Pepino mosaic virus
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Seedborne Aspects
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Pepino mosaic virus
Local Common Names
- Netherlands: pepino mozaïek virus
- PEPMV0 (Pepino mosaic potexvirus)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
- Group: "RNA viruses"
- Order: Tymovirales
- Family: Alphaflexiviridae
- Genus: Potexvirus
- Species: Pepino mosaic virus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Madagascar||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)|
|South Africa||Present, Few occurrences|
|China||Present, Few occurrences|
|-Jiangsu||Present, Few occurrences|
|Taiwan||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)|
|Turkey||Present, Few occurrences|
|Austria||Present, Few occurrences|
|Belgium||Present, Few occurrences|
|Bulgaria||Present, Few occurrences|
|Denmark||Present, Few occurrences|
|Estonia||Absent, Confirmed absent by survey|
|Finland||Absent, Confirmed absent by survey||2001|
|France||Present, Few occurrences|
|Germany||Present, Few occurrences||1999|
|Hungary||Present, Few occurrences|
|Ireland||Present, Few occurrences|
|Italy||Present, Few occurrences||2001|
|-Sardinia||Present, Few occurrences|
|Lithuania||Present, Few occurrences|
|Malta||Absent, Confirmed absent by survey|
|Poland||Present, Few occurrences|
|Portugal||Absent, Confirmed absent by survey|
|Slovenia||Absent, Confirmed absent by survey|
|-Balearic Islands||Absent, Confirmed absent by survey|
|Sweden||Absent, Formerly present||2001|
|United Kingdom||Present, Few occurrences|
|-Channel Islands||Absent, Confirmed absent by survey|
|-England||Present, Few occurrences|
|Canada||Present, Few occurrences|
|-Ontario||Present, Few occurrences|
|Guatemala||Absent, Invalid presence record(s)|
|Mexico||Present, Few occurrences|
|United States||Present, Localized|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
Symptoms on other Solanaceous crop plants can differ. Some potato cultivars showed no visible symptoms upon mechanical inoculation while others reacted strongly with necrosis (Jones et al., 1980).
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / discoloration|
|Leaves / abnormal forms|
|Leaves / abnormal patterns|
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Leaves and fruits of infected plants can contain high concentrations of virus. Spread of the virus is by mechanical contact. Roots of infected tomato plants also show significant concentrations of virus. Upon damage or death of these roots, virus particles are likely to be released in the soil or drainage water.
In glasshouse experiments, the virus was shown to be transmitted by contact through bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). It is not transmitted by aphids.
The virus can be present on the outside of seeds collected from infected fruits. Seed lots should therefore be disinfected. There are no indications that the virus is transmitted inside the seed.
The virus is easily mechanically transmissible and symptoms can be weak under certain conditions. When not recognized in time the virus is likely to spread rapidly through tomato crops by normal cultural practices through hands, tools, clothing and machinery. The use of skimmed milk to disinfect hands and tools is recommended. Experimental evidence (unpublished) suggests that PepMV is less stable then PVX. Standard disinfection and hygiene protocols that apply for PVX are also expected to be sufficient for PepMV.
Movement in trade
Fruits may contain high virus concentrations. Crates and packaging materials are likely to get contaminated following fruit damage. Reusable crate material should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected.
Planting material originating from nurseries should be tested before transfer to production facilities.
Seedborne AspectsTop of page
PepMV was detected by serology in tomato seeds (Salomone and Roggero, 2002).
In 2002, PepMV was detected by serology in tomato seeds but was not found to be seed transmissible to 50 seedlings (Salomone and Roggero, 2002). More recently, Hanssen et al. (2010) demonstrated that PepMV can be transmitted by tomato seeds, highlighting the risk of using seeds from PepMV-infected plants and further spreading the disease. PepMV has been identified in the seed coat of both immature and mature tomato seeds, but not in the embryo (Ling, 2008). Córdoba-Sellés et al. (2007) estimate that at least 25% of seeds from infected tomato plants carry PepMV. PepMV is neither seed-transmitted or seedborne in Nicotiana benthamiana.
PepMV is a very contagious pathogen, easily spread mechanically via contaminated tools, shoes, clothing, hands and plant-to-plant contact (Pospieszny and Borodynko, 2002).
Seed Health Tests
Seeds lots can be tested for the presence of the virus either by ELISA (Salomone and Roggero, 2002) or by PCR using Potex group-specific or PepMV primers sets.
Immersion of seeds in 10% trisodium phosphate for 3 h mostly eradicated the virus and was not detrimental to germination (Córdoba-Sellés et al. 2007). Ling (2010) found that a seed treatment of commercial bleach solution (0.5 and 1.0% sodium hypochlorite) was the most effective at reducing the incidence of PepMV, followed by trisodium phosphate. Hydorchloric acid treatment was not found to be effective. In the same study, dry heat baking seeds at 72 or 80°C for 48 to 72 h was effective in lowering PepMV infection rates, whereas soaking seeds in water at 55°C for two hours had a detrimental effect on seed germination.
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Leaves||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Roots||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
ImpactTop of page
DiagnosisTop of page
The presence of PepMV in infected plant material and fruits can be assayed by serological methods like ELISA, using commercially available antisera. Antisera are specific and react equally well with both strains. No cross-reaction to PVX or Potato aucuba mosaic virus (PAMV), the only other potexviruses known to infect Solanaceous crops, was observed.
PepMV is mechanically transmissible to different experimental host plants. Several test plants allow discrimination between the pepino and tomato strains of PepMV for example, Nicotiana glutinosa and Datura stramonium.
The use of RT PCR in diagnosing PepMV is described in Hasiów et al. (2008). A polyprobe method of detection is detailed in Aparicio et al. (2009). An immunocapture-retrotranscription-PCR (IC-RT-PCR) approach is detailed in Mansilla et al. (2003).
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.The virus should be controlled by the use of virus-free seed and planting material and strict hygienic measures.
ReferencesTop of page
Alfaro-Fernández, A., Córdoba-Sellés, C., Cebrián, M. C., Sánchez-Navarro, J. A., Espino, A., Martín, R., Jordá, C., 2007. First report of Tomato torrado virus in tomato in the Canary Islands, Spain. Plant Disease, 91(8), 1060. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-91-8-1060B
Aparicio F; Soler S; Aramburu J; Galipienso L; Nuez F; Pallás V; López C, 2009. Simultaneous detection of six RNA plant viruses affecting tomato crops using a single digoxigenin-labelled polyprobe. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 123(1):117-123. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265
Commission decision 2000/325/EC, 2000. Official journal of the European Communities. Brussels.
Córdoba-Sellés Mdel C; García-Rández A; Alfaro-Fernández A; Jordá-Gutiérrez C, 2007. Seed transmission of Pepino mosaic virus and efficacy of tomato seed disinfection treatments. Plant Disease, 91(10):1250-1254. HTTP://www.apsnet.org
Efthimiou KE; Gatsios AP; Aretakis KC; Papayiannis LC; Katis NI, 2011. First report of Pepino mosaic virus infecting greenhouse cherry tomatoes in Greece. Plant Disease, 95(1):78. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis
EPPO, 2011. EPPO Reporting Service. EPPO Reporting Service. Paris, France: EPPO. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Fakhro, A., Paschek, U., Bargen, S. von, Büttner, C., Schwarz, D., 2005. Distribution and spread of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) in tomatoes cultivated in a re-circulating hydroponic system. In: Plant protection and plant health in Europe: introduction and spread of invasive species, held at Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany, 9-11 June 2005, [ed. by Alford, D. V., Backhaus, G. F.]. Alton, UK: British Crop Protection Council. 223-224.
French, C. J., Bouthillier, M., Bernardy, M., Ferguson, G., Sabourin, M., Johnson, R. C., Masters, C., Godkin, S., Mumford, R., 2001. First report of Pepino mosaic virus in Canada and the United States. Plant Disease, 85(10), 1121. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.10.1121B
Hanssen IM; Mumford R; Blystad DR; Cortez I; Hasiów-Jaroszewska B; Hristova D; Pagán I; Pereira AM; Peters J; Pospieszny H; Ravnikar M; Stijger I; Tomassoli L; Varveri C; Vlugt Rvan der; Nielsen SL, 2010. Seed transmission of Pepino mosaic virus in tomato. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 126(2):145-152. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265
Hasiów B; Borodynko N; Pospieszny H, 2008. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay for detection of Pepino mosaic virus different strains. (Zastosowanie techniki real time RT-PCR w diagnostyce róznych szczepów wirusa mozaiki pepino.) Progress in Plant Protection, 48(2):458-462. http://www.progress.plantprotection.pl/pliki/2008/48-2-22.pdf
Hasiów-Jaroszewska, B., Pospieszny, H., Borodynko, N., 2009. New necrotic isolates of Pepino mosaic virus representing the Ch2 genotype. Journal of Phytopathology, 157(7/8), 494-496. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0434.2008.01496.x
Maroon-Lango CJ; Guaragna MA; Jordan RL; Hammond J; Bandla M; Marquardt SK, 2005. Two unique US isolates of Pepino mosaic virus from a limited source of pooled tomato tissue are distinct from a third (European-like) US isolate. Archives of Virology, 150(6):1187-1201. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100423
Martínez-Culebras, P. V., Lázaro, A., Abad Campos, P., Jordá, C., 2002. A RT-PCR assay combined with RFLP analysis for detection and differentiation of isolates of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) from tomato. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 108(9), 887-892. doi: 10.1023/A:1021247220932
Milanovic J; Kajic V; Novak A, 2011. First record of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) in Croatia. (Prvi nalaz Pepino mosaic virusa (PepMV) u Hrvatskoj.) Glasilo Biljne Zastite, 11(5):353-356. http://www.hdbz.hr
Novak A; Milanovic J; Kajic V, 2012. First report of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) in Croatia. Acta Horticulturae [V Balkan Symposium on Vegetables and Potatoes, Tirana, Albania.], No.960:321-325. http://www.actahort.org/books/960/960_46.htm
Sneideris D; Zizite M; Zitikaite I; Urbanaviciene L; Staniulis J, 2013. First report of two distinct strains of Pepino mosaic virus infecting tomatoes in greenhouses in Lithuania. Journal of Plant Pathology, 95(1):217. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/2715
Soler, S., Prohens, J., Diez, M. J., Nuez, F., 2002. Natural Occurrence of Pepino mosaic virus in Lycospersicon Species in Central and Southern Peru. Journal of Phytopathology, 150(2), 49-53. doi: 10.1046/j.1439-0434.2002.00712.x
Stijger I; Verhoeven K; van der Vlugt R, 2000. Nieuw licht op pepino mozanekvirus. Groenten en Fruit. 21 April 2000:6-7.
Vlugt, R. A. A. van der, Cuperus, C., Vink, J., Stijger, I. C. M. M., Lesemann, D. E., Verhoeven, J. T. J., Roenhorst, J. W., 2002. Identification and characterization of Pepino mosaic potexvirus in tomato. Bulletin OEPP, 32(3), 503-508. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2338.2002.00598.x
Zhang YaoLiang; Shen ZhongJian; Zhong Jiang; Lu XiaoLi; Cheng Gong; Li RuDuo, 2003. Preliminary characterization of Pepino Mosaic Virus Shanghai isolate (PepMV-Sh) and its detection with ELISA. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai, 19(3):90-92.
Alfaro-Fernández A, Cebrián M C, Córdoba-Sellés C, Herrera-Vásquez J A, Jordá C, 2008. First report of the US1 strain of Pepino mosaic virus in tomato in the Canary Islands, Spain. Plant Disease. 92 (11), 1590-1591. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-11-1590C
Alfaro-Fernández A, Córdoba-Sellés C, Cebrián M C, Sánchez-Navarro J A, Espino A, Martín R, Jordá C, 2007. First report of Tomato torrado virus in tomato in the Canary Islands, Spain. Plant Disease. 91 (8), 1060. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-8-1060B
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Carmichael D J, Rey M E C, Naidoo S, Cook G, Heerden S W van, 2011. First report of Pepino mosaic virus infecting tomato in South Africa. Plant Disease. 95 (6), 767. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-11-0036
Córdoba-Sellés M del C, García-Rández A, Alfaro-Fernández A, Jordá-Gutiérrez C, 2007. Seed transmission of Pepino mosaic virus and efficacy of tomato seed disinfection treatments. Plant Disease. 91 (10), 1250-1254. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-10-1250
Efthimiou K E, Gatsios A P, Aretakis K C, Papayiannis L C, Katis N I, 2011. First report of Pepino mosaic virus infecting greenhouse cherry tomatoes in Greece. Plant Disease. 95 (1), 78. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-10-0643
French C J, Bouthillier M, Bernardy M, Ferguson G, Sabourin M, Johnson R C, Masters C, Godkin S, Mumford R, 2001. First report of Pepino mosaic virus in Canada and the United States. Plant Disease. 85 (10), 1121. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.10.1121B
Hasiów-Jaroszewska B, Pospieszny H, Borodynko N, 2009. New necrotic isolates of Pepino mosaic virus representing the Ch2 genotype. Journal of Phytopathology. 157 (7/8), 494-496. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2008.01496.x
Kůdela V, Krejzar V, Pánková I, 2010. Pseudomonas corrugata and Pseudomonas marginalis associated with the collapse of tomato plants in rockwool slab hydroponic culture. Plant Protection Science. 46 (1), 1-11. http://www.cazv.cz
Ling K S, Bledsoe M E, 2009. First report of Mexican papita viroid infecting greenhouse tomato in Canada. Plant Disease. 93 (8), 839. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-8-0839B
Ling K S, Lin H, Ivey M L L, Zhang W, Miller S A, 2011. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' naturally infecting tomatoes in the State of Mexico, Mexico. Plant Disease. 95 (8), 1026-1027. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-11-0365
Ling K S, Wintermantel W M, Bledsoe M, 2008. Genetic composition of Pepino mosaic virus population in North American greenhouse tomatoes. Plant Disease. 92 (12), 1683-1688. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-12-1683
Maroon-Lango C J, Guaragna M A, Jordan R L, Hammond J, Bandla M, Marquardt S K, 2005. Two unique US isolates of Pepino mosaic virus from a limited source of pooled tomato tissue are distinct from a third (European-like) US isolate. Archives of Virology. 150 (6), 1187-1201. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100423 DOI:10.1007/s00705-005-0495-z
Milanović J, Kajic V, Novak A, 2011. First record of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) in Croatia. (Prvi nalaz Pepino mosaic virusa (PepMV) u Hrvatskoj.). Glasilo Biljne Zaštite. 11 (5), 353-356. http://www.hdbz.hr
NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:
Šneideris D, Žižitė M, Zitikaitė I, Urbanavičienė L, Staniulis J, 2013. First report of two distinct strains of Pepino mosaic virus infecting tomatoes in greenhouses in Lithuania. Journal of Plant Pathology. 95 (1), 217. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/2715
Soler S, Prohens J, Diez M J, Nuez F, 2002. Natural Occurrence of Pepino mosaic virus in Lycospersicon Species in Central and Southern Peru. Journal of Phytopathology. 150 (2), 49-53. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0434.2002.00712.x
Soler S, Prohens J, Díez M J, Nuez F, 2002a. Natural occurrence of Pepino mosaic virus in Lycopersicon species in Central and Southern Peru. Journal of Phytopathology. 150 (2), 49-53. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0434.2002.00712.x
Verbeek M, Dullemans A M, Espino A, Botella M, Alfaro-Fernández A, Font M I, 2015. First report of Southern tomato virus in tomato in the Canary Islands, Spain. Journal of Plant Pathology. 97 (2), 392. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3356/2026
Vlugt R A A van der, Cuperus C, Vink J, Stijger I C M M, Lesemann D E, Verhoeven J T J, Roenhorst J W, 2002. Identification and characterization of Pepino mosaic potexvirus in tomato. Bulletin OEPP. 32 (3), 503-508. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2338.2002.00598.x
Zhang YaoLiang, Shen ZhongJian, Zhong Jiang, Lu XiaoLi, Cheng Gong, Li RuDuo, 2003. Preliminary characterization of Pepino Mosaic Virus Shanghai isolate (PepMV-Sh) and its detection with ELISA. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai. 19 (3), 90-92.
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