is more widespread then currently officially recognized.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MadagascarAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
MoroccoPresent
South AfricaPresent, Few occurrences

Asia

ChinaPresent, Few occurrences
-JiangsuPresent, Few occurrences
-ShanghaiPresent
IsraelPresent, Localized
SyriaPresent
TaiwanAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
TurkeyPresent, Few occurrences

Europe

AustriaPresent, Few occurrences
BelgiumPresent, Few occurrences
BulgariaPresent, Few occurrences
CroatiaAbsent, Eradicated
CyprusPresent, Widespread
CzechiaAbsent, Eradicated
DenmarkPresent, Few occurrences
EstoniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
FinlandAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey2001
FrancePresent, Few occurrences
GermanyPresent, Few occurrences1999
GreecePresent, Localized
HungaryPresent, Few occurrences
IrelandPresent, Few occurrences
ItalyPresent, Few occurrences2001
-SardiniaPresent, Few occurrences
-SicilyPresent, Localized
LithuaniaPresent, Few occurrences
MaltaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
NetherlandsPresent, Localized
NorwayAbsent, Eradicated
PolandPresent, Few occurrences
PortugalAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
SlovakiaAbsent, Eradicated
SloveniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
SpainPresent, Widespread
-Balearic IslandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenAbsent, Formerly present2001
SwitzerlandPresent, Localized
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent, Few occurrences
-Channel IslandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
-EnglandPresent, Few occurrences

North America

CanadaPresent, Few occurrences
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-OntarioPresent, Few occurrences
-QuebecPresent
GuatemalaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
MexicoPresent, Few occurrences
United StatesPresent, Localized
-AlabamaPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-FloridaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-TexasPresent

South America

ChilePresent, Localized
EcuadorPresent
PeruPresent, Widespread

Risk of Introduction

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PepMV is easily mechanically transmissible. Since symptoms are not always readily recognized, there is a danger that the virus can spread rapidly and unnoticed. Host plant studies show that other Solanaceous crop plants like aubergine and potato can be infected.

Hosts/Species Affected

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PepMV has a relatively narrow host range and primarily infects Solanaceous plants. The primary host of the tomato strain of PepMV is tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) but the virus can also cause symptoms in pepino (Solanum muricatum), aubergine (Solanum melongena) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). There are indications that the host ranges of both strains may differ slightly.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Amaranthus (amaranth)AmaranthaceaeWild host
  • Jordá et al. (2001)
Bassia scopariaChenopodiaceaeUnknown
Calystegia sepium (great bindweed)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot)ChenopodiaceaeUnknown
Convolvulus althaeoidesUnknown
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
Conyza sumatrensis (tall fleabane)AsteraceaeUnknown
CoronopusUnknown
Datura innoxia (downy thorn apple)SolanaceaeUnknown
Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)SolanaceaeOther
    Diplotaxis erucoidesBrassicaceaeUnknown
    Echium creticumUnknown
    Echium humileUnknown
    Heliotropium europaeum (common heliotrope)BoraginaceaeUnknown
    Lycopersicon peruvianumSolanaceaeWild host
    Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium (currant tomato)SolanaceaeOther
    Malva parvifloraWild host
      Malva parviflora (pink cheeseweed)MalvaceaeUnknown
      • Jordá et al. (2001)
      Moricandia arvensisBrassicaceaeUnknown
      Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco)SolanaceaeWild host
      • Jordá et al. (2001)
      Nicotiana rustica (wild tobacco)SolanaceaeOther
        Ocimum basilicum (basil)LamiaceaeOther
        OnopordumUnknown
        Piptatherum miliaceum (smilograss)PoaceaeUnknown
        Plantago arenariaPlantaginaceaeUnknown
        Rumex (Dock)PolygonaceaeUnknown
        Sisymbrium irioBrassicaceaeUnknown
        Solanum americanumSolanaceaeUnknown
        • Jordá et al. (2001)
        Solanum chilenseWild host
        Solanum chmielewskiiWild host
        Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
        Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
          Solanum muricatum (melon pear)SolanaceaeOther
          Solanum neorickiiWild host
          Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
            Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
              Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)AsteraceaeWild host
              • Jordá et al. (2001)
              Sonchus tenerrimus (field sowthistle)AsteraceaeUnknown
              Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)AsteraceaeUnknown

              Growth Stages

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              Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

              Symptoms

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              Initial symptoms of PepMV on tomato plants include small yellow leaf spots that may resemble symptoms caused by Potato virus X (PVX). At a later stage, older leaves may show mottling and top leaves may show slight curling. Symptoms may depend on climatic conditions and become more visible under (relative) low light conditions. Sometimes fruits of infected plants may show an orange mottling but these symptoms can be very erratic and may differ between the trusses of one plant.

              Symptoms on other Solanaceous crop plants can differ. Some potato cultivars showed no visible symptoms upon mechanical inoculation while others reacted strongly with necrosis (Jones et al., 1980).

              List of Symptoms/Signs

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              SignLife StagesType
              Fruit / discoloration
              Leaves / abnormal forms
              Leaves / abnormal patterns

              Means of Movement and Dispersal

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              Natural dispersal (non-biotic)

              Leaves and fruits of infected plants can contain high concentrations of virus. Spread of the virus is by mechanical contact. Roots of infected tomato plants also show significant concentrations of virus. Upon damage or death of these roots, virus particles are likely to be released in the soil or drainage water.

              Vector transmission

              In glasshouse experiments, the virus was shown to be transmitted by contact through bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). It is not transmitted by aphids.

              Seedborne spread

              The virus can be present on the outside of seeds collected from infected fruits. Seed lots should therefore be disinfected. There are no indications that the virus is transmitted inside the seed.

              Agricultural practices

              The virus is easily mechanically transmissible and symptoms can be weak under certain conditions. When not recognized in time the virus is likely to spread rapidly through tomato crops by normal cultural practices through hands, tools, clothing and machinery. The use of skimmed milk to disinfect hands and tools is recommended. Experimental evidence (unpublished) suggests that PepMV is less stable then PVX. Standard disinfection and hygiene protocols that apply for PVX are also expected to be sufficient for PepMV.

              Movement in trade

              Fruits may contain high virus concentrations. Crates and packaging materials are likely to get contaminated following fruit damage. Reusable crate material should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected.

              Planting material originating from nurseries should be tested before transfer to production facilities.

              Seedborne Aspects

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              Incidence

              PepMV was detected by serology in tomato seeds (Salomone and Roggero, 2002).

              Pathogen Transmission

              Seed

              In 2002, PepMV was detected by serology in tomato seeds but was not found to be seed transmissible to 50 seedlings (Salomone and Roggero, 2002). More recently, Hanssen et al. (2010) demonstrated that PepMV can be transmitted by tomato seeds, highlighting the risk of using seeds from PepMV-infected plants and further spreading the disease. PepMV has been identified in the seed coat of both immature and mature tomato seeds, but not in the embryo (Ling, 2008). Córdoba-Sellés et al. (2007) estimate that at least 25% of seeds from infected tomato plants carry PepMV. PepMV is neither seed-transmitted or seedborne in Nicotiana benthamiana.

              Other sources

              PepMV is a very contagious pathogen, easily spread mechanically via contaminated tools, shoes, clothing, hands and plant-to-plant contact (Pospieszny and Borodynko, 2002).

              Seed Health Tests

              Seeds lots can be tested for the presence of the virus either by ELISA (Salomone and Roggero, 2002) or by PCR using Potex group-specific or PepMV primers sets.

              Seed Treatments

              Immersion of seeds in 10% trisodium phosphate for 3 h mostly eradicated the virus and was not detrimental to germination (Córdoba-Sellés et al. 2007). Ling (2010) found that a seed treatment of commercial bleach solution (0.5 and 1.0% sodium hypochlorite) was the most effective at reducing the incidence of PepMV, followed by trisodium phosphate. Hydorchloric acid treatment was not found to be effective. In the same study, dry heat baking seeds at 72 or 80°C for 48 to 72 h was effective in lowering PepMV infection rates, whereas soaking seeds in water at 55°C for two hours had a detrimental effect on seed germination.

              Pathway Vectors

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              VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
              Containers and packaging - wood Yes
              Soil, sand and gravelDrainage water. Yes

              Plant Trade

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              Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
              Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
              Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
              Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
              Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
              True seeds (inc. grain) Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible

              Impact

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              Infection of tomato crops with PepMV does not necessarily result in significant economic damage since fruit symptoms may be absent. However, experimental data (unpublished) suggest that yield may be affected and fruit setting may be delayed.

              Diagnosis

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              The presence of PepMV in infected plant material and fruits can be assayed by serological methods like ELISA, using commercially available antisera. Antisera are specific and react equally well with both strains. No cross-reaction to PVX or Potato aucuba mosaic virus (PAMV), the only other potexviruses known to infect Solanaceous crops, was observed.

              PepMV is mechanically transmissible to different experimental host plants. Several test plants allow discrimination between the pepino and tomato strains of PepMV for example, Nicotiana glutinosa and Datura stramonium.
               

              The use of RT PCR in diagnosing PepMV is described in Hasiów et al. (2008). A polyprobe method of detection is detailed in Aparicio et al. (2009). An immunocapture-retrotranscription-PCR (IC-RT-PCR) approach is detailed in Mansilla et al. (2003).

              Detection and Inspection

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              Detection of the virus in commercial tomato and other Solanaceous crops depends on field inspection for typical symptoms. There may be small yellow spots, especially on young leaves at the top of the plant. At a later stage a more clear mosaic may be seen on older leaves. Fruits may sometimes show an orange mottling. Depending on climatic conditions, virus symptoms on the leaves can sometimes be weak and hard to see, and the virus may therefore escape attention.

              Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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              Initial, weak symptoms on tomato may resemble symptoms of PVX infection. A weak serological relationship to Narcissus mosaic virus is reported (Jones et al. 1980).

              Prevention and Control

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              Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

              The virus should be controlled by the use of virus-free seed and planting material and strict hygienic measures.

              References

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              Alfaro-Fernández, A., Córdoba-Sellés, C., Cebrián, M. C., Sánchez-Navarro, J. A., Espino, A., Martín, R., Jordá, C., 2007. First report of Tomato torrado virus in tomato in the Canary Islands, Spain. Plant Disease, 91(8), 1060. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-91-8-1060B

              Aparicio F; Soler S; Aramburu J; Galipienso L; Nuez F; Pallás V; López C, 2009. Simultaneous detection of six RNA plant viruses affecting tomato crops using a single digoxigenin-labelled polyprobe. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 123(1):117-123. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

              CABI/EPPO, 2015. Pepino mosaic virus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 856 (Edition 3).

              Carmichael DJ; Rey MEC; Naidoo S; Cook G; Heerden SWvan, 2011. First report of Pepino mosaic virus infecting tomato in South Africa. Plant Disease, 95(6):767. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

              Commission decision 2000/325/EC, 2000. Official journal of the European Communities. Brussels.

              Córdoba, M. C., Martínez-Priego, L., Jordá, C., 2004. New natural hosts of Pepino mosaic virus in Spain. Plant Disease, 88(8), 906. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.8.906D

              Córdoba-Sellés Mdel C; García-Rández A; Alfaro-Fernández A; Jordá-Gutiérrez C, 2007. Seed transmission of Pepino mosaic virus and efficacy of tomato seed disinfection treatments. Plant Disease, 91(10):1250-1254. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

              Davino, S., Accotto, G. P., Masenga, V., Torta, L., Davino, M., 2009. Basil (Ocimum basilicum), a new host of Pepino mosaic virus. Plant Pathology, 58(2), 407. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02026.x

              Efthimiou KE; Gatsios AP; Aretakis KC; Papayiannis LC; Katis NI, 2011. First report of Pepino mosaic virus infecting greenhouse cherry tomatoes in Greece. Plant Disease, 95(1):78. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

              EPPO, 2011. EPPO Reporting Service. EPPO Reporting Service. Paris, France: EPPO. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm

              EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

              Fakhro, A., Paschek, U., Bargen, S. von, Büttner, C., Schwarz, D., 2005. Distribution and spread of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) in tomatoes cultivated in a re-circulating hydroponic system. In: Plant protection and plant health in Europe: introduction and spread of invasive species, held at Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany, 9-11 June 2005, [ed. by Alford, D. V., Backhaus, G. F.]. Alton, UK: British Crop Protection Council. 223-224.

              French, C. J., Bouthillier, M., Bernardy, M., Ferguson, G., Sabourin, M., Johnson, R. C., Masters, C., Godkin, S., Mumford, R., 2001. First report of Pepino mosaic virus in Canada and the United States. Plant Disease, 85(10), 1121. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.10.1121B

              Hanssen IM; Mumford R; Blystad DR; Cortez I; Hasiów-Jaroszewska B; Hristova D; Pagán I; Pereira AM; Peters J; Pospieszny H; Ravnikar M; Stijger I; Tomassoli L; Varveri C; Vlugt Rvan der; Nielsen SL, 2010. Seed transmission of Pepino mosaic virus in tomato. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 126(2):145-152. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

              Hasiów B; Borodynko N; Pospieszny H, 2008. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay for detection of Pepino mosaic virus different strains. (Zastosowanie techniki real time RT-PCR w diagnostyce róznych szczepów wirusa mozaiki pepino.) Progress in Plant Protection, 48(2):458-462. http://www.progress.plantprotection.pl/pliki/2008/48-2-22.pdf

              Hasiów-Jaroszewska, B., Pospieszny, H., Borodynko, N., 2009. New necrotic isolates of Pepino mosaic virus representing the Ch2 genotype. Journal of Phytopathology, 157(7/8), 494-496. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0434.2008.01496.x

              IPPC, 2008. First outbreak of Pepino mosaic virus in the Czech Republic. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. CZ-4/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

              Jones RAC; Koenig R; Lesemann DE, 1980. Pepino mosaic virus, a new potexvirus from pepino (Solanum muricatum). Annals of Applied Biology, 94(1):61-68

              Jordá, C., Lázaro Pérez, A., Martínez-Culebras, P. V., Lacasa, A., 2001. First report of pepino mosaic virus on natural hosts. Plant Disease, 85(12), 1292.

              Jordá, C., Lázaro Pérez, A., Martínez-Culebras, P., Abad, P., Lacasa, A., Guerrero, M. M., 2001. First report of pepino mosaic virus on tomato in Spain. Plant Disease, 85(12), 1292.

              Ling KS, 2008. Pepino mosaic virus on tomato seed: virus location and mechanical transmission. Plant Disease, 92(12):1701-1705. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

              Ling KS, 2010. Effectiveness of chemo- and thermotherapeutic treatments on Pepino mosaic virus in tomato seed. Plant Disease, 94(3):325-328. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

              Ling KS; Wintermantel WM; Bledsoe M, 2008. Genetic composition of Pepino mosaic virus population in North American greenhouse tomatoes. Plant Disease, 92(12):1683-1688. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

              Ling KS; Zhang W, 2011. First report of Pepino mosaic virus infecting tomato in Mexico. Plant Disease, 95(8):1035-1036. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

              Mansilla C; Sánchez F; Ponz F, 2003. The diagnosis of the tomato variant of pepino mosaic virus: an IC-RT-PCR approach. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 109(2):139-146.

              Maroon-Lango CJ; Guaragna MA; Jordan RL; Hammond J; Bandla M; Marquardt SK, 2005. Two unique US isolates of Pepino mosaic virus from a limited source of pooled tomato tissue are distinct from a third (European-like) US isolate. Archives of Virology, 150(6):1187-1201. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100423

              Martínez-Culebras, P. V., Lázaro, A., Abad Campos, P., Jordá, C., 2002. A RT-PCR assay combined with RFLP analysis for detection and differentiation of isolates of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) from tomato. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 108(9), 887-892. doi: 10.1023/A:1021247220932

              Milanovic J; Kajic V; Novak A, 2011. First record of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) in Croatia. (Prvi nalaz Pepino mosaic virusa (PepMV) u Hrvatskoj.) Glasilo Biljne Zastite, 11(5):353-356. http://www.hdbz.hr

              Novak A; Milanovic J; Kajic V, 2012. First report of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) in Croatia. Acta Horticulturae [V Balkan Symposium on Vegetables and Potatoes, Tirana, Albania.], No.960:321-325. http://www.actahort.org/books/960/960_46.htm

              Pospieszny H; Borodynko N, 2002. Pepino mosaic virus. Progress in Plant Protection, 42(1):83-87; 13 ref.

              Salomone A; Roggero P, 2002. Host range, seed transmission and detection by ELISA and lateral flow of an Italian isolate of pepino mosaic virus. Journal of Plant Pathology, 84(1):65-68; 7 ref.

              Sneideris D; Zizite M; Zitikaite I; Urbanaviciene L; Staniulis J, 2013. First report of two distinct strains of Pepino mosaic virus infecting tomatoes in greenhouses in Lithuania. Journal of Plant Pathology, 95(1):217. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/2715

              Soler, S., López, C., Nuez, F., 2005. Natural occurrence of viruses in Lycopersicon spp. in Ecuador. Plant Disease, 89(11), 1244. doi: 10.1094/PD-89-1244C

              Soler, S., Prohens, J., Diez, M. J., Nuez, F., 2002. Natural Occurrence of Pepino mosaic virus in Lycospersicon Species in Central and Southern Peru. Journal of Phytopathology, 150(2), 49-53. doi: 10.1046/j.1439-0434.2002.00712.x

              Stijger I; Verhoeven K; van der Vlugt R, 2000. Nieuw licht op pepino mozanekvirus. Groenten en Fruit. 21 April 2000:6-7.

              Takács A; Bese G; Horváth J; Gáborjányi R, 2012. Plant viruses new in Hungary. (Új növényvírusok Magyarországon.) Növényvédelem, 48(6):242-248.

              Vlugt RAAvan der; Stijger CCMM; Verhoeven JJT; Lesemann DE, 2000. First report of pepino mosaic virus on tomato. Plant Disease, 84(1):103; 1 ref.

              Vlugt, R. A. A. van der, Cuperus, C., Vink, J., Stijger, I. C. M. M., Lesemann, D. E., Verhoeven, J. T. J., Roenhorst, J. W., 2002. Identification and characterization of Pepino mosaic potexvirus in tomato. Bulletin OEPP, 32(3), 503-508. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2338.2002.00598.x

              Zhang YaoLiang; Shen ZhongJian; Zhong Jiang; Lu XiaoLi; Cheng Gong; Li RuDuo, 2003. Preliminary characterization of Pepino Mosaic Virus Shanghai isolate (PepMV-Sh) and its detection with ELISA. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai, 19(3):90-92.

              Distribution References

              Alfaro-Fernández A, Cebrián M C, Córdoba-Sellés C, Herrera-Vásquez J A, Jordá C, 2008. First report of the US1 strain of Pepino mosaic virus in tomato in the Canary Islands, Spain. Plant Disease. 92 (11), 1590-1591. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-11-1590C

              Alfaro-Fernández A, Córdoba-Sellés C, Cebrián M C, Sánchez-Navarro J A, Espino A, Martín R, Jordá C, 2007. First report of Tomato torrado virus in tomato in the Canary Islands, Spain. Plant Disease. 91 (8), 1060. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-8-1060B

              CABI, EPPO, 2015. Pepino mosaic virus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 856 (Edition 3). DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20153399821

              CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

              CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

              Carmichael D J, Rey M E C, Naidoo S, Cook G, Heerden S W van, 2011. First report of Pepino mosaic virus infecting tomato in South Africa. Plant Disease. 95 (6), 767. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-11-0036

              Córdoba M C, Martínez-Priego L, Jordá C, 2004. New natural hosts of Pepino mosaic virus in Spain. Plant Disease. 88 (8), 906. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.8.906D

              Córdoba-Sellés M del C, García-Rández A, Alfaro-Fernández A, Jordá-Gutiérrez C, 2007. Seed transmission of Pepino mosaic virus and efficacy of tomato seed disinfection treatments. Plant Disease. 91 (10), 1250-1254. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-10-1250

              Davino S, Accotto G P, Masenga V, Torta L, Davino M, 2009. Basil (Ocimum basilicum), a new host of Pepino mosaic virus. Plant Pathology. 58 (2), 407. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02026.x

              Davino S, Bivona L, Iacono G, Davino M, 2010. First report of Tomato torrado virus infecting tomato in Italy. Plant Disease. 94 (9), 1172. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-9-1172A

              Efthimiou K E, Gatsios A P, Aretakis K C, Papayiannis L C, Katis N I, 2011. First report of Pepino mosaic virus infecting greenhouse cherry tomatoes in Greece. Plant Disease. 95 (1), 78. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-10-0643

              EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

              French C J, Bouthillier M, Bernardy M, Ferguson G, Sabourin M, Johnson R C, Masters C, Godkin S, Mumford R, 2001. First report of Pepino mosaic virus in Canada and the United States. Plant Disease. 85 (10), 1121. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.10.1121B

              Hasiów-Jaroszewska B, Pospieszny H, Borodynko N, 2009. New necrotic isolates of Pepino mosaic virus representing the Ch2 genotype. Journal of Phytopathology. 157 (7/8), 494-496. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2008.01496.x

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              Ling K S, Bledsoe M E, 2009. First report of Mexican papita viroid infecting greenhouse tomato in Canada. Plant Disease. 93 (8), 839. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-8-0839B

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              Ling K S, Wintermantel W M, Bledsoe M, 2008. Genetic composition of Pepino mosaic virus population in North American greenhouse tomatoes. Plant Disease. 92 (12), 1683-1688. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-12-1683

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