Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Popillia japonica
(Japanese beetle)

Klein M, 2008. Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.43599.20203373917

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Datasheet

Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Popillia japonica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Japanese beetle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • In its native country of Japan, Popillia japonica is a minor pest because natural enemies suppress populations and the terrain is generally unsuitable for larval development. P. japonica was first discovered near Riverton, New Je...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle); Adult beetle. July 2016.
TitleAdult
CaptionPopillia japonica (Japanese beetle); Adult beetle. July 2016.
Copyright©Theresa Cira, Minnesota Department of Agriculture
Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle); Adult beetle. July 2016.
AdultPopillia japonica (Japanese beetle); Adult beetle. July 2016.©Theresa Cira, Minnesota Department of Agriculture
Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle); Sexual dimorphism of Japanese beetle, male with tibial spurs (a) and female (b) can be differentiated by external leg features.
TitleSexual dimorphism between adults
CaptionPopillia japonica (Japanese beetle); Sexual dimorphism of Japanese beetle, male with tibial spurs (a) and female (b) can be differentiated by external leg features.
Copyright©Tom Hillyer
Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle); Sexual dimorphism of Japanese beetle, male with tibial spurs (a) and female (b) can be differentiated by external leg features.
Sexual dimorphism between adultsPopillia japonica (Japanese beetle); Sexual dimorphism of Japanese beetle, male with tibial spurs (a) and female (b) can be differentiated by external leg features.©Tom Hillyer
Adult P. japonica ('Japanese beetle') on flowerhead.
TitleAdult beetle
CaptionAdult P. japonica ('Japanese beetle') on flowerhead.
CopyrightAgriculture & Agri-Food Canada/Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Adult P. japonica ('Japanese beetle') on flowerhead.
Adult beetleAdult P. japonica ('Japanese beetle') on flowerhead.Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada/Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle); Grub raster, White grubs can be identified by the raster hair arrangement. August 2012.
TitleLarva
CaptionPopillia japonica (Japanese beetle); Grub raster, White grubs can be identified by the raster hair arrangement. August 2012.
Copyright©Adam Sisson, Iowa State University
Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle); Grub raster, White grubs can be identified by the raster hair arrangement. August 2012.
LarvaPopillia japonica (Japanese beetle); Grub raster, White grubs can be identified by the raster hair arrangement. August 2012.©Adam Sisson, Iowa State University
Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle); Larva, third instar. May 2015.
TitleLarva
CaptionPopillia japonica (Japanese beetle); Larva, third instar. May 2015.
Copyright©Erin Hodgson, Iowa State University
Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle); Larva, third instar. May 2015.
LarvaPopillia japonica (Japanese beetle); Larva, third instar. May 2015.©Erin Hodgson, Iowa State University

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Popillia japonica Newman

Preferred Common Name

  • Japanese beetle

International Common Names

  • English: beetle, Japanese
  • Spanish: escarabajo japonés
  • French: hanneton japonais; scarabé japonais

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: Japanbille
  • Germany: Japankäfer; Kaefer, Japan-
  • Italy: scarabeo giapponese
  • Japan: mame-kogane
  • Norway: Japanbille
  • Sweden: Japanbagge

EPPO code

  • POPIJA (Popillia japonica)

Summary of Invasiveness

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In its native country of Japan, Popillia japonica is a minor pest because natural enemies suppress populations and the terrain is generally unsuitable for larval development. P. japonica was first discovered near Riverton, New Jersey, USA in 1916. It was found at a nursery and was likely transported as larvae on imported rhizomes of the Japanese iris before 1912, when plant materials were first examined. Its westward expansion has been successful due to favourable groundcover (turfgrass) for larval development, adequate rainfall and limited natural enemies, though human-assisted movement likely played a role. The loss of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides and the end of the Federal quarantine on nursery stock, has allowed beetles to move westward at a rapid rate. Additionally, P. japonica was found on Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal in the 1970s and extensive turf allowed establishment of the beetles and infestation of the island. P. japonica has moved considerably outside of the climatic conditions in its native range and is a pest of quarantine concern throughout many parts of the world. Information about quarantines and regulations for P. japonica in the USA can be found here: https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/plant-pest-and-disease-programs/pests-and-diseases/japanese-beetle/japanese-beetle.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Scarabaeidae
  •                             Genus: Popillia
  •                                 Species: Popillia japonica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, is a member of the order Coleoptera, family Scarabaeidae, subfamily Rutelinae and tribe Anomalini.

Description

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Eggs

Newly-laid eggs are about 1.5 mm long and ellipsoidal, ranging from translucent to pearly white. Eggs are laid singly in the soil at depths up to 10 cm (Dalthorp et al., 2000). Eggs absorb water from the soil, becoming spherical and nearly doubling in size within a week. The external surface of the protection chorion is marked with small hexagonal areas. The developing embryo can be seen within the eggs that are close to hatching (Fleming, 1972).

Larvae

Popillia japonica larvae are typical scarabaeid grubs, assuming a C-shaped position in the soil (Fleming, 1972). The head is yellowish brown, with strong, dark-coloured mandibles. The body is creamy white and consists of three thoracic segments, each with a pair of jointed legs and a 10-segmented abdomen. The cuticle is transversely wrinkled and covered with scattered brown hairs, which are interspersed with short, blunt, brown spines and concentrated on the dorsal side and at the tip of the abdomen (Potter et al., 2006). The raster, located on the ventral side of the last abdominal segment, has many scattered, brown, hooked spines; medially, two conspicuous rows of 6-7 shorter straight spines are arranged in the form of a truncated V. This V-shaped arrangement on the raster distinguishes P. japonica from other larval scarabaeids in the USA. The last abdominal segment also bears many yellowish hairs at the sides and the end.

Larvae develop through three instars. Newly-hatched grubs are up to 3 mm long and white. Within a few hours, the head and spiracles sclerotize and become light yellow to brown. The abdominal area becomes dark once the larva has fed and the rectal sacs, or fermentation chambers, fill with soil. Third instars attain an approximate length of 30 mm. As the head does not grow between moults, head capsule size is the most reliable way to distinguish instars. Head capsules of first, second and third instars average 1.2 mm wide and 0.7 mm long, 1.9 mm wide and 1.2 mm long and 3.1 mm wide and 2.1 mm long, respectively (Fleming, 1972; EPPO, 2006).

Prepupae

When mature, the grub stops feeding, voids the gut so that the rectal sacs lose their dark appearance and become cream coloured and a pale, somewhat shrunken prepupa. The body straightens out, except for a slight crook at the caudal end. Eventually, the developing appendages are everted from their sacs and lie outside the newly developed pupal cuticula, beneath the old larval cuticula. The transformation to prepupa and pupa, both of which are very delicate, occurs in an earthen cell formed by the mature larva (Fleming, 1972).

Pupae

The newly-formed pupa develops within the old larval and prepupal exuviae, which changes in appearance to a fine, light tan, mesh-like tissue. This shroud-like covering splits along the middorsal line as the pupa develops. The pupa, which averages 14 mm long and 7 mm wide, resembles the adult beetle, except the wings and other appendages are closely folded to the body. It is a pale cream colour at first, gradually becoming tan and finally taking on the metallic green of the adult (Fleming, 1972).

Adults

The adult is an attractive, broadly oval beetle, 8-11 mm long and about 5-7 mm wide (Hammond, 1994; Edwards, 1999). Females are usually slightly bigger than males. The head and body are dark, metallic green, with darker copper-green legs. The coppery-brown elytra, which do not quite reach the tip of the abdomen, expose a row of five lateral patches of white hairs on each side of the abdomen and a pair of these patches on the dorsal surface of the last abdominal segment. These white patches on the green abdomen distinguish P. japonica from all other beetles that resemble it in the USA. However, there are several similar Popillia species in the far east that require an expert to distinguish them from P. japonica (see Ping, 1988). Sexes can be distinguished by characters on the tibia and tarsi closest to the head. Males have hook-like tibial spurs and shorter tarsi that attach at the end of the tibia. Females have spatulate tibial spurs and the tarsi attach a few mm from the end of the tibia (Fleming, 1972).

Distribution

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Popillia japonica originates from northeastern Asia where it is native in northern Japan and in the far east of Russia (Fleming, 1972). Fleming’s (1972) report of P. japonica in China and Korea was likely incorrect and probably referred to closely-related species (Ping, 1988; Reed et al., 1991).

In Japan, the beetle is most abundant in northern Honshu and all of Hokkaido where grasslands occur, but it does not reach the high population densities that occur in the USA. It is common, but not abundant in Kyushu, Shikoku and southern Honshu. It was not considered to be a pest in Japan until the increase in golf courses and is still not the major scarab pest species. The distribution in Japan may be influenced by other species of Popillia, or other scarabs, competing for limited resources.

The distribution of P. japonica in the USA is far south of the beetle distribution in its native Japan. In the USA, P. japonica is established in all states east of the Mississippi River, with the exception of Florida and the states bordering the Mississippi River immediately to the west, with the exception of Louisiana. Mississippi is considered to have a partial infestation (Shanovich et al., 2019). Several western states have partial infestations of the beetle. Pest survey data are submitted to NAPIS by participating USA states in the Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey (CAPS) with USDA, APHIS and PPQ and the resulting distribution of P. japonica in the USA is mapped from 2011 to the present (2020) and can be found here at CERIS (2020). Note that this is survey data and the accuracy of this data relies on state participation. It is interesting to note that unlike the weevils, no scarab has established on the opposite side of the equator from its native land (Jackson and Klein, 2006).

In Russia, the last report of P. japonica restricted it to the South Kuril region of Sakhalin, on the island of Kunashir (Chebanov, 1977). An accidental introduction from a US air base led to the establishment of P. japonica on Terceira Island, part of the Azores Islands of Portugal (Simoes, 1984). Since then, the islands of Faial, Flores, Graciosa, Pico, Sao Jorge and Sao Miguel have become infested (EPPO, 2019b). P. japonica was detected in Italy in 2014, which was its first report in mainland Europe (EPPO, 2014), and Switzerland in 2017 (EPPO, 2017). Damage to plants (vineyards in Switzerland; vineyards, field crops, fruit trees, small fruits and ornamentals in Italy) was observed in 2020 for the first time since introduction to these countries; however, official measures are being taken to eradicate the pest from mainland Europe.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

ChinaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
-HeilongjiangAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
-HunanAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
-JilinAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
Hong KongAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
IndiaAbsent, Formerly present
-KeralaPresent
JapanPresent, Widespread
-HokkaidoPresentWhole island
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresentLight infestation
-ShikokuPresent
North KoreaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
South KoreaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
TaiwanAbsent, Formerly present

Europe

BelgiumAbsent
GermanyAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
ItalyPresent, Localized
LithuaniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
NetherlandsAbsent, Intercepted only
PortugalPresent, Localized
-AzoresPresent, LocalizedOn four of nine islands
RussiaPresent, Localized
-Russian Far EastPresent, Localized
SloveniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
SwitzerlandPresent, Localized

North America

CanadaPresent, Localized
-British ColumbiaPresent, Few occurrences
-New BrunswickPresent, Localized
-Nova ScotiaPresent, Localized
-OntarioPresentSoutheastern
-Prince Edward IslandPresent, Localized
-QuebecPresentSouthern
United StatesPresent, Localized1916
-AlabamaPresent, Few occurrences
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaAbsent, Eradicated
-ColoradoPresent, Few occurrences
-ConnecticutPresent, Localized
-DelawarePresent, Localized
-District of ColumbiaPresent, Localized
-GeorgiaPresent, Localized
-IdahoAbsent, Formerly present
-IllinoisPresent, Localized
-IndianaPresent, Localized
-IowaPresent, Localized
-KansasPresent, Few occurrences
-KentuckyPresent, Localized
-LouisianaPresent
-MainePresent, Localized
-MarylandPresent, Localized
-MassachusettsPresent, Localized
-MichiganPresent, Localized
-MinnesotaPresent, Localized
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent, Localized
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent, Few occurrences
-NevadaAbsent, Eradicated
-New HampshirePresent, Localized
-New JerseyPresent, Localized
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent, Localized
-North CarolinaPresent, Localized
-OhioPresent, Localized
-OklahomaPresent, Few occurrences
-OregonAbsent, Eradicated
-PennsylvaniaPresent, Localized
-Rhode IslandPresent, Localized
-South CarolinaPresent, Localized
-South DakotaPresent, Few occurrences
-TennesseePresent, Localized
-TexasPresent
-UtahPresent
-VermontPresent, Localized
-VirginiaPresent, Localized
-WashingtonPresent
-West VirginiaPresent, Localized
-WisconsinPresent, Localized
-WyomingPresent, Localized2020

Risk of Introduction

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Popillia japonica is an A2 quarantine organism for EPPO (EPPO, 2019a), which means the pest is present in the region but not widely distributed. Other regional plant protection organizations (RPPOs) that list P. japonica as an A2 quarantine pest include APPPC and COSAVE. P. japonica is on the A1 list for the CAHFSA, CAN and OIRSA RPPOs as well as several African, Asian, South American and European countries, meaning the pest is not yet present in these areas but is of quarantine concern. In North America, P. japonica is considered a quarantine pest that is being officially controlled. Within the USA, P. japonica is the object of a USDA/APHIS quarantine that restricts interstate movement by aircraft from regulated airports to nine western states (USDA/APHIS, 2016). The interstate shipment of plant material is covered by the US Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan (National Plant Board, 2016). Very few of the P. japonica infestations in states west of the Mississippi River have been associated with movement of beetles by aircraft. Many isolated reports in western states were associated with parks, golf courses, or lawns.

Temperature and soil moisture are the main factors limiting potential spread of the beetle into new areas. According to Fleming (1972), P. japonica is adapted to regions were the mean soil temperature at 0.5 to 1 m depth, where the larvae overwinter, is between 17.5 and 27.5°C during the summer and above -9.4°C in the winter. In addition, precipitation must be adequate and rather uniformly distributed throughout the year, averaging at least 25 cm during the summer. However, these parameters were established before irrigation was prevalent in much of the Midwest and Western USA.

Allsopp (1996) used a computer-generated modified Match Index to analyse climatic suitability and predict the potential worldwide distribution of P. japonica. P. japonica has met or exceeded the North American distribution predicted by Allsopp (1996). It was also predicted that most of Europe, east-central China, the Korean Peninsula and parts of the Caucasus region, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and South America were suitable. P. japonica is mostly absent from those areas. The results of a bioclimatic niche model developed by Kistner-Thomas (2019) were mostly consistent with Allsopp (1996) and others: extreme low winter temperatures limit the northern distribution of P. japonica and persistent warm, wet conditions are limiting in the southern tropics. Eastern Asia, central Europe, portions of southern and eastern South America, sub-Saharan Africa, the North Island of New Zealand and the eastern coast of Australia are all suitable for the beetle under the current climate. In North America, the current distribution aligns with the predicted suitability under the current climate; however, there is potential for further invasion along the west coast and in the north central states.

The bioclimatic niche model also predicted the distribution in 2050 based on two global climate models (GCMs) and although there is much variability in the predicted suitable area for the two GCMs, some trends are revealed. Globally, the total suitable area for P. japonica does not change from the current climate predictions. However, suitable ranges tend to shift northward for areas in the Northern Hemisphere and contract for most areas in the Southern Hemisphere. Increased heat stress (extended exposure above 34°C) constricts the beetle’s range in portions of eastern Asia and North America below the 40th Parallel North. Portions of British Columbia, Saskatoon and Manitoba are predicted to meet growing degree-day requirements under the future GCM models and more northern areas of Ontario and Quebec could be invaded with less cold stress. Northern European countries, such as Norway, Sweden, Finland, Ireland and the UK, become suitable by 2050 with these models. The suitable range for P. japonica in South America and Africa is expected to contract due to rising temperatures leading to increased heat stress. Australia may experience a minor reduction in potential range, while New Zealand’s suitable range expands.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

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In the USA, adult P. japonica have been observed feeding on at least 300 species of plants in 79 plant families (Fleming, 1972). These include small fruits, tree fruits, vegetable and garden crops, field crops, woody and herbaceous ornamentals, shade trees, various weeds and many non-economic species. Economic damage has been recorded on more than 100 species. The beetles are particularly attracted to certain species of Aceraceae [Sapindaceae], Anacardiaceae, Betulaceae, Clethraceae, Ericaceae, Fagaceae, Gramineae [Poaceae], Hippocastanaceae [Sapindaceae], Juglandaceae, Lauraceae, Leguminosae [Fabaceae], Liliaceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Onagraceae, Platanaceae, Polygonaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, Tiliaceae [Malvaceae], Ulmaceae and Vitaceae. The grubs feed on roots of a wide range of vegetable crops, ornamental plants and tender grasses. In Japan, the host range appears to be smaller than in North America.

Within the EPPO region, the host range of P. japonica would be similar. Malus, Prunus, Rubus and Vitis, with their wide distribution and intensive cultivation, would be especially favourable food sources for the adults. Lush pasture and turfgrasses provide a favourable habitat for the grubs.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Acer (maples)AceraceaeMain
Acer campestre (field maple)AceraceaeUnknown
Acer palmatum (Japanese maple)AceraceaeUnknown
Acer platanoides (Norway maple)AceraceaeUnknown
Aesculus (buckeye)HippocastanaceaeOther
Alnus japonica (Japanese alder)BetulaceaeUnknown
Althaea (hollyhocks)MalvaceaeOther
Asparagus officinalis (asparagus)LiliaceaeMain
Berchemia racemosaUnknown
Betula (birches)BetulaceaeOther
Betula nigra (river birch)BetulaceaeUnknown
Betula utilis (Himalayan silver birch)BetulaceaeUnknown
Castanea (chestnuts)FagaceaeOther
Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut)FagaceaeUnknown
Cayratia japonica (Sorrel vine)VitaceaeUnknown
Cercis canadensis (eastern redbud)FabaceaeUnknown
Cotinus coggygria (fustet)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)PoaceaeUnknown
Dioscorea japonica (Japanese yam)DioscoreaceaeUnknown
Fagus sylvatica (common beech)FagaceaeUnknown
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed)PolygonaceaeUnknown
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)PolygonaceaeUnknown
Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue)PoaceaeUnknown
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
Glycine sojaFabaceaeUnknown
Hibiscus (rosemallows)MalvaceaeOther
Hibiscus syriacus (shrubby althaea)MalvaceaeUnknown
Hypericum (st Johnsworts)ClusiaceaeUnknown
Juglans nigra (black walnut)JuglandaceaeOther
LagerstroemiaLythraceaeUnknown
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)LythraceaeWild host
Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass)PoaceaeUnknown
Malus (ornamental species apple)RosaceaeMain
Malus floribundaRosaceaeUnknown
Malus toringo (toringo crab-apple)RosaceaeUnknown
Malus zumiRosaceaeUnknown
Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)MeliaceaeUnknown
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)OnagraceaeUnknown
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)VitaceaeWild host
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeUnknown
Platanus (planes)PlatanaceaeOther
Platanus orientalis (plane)PlatanaceaeUnknown
Poa pratensis (smooth meadow-grass)PoaceaeUnknown
Polygonum (knotweed)PolygonaceaeWild host
Polygonum lapathifolium (pale persicaria)PolygonaceaeUnknown
Polygonum thunbergiiUnknown
Populus (poplars)SalicaceaeOther
Populus maximowiczii (Japanese poplar)SalicaceaeUnknown
Populus nigra (black poplar)SalicaceaeUnknown
Prunus (stone fruit)RosaceaeMain
Prunus cerasifera (myrobalan plum)RosaceaeUnknown
Prunus cistenaRosaceaeUnknown
Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeOther
Prunus japonica (Japanese bush cherry tree)RosaceaeUnknown
Prunus sargentii (sargent's cherry)RosaceaeUnknown
Prunus serrulata (Japanese flowering cherry)RosaceaeUnknown
Prunus subhirtella (weeping Japanese cherry)RosaceaeUnknown
Prunus virginiana (common chokecherrytree)RosaceaeUnknown
Prunus yedoensisRosaceaeUnknown
Pteridium aquilinum (bracken)DennstaedtiaceaeUnknown
Quercus serrata (glandbearing oak)FagaceaeUnknown
Quercus variabilis (oriental cork oak)FagaceaeUnknown
Rheum hybridum (rhubarb)PolygonaceaeMain
Rosa (roses)RosaceaeMain
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)RosaceaeUnknown
Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)RosaceaeMain
Rubus crataegifoliusRosaceaeUnknown
Rumex (Dock)PolygonaceaeUnknown
Salix (willows)SalicaceaeOther
Salix purpurea (purple willow)SalicaceaeUnknown
Sassafras albidum (common sassafras)LauraceaeOther
Smilax china (Chinaroot)SmilacaceaeUnknown
Solanum carolinense (horsenettle)SolanaceaeUnknown
Sorbus americana (American mountainash)RosaceaeOther
Tilia (limes)TiliaceaeMain
Tilia americana (basswood)TiliaceaeUnknown
Tilia cordata (small-leaf lime)TiliaceaeUnknown
Tilia euchlora (crimean lime)TiliaceaeUnknown
Tilia japonicaTiliaceaeUnknown
Tilia miquelianaTiliaceaeUnknown
Tilia tomentosa (silver lime)TiliaceaeUnknown
Trifolium pratense (red clover)FabaceaeUnknown
turfgrassesOther
Ulmus (elms)UlmaceaeMain
Ulmus parvifolia (lacebark elm)UlmaceaeUnknown
Vaccinium corymbosum (blueberry)EricaceaeUnknown
Vitis (grape)VitaceaeMain
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape (USA))VitaceaeUnknown
Vitis thunbergiiUnknown
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeUnknown
Wisteria floribunda (Japanese wisteria)FabaceaeUnknown
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain
Zelkova serrata (Japanese selkova)UlmaceaeUnknown

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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Most often, feeding by adult P. japonica is easily recognized by skeletonized foliage. The beetles generally feed from the upper surface of leaves, chewing out the tissue between the veins and leaving a lace-like skeleton. Severely damaged leaves soon turn brown and drop. The adults are gregarious, usually beginning to feed on foliage at the top of a plant and working downward. On plants with thin leaves and fine venation and on petals of flowers, the beetles consume irregularly-shaped sections in the same manner as many Lepidoptera. Plants with thick, tough leaves are usually not attacked, but when such leaves are eaten (Concord grapes (Vitis labrusca)), the feeding is often restricted to the palisade mesophyll and does not penetrate to the lower leaf surface.

On maize (Zea mays), which is severely damaged by P. japonica in North America, the beetles feed on the maturing silk, cutting it off and preventing pollination; this results in malformed kernels and reduced yield. Typically, extensive silk feeding is restricted to a few rows around the perimeter of maize fields. However, beetles can feed over an entire soyabean (Glycine max) field and skeletonize leaves. On asparagus (Asparagus officinalis), P. japonica may defoliate young leaflets or damage the epidermis of branches and stalks, which reduces yield the following spring. They also defoliate nearly all varieties of grapes (Vitis vinifera) and many fruit-bearing trees, especially apple (Malus), cherry (Prunus), plum (Prunus domestica) and peach (Prunus persica). Beetles can aggregate and feed in large numbers on the fruit of early-ripening varieties of apple, peach, nectarine (P. persica), plum, raspberries (Rubus idaeus) and quince (Cydonia oblonga). This feeding renders fruit unmarketable, unless they have been protected by pesticides.

Grubs of P. japonica can feed on the roots and underground stems of a variety of vegetable and garden crops, ornamentals and grasses but do not thrive on legume crops, buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata). Feeding is not likely to be noticed unless plants are severely damaged or plant growth is otherwise affected, such as areas with low fertility or inadequate moisture. The larvae are most abundant in well-kept lawns and golf courses and less often in pastures. As the grub feeds just below the surface, it cuts off and consumes the grass roots. Early symptoms include thinning, yellowing and wilting, culminating in large patches of dead, brown grass that appears in late summer or early autumn because of water stress. Less often, dead patches will be noticeable in the following spring, because more moisture is normally available. When grubs are numerous (400/m2+), the root system is completely severed and the sod can be lifted or rolled back like a carpet. Secondary damage from skunks, raccoons [Procyon lotor], crows [Corvus], or other predators often causes more disruption to the sward than the grubs themselves. Feeding by grubs on roots of maize, beans, tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), strawberries (Fragaria ananassa), nursery seedlings, or other crops reduces their vitality and yield and sometimes kills the plants. Damage is often most severe when these crops are planted into areas which were previously turf.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Roots / external feeding
Roots / reduced root system
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

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Recent general reviews of P. japonica should be consulted for additional information on this pest (Potter, 1998; Vittum et al., 1999; Potter and Held, 2002; Jackson and Klein, 2006; Shanovich et al., 2019). Fleming (1972) provided a detailed account of the biology of P. japonica. Larvae (mainly third instar) overwinter about 5-15 cm deep in the soil, although a few may be up to 25 cm deep. In early spring, when the soil temperatures increase to about 10°C, the grubs move closer to the surface and resume feeding on plant roots at 2.5 to 5.0 cm depth. Pupation occurs in an earthen cell within the soil, usually after 4-6 weeks of feeding and the adults emerge from mid-May to mid-July, depending on latitude.

Mating begins shortly after emergence and egg laying soon follows. Virgin females produce a volatile sex pheromone (Ladd, 1970), which has been identified and called Japonilure (Tumlinson et al., 1977). Early in the seasonal flight period, aggregations containing several dozen males form on the ground around a single, emerging female. Females re-mate on food plants between bouts of oviposition, with the last male’s sperm being used. The beetles normally feed in groups, usually starting near the top of a plant and working downward (Fleming, 1972; Rowe and Potter, 1996). The adults are attracted to feeding-induced plant volatiles, resulting in aggregation on damaged plants (Fleming, 1972; Loughrin et al., 1996). Females may leave host plants during the day and fly to suitable sites for oviposition, unless the soil adjacent to the host plant is suitable. Areas with moist, loamy soil covered with turf or pasture grasses are preferred (Fleming, 1972; Allsopp et al., 1992). Low organic matter content, reduced tillage systems and sunlit areas are also preferred (Smith et al., 1988; Dalthorp et al., 1999; Dalthorp et al., 2000). Eggs are laid singly or in small clusters (2-4 eggs) in the upper 7.5 cm of soil. The cycle of feeding, mating and oviposition is repeated every few days. The average lifespan of a female is 30-45 days, during which she may lay 40-60 eggs.

Eggs hatch in about 2 weeks and the young larvae begin feeding on fine roots and organic matter. They moult and become second-instars after 2-3 weeks and third instars after 3-4 weeks more. Feeding continues until late autumn, when the grubs move deeper into the soil in response to declining soil temperatures to prepare for overwintering. Normally, there is one generation per year, but at the northern edge of its range a portion of the population may need 2 years to complete the life cycle (Fleming, 1972; Vittum, 1986; Vittum et al., 1999). Kistner-Thomas (2019) projected that many areas with a biannual life cycle will transition to an annual life cycle by 2050.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus popilliae lentimorbus Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae USA, Japan turf
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Larvae USA ornamentals, turf
Campsomeriella annulata Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Campsomeris marginella modesta Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Carabidae Predator Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae USA turf
Craspedonotus tibialis Predator Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Dexia ventralis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Entoderma colletosporium Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Erythrocera genalis Parasite Adults Fleming (1968)
Eutrixopsis javana Parasite Adults Fleming (1968)
Formicidae Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae USA turf
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Azores, USA turf
Heterorhabditis marelatus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae USA turf
Heterorhabditis megidis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae USA turf
Hexamermis popilliae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Mazza et al. (2017) Italy
Istocheta aldrichi Parasite Adults USA ornamental plants, turf
Istocheta ussuriensis Parasite Adults Fleming (1968)
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Larvae Azores, USA ornamentals, turf
Nomuraea rileyi Pathogen
Ovavesicula popilliae Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae Connecticut, Michigan, USA turf
Paenibacillus popilliae Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae USA turf
Palpostoma incongruum Parasite Adults Fleming (1968)
Peltodasia flaviseta USA ornamental plants
Pexopsis clauseni Parasite
Pexopsis clauseni Parasite Adults Fleming (1968)
Prosena siberita Parasite Arthropods|Larvae New Jersey, USA turf
Rickettsiella popilliae Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Scolia japonica Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Serratia Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae USA turf
Steinernema feltiae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Steinernema glaseri Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Azores, New Jersey, USA turf
Steinernema kushidai Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Japan turf
Steinernema riobravis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Steinernema scapterisci Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Steinernema scarabaei Parasite Arthropods|Larvae New Jersey, USA turf
Tiphia asericae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Tiphia biseculata Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Tiphia brevilineata Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Tiphia burrelli Parasite USA ornamental plants
Tiphia communis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Tiphia koreana Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Tiphia matura Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Tiphia notopolita Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Tiphia phyllophagae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Tiphia popilliavora Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Virginia, USA turf
Tiphia pullivora Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Tiphia tegitiplaga Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fleming (1968)
Tiphia vernalis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae eastern USA turf

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Several indigenous, generalist predators, especially ants [Formicidae], rove beetles and ground beetles [Carabidae], help to suppress populations of P. japonica by feeding on eggs and grubs (Terry et al., 1993; Zenger and Gibb, 2001). Both adults and larvae are fed upon by various birds including starlings [Sturnidae], crows [Corvus], grackles and gulls [Laridae]. Moles [Talpidae], skunks, raccoons [Procyon lotor] and armadillos [Dasypodidae] feed on the grubs, but cause considerable damage to turf and pastures. No native parasitic insect attacks P. japonica in North America. However, at least three species of imported parasitic insects have become established in eastern and Midwest states (see 'Prevention and Control'). Grubs are susceptible to several naturally-occurring fungal pathogens including Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, entomopathogenic nematodes including Steinernema and Heterorhabditis species, bacterial pathogens such as Paenibacillus popilliae, the microsporidian, Ovavesicula popilliae and the rickettsia Rickettsiella popilliae. Unfortunately, humans are also susceptible to the rickettsia.

For further information, see reviews by Fleming (1968), Potter and Held (2002) and Jackson and Klein (2006) and the text section on 'Prevention and Control'. Natural enemy records from older literature are presented in the 'Natural Enemy' table and referenced as Fleming (1968).

Impact

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Popillia japonica is the single most destructive insect pest on golf courses, lawns, pastures and herbaceous and woody landscape plants in the eastern USA (Tashiro, 1987; Potter, 1998; Vittum et al., 1999). It is estimated that more than $460 million is spent each year to control the grubs and adults in turfgrass alone. Damages from the larval stage are estimated to cost $234 million: one-third of this estimate is for control costs while two-thirds is for the renovation and replacement of damaged turf (USDA/APHIS, 2015). Damage to tree fruits, small fruits, maize (Zea mays) and soyabeans (Glycine max) is also significant. In addition, many millions of US dollars and considerable quantities of pesticides are also lost trying to limit the beetle’s spread by nursery stock and aeroplanes in North America. P. japonica has never been a major pest in Japan, but it has the potential to considerably damage host plants in its invaded range.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Soil accretion
  • Transportation disruption
Impact mechanisms
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult/costly to control

Diagnosis

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A diagnostic protocol for P. japonica is given in EPPO (2006).

Detection and Inspection

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Adult P. japonica are easily detected by inspecting the most vulnerable plants for aggregations of beetles on foliage, flowers, or fruits (not blueberries (Vaccinium)), or for skeletonized leaves during the beetles’ flight period in early- to mid-summer. Adults are most active on warm days between 10:00 and 15:00. Traps containing the three part food-type lure (phenethyl propionate + eugenol + geraniol) and the sex attractant (Japonilure) (Ladd et al., 1981) are widely used for monitoring and survey purposes and to delineate infestations. Grubs can be detected in sod and field crops by using a spade or golf cup cutter in late summer, autumn, or in early spring and examining the soil and roots to a depth of about 8 cm. For grubs in nursery trees, removal and examination of soil down to 30 cm may be required to get an accurate sample.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Introduction

The destructive potential and economic importance of this pest have led to intensive studies of various means for control. Note that the adults and grubs cause very different types of damage, above ground and below ground. Because the adults can fly considerable distances, controlling one life stage will not necessarily preclude problems with the other.

Control

Host-plant resistance

Fleming (1972) provided a ranking of the extent of feeding by adult P. japonica on 435 plant species in 95 families. Within some generally susceptible genera such as Betula, Malus and Tilia, less susceptible cultivars have been found (Ranney and Walgenbach, 1992; Spicer et al., 1995; Potter et al., 1998). Use of resistant or less susceptible species and cultivars is key to managing adults and replacing damaged plant material can help reduce infestations. Highly susceptible trees such as Sassafras, Prunus cerasifera, Acer platanoides and Tilia spp., or certain wild plants, such as species of Malva, Parthenocissus, Polygonum and Vitis, will attract numerous beetles.

Although tolerance varies, all species of cool-season turfgrasses are susceptible to the grubs (Potter et al., 1992). Infection of tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea, or perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne, with fungal endophytes (Neotyphodium spp.) does not provide resistance to this pest. Host-plant resistance has been discovered in soyabean (Glycine max) germplasm, though it is unclear whether host-plant resistance is effective for defoliating pests (Hammond et al., 2001).

Physical removal and exclusion

Hand removal may provide some control for small plantings. Beetles on plants are sluggish when the temperature is <21°C and can be killed by dislodging them into a bucket of soapy water (Ladd and Klein, 1982). This is most effective when done before plants have been damaged and the most effective timing is probably in the evening (around 19:00; Switzer and Cumming, 2014). High-value plants such as roses (Rosa) can be protected with fine netting or Reemay fabric around each blossom during the period of beetle activity.

Trapping

Although mass trapping has held isolated populations in check and reduced the regulatory situation at some airports, it has not been effective in reducing established P. japonica infestations. However, traps are an important tool in the identification and delimitation of new P. japonica infestations. California (Potter and Held, 2002) and Oregon monitor thousands of traps each year and both states have eradicated isolated infestations. Other western states utilize traps to a lesser extent. Trapping efforts in Wyoming led to the first confirmation of P. japonica in the state in 2020 (CERIS, 2020). Small-scale trapping may aggravate defoliation damage in landscapes because the traps may attract more beetles than actually enter the traps (Gordon and Potter, 1985). Although beetles can fly up to 5 miles, they rarely do and are not attracted to traps more than 50-100 m away (Lacey et al., 1994).

Cultural Control

Female beetles seek out sites that are most optimal for egg laying and survival (Allsopp et al., 1992). Withholding irrigation during peak beetle flight can help to reduce subsequent grub populations in time of drought and in naturally dry areas (Potter et al., 1996). In contrast, rainfall or irrigation in summer and early autumn, during early instar feeding, promotes tolerance and recovery of grub-damaged turfgrass. Vigorous, well-watered turf can withstand two to three times the normal threshold of grubs (ca. 100/m2) that would destroy a weak, wilted, or starved sward. Raising cutting height and maintaining a balanced fertility regime to promote growth of roots also enhances tolerance of root-feeding by grubs (Crutchfield et al., 1995). UV-blocking plastics may be valuable for reducing damage to horticultural crops by adult P. japonica in high-tunnel and greenhouse systems (Cramer et al., 2019).

Biological Control

During 1920-1933, the USDA imported about 49 species of parasites of P. japonica and related scarabs from the orient and Australia and released them into infested areas in the USA (Fleming, 1968). Only a few of these became established, the most widely distributed are Tiphia vernalis, or the spring Tiphia, a wasp that parasitizes overwintered grubs in the spring and Istocheta aldrichi, a tachinid fly that parasitizes adults. The spring Tiphia seems to be well-established throughout the beetle-inhabiting areas. I. aldrichi had been restricted to the New England states, but has recently been established in North Carolina, Michigan, Minnesota and Missouri, USA (Jackson and Klein, 2006) and in Quebec, Canada (O’Hara, 2014; Gagnon and Giroux, 2019). A third established parasitoid, Tiphia popilliavora, the fall Tiphia, has not been recovered since 1969, although isolated populations may still be present. Unfortunately, these parasitoids do not usually provide adequate beetle control.

Spores of Paenibacillus (=Bacillus) popilliae, the primary causal agent of milky disease in P. japonica, were widely distributed in colonization programmes around the middle of the last century in eastern USA (Fleming, 1968). Although milky disease is one of the primary natural biological agents reducing populations of P. japonica, the value of augmenting this natural incidence with commercial spore powder has come under question (Redmond and Potter, 1995; Potter and Held, 2002; Jackson and Klein, 2006). Another bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis - serovar japonensis, strain Buibui, has shown strong larvicidal activity against P. japonica and other grubs (Ohba et al., 1992; Alm et al., 1997), but lacks a commercial product in the USA. A microsporidian pathogen, Ovavesicula popilliae, which has a high specificity to P. japonica, has shown strong activity against larvae in field studies at epizootic sites (Piombino et al., 2020).

Entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are the most commonly used pathogens against P. japonica. A new species, Hexamermis popilliae n. sp., was described parasitizing larvae of P. japonica in Italy (Mazza et al., 2017). Nematodes such as Steinernema glaseri and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora are better-adapted to locate and parasitize the grubs in the soil (Gaugler et al., 1997; Marianelli et al., 2017). Wright et al. (1988) showed that nematodes could be used to control P. japonica grubs in container-grown nursery plants. Effective use of nematodes for biological control of insect pests requires sufficient application rates and appropriate environmental conditions: applications should not be made in direct sunlight and soil needs to be kept moist for weeks after application (Georgis and Gaugler, 1991). Autodissemination of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae has been used to suppress populations of P. japonica in the Azores and the USA (Klein and Lacey, 1999; Vega et al., 2007).

Chemical Control

Adult beetles have been controlled by treating susceptible plants with carbamates, organophosphates, or more recently, pyrethroid insecticides (Potter, 1998; Potter and Held, 2002). After the banning of long-residual insecticides, grubs were treated with short-residual organophosphates and carbamates. More recently, neonicotinyl (imidacloprid) and moult accelerators (halofenozide) have been used for preventive larval control in turf (Potter and Held, 2002) and may have an effect for more than 1 year (George et al., 2007). Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, similar to those used for mosquitos, paralyze adult P. japonica with exposures as short as 5 s, though their utility in an IPM programme is yet to be determined (Marianelli et al., 2019).

Phytosanitary Measures

Control of larvae in nursery stock is a far greater problem with quarantine concerns. Approved procedures include dip treatments, drenches, media incorporation, fumigation and pre-harvest soil surface treatments (National Plant Board, 2016; approved chemicals detailed therein). Adult control in nursery stock includes foliage and shipping container (including truck/trailer) insecticide treatments. Adult beetles are usually eliminated from fresh produce by commercial grading. However, grading has failed to remove P. japonica from blueberries (Vaccinium), where adult beetles eat inside the berry and cannot be seen. Movement of beetles by aircraft from infested to protected states is regulated by USDA/APHIS (2016). Compliance agreements require aircraft at regulated airports to be sprayed with an insecticide. In addition, express package services have expended millions of dollars to use physical excluders and teams of beetle spotters to reduce the chance of beetles getting on a plane. Aircraft are examined upon arrival in protected USA states and re-treated if live beetles are found.

References

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Allsopp PG, Klein MG, McCoy, EL, 1992. Effects of soil moisture and soil texture on oviposition by Japanese beetle and rose chafer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 85:2194-2200

Alm SR, Villani MG, Yeh T, Shutter R, 1997. Bacillus thuringiensis serovar japonensis strain Buibui for control of Japanese and oriental beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 32(3):477-484; 16 ref

Braman, S. K., Pendley, A. F., 1993. Growth, survival, and damage relationships of white grubs in bermudagrass vs. tall fescue. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal, 7, 370-374. https://ent.uga.edu/content/dam/caes-subsite/entomology/documents/publications/braman-publications/Growth%2CSurvival%2CandDamageRelationshipsofWhiteGrubsInBermudagrassVs.TallFescue.pdf

Braman, S. K., Quick, J., Mead, M., Nair, S., 2012. Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) response to field-grown crape myrtles. Journal of Entomological Science, 47(2), 188-192.

CERIS, 2020. Survey status of Japanese beetle – Popillia japonica (2020). Purdue University. https://pest.ceris.purdue.edu/map.php?code=INBPAZA&year=2020

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Crutchfield BA, Potter DA, Powell AJ, 1995. Irrigation and nitrogen fertilization effects on white grub injury to Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue turf. Crop Science, 35(4):1122-1126

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Gaugler R, Lewis E, Stuart RJ, 1997. Ecology in the service of biological control: the case of entomopathogenic nematodes. Oecologia, 109(4):483-489; 55 ref

George, J., Redmond, C. T., Royalty, R. N., Potter, D. A., 2007. Residual effects of imidacloprid on Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) oviposition, egg hatch, and larval viability in turfgrass. Journal of Economic Entomology, 100(2), 431-439. doi: 10.1603/0022-0493(2007)100[431:REOIOJ]2.0.CO;2

Georgis R, Gaugler R, 1991. Predictability in biological control using entomopathogenic nematodes. Journal of Economic Entomology, 84(3):713-720

Gordon FC, Potter DA, 1985. Efficiency of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabpidae) traps in reducing defoliation of plants in the urban landscape and effect on larval density in turf. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(4):774-778

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Hammond, R. B., Bierman, P., Levine, E., Cooper, R. L., 2001. Field resistance of two soybean germplasm lines, HC95-15MB and HC95-24MB, against bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 94(6), 1594-1601. doi: 10.1603/0022-0493-94.6.1594

Hulbert, D., Reeb, P., Isaacs, R., Vandervoort, C., Erhardt, S., Wise, J. C., 2012. Rainfastness of insecticides used to control Japanese beetle in blueberries. Journal of Economic Entomology, 105(5), 1688-1693. doi: 10.1603/EC11412

Imura, O., 2003. Herbivorous arthropod community of an alien weed Solanum carolinense L. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 38(3), 293-300. doi: 10.1303/aez.2003.293

Jackson TA, Klein MG, 2006. Scarabs as pests: a continuing problem. Coleopterists Society Monograph, (No. 5), 102-119. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Scarabs-as-Pests%3A-A-Continuing-Problem-Jackson-Klein/cf0826ba85ee28a8e243b18d56ef240256510e92

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Klein, M. G., Lacey, L. A., 1999. An attractant trap for autodissemination of entomopathogenic fungi into populations of the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology, 9(2), 151-158. doi: 10.1080/09583159929730

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Mabry, T. R., Hobbs, H. A., Steinlage, T. A., Johnson, B. B., Pedersen, W. L., Spencer, J. L., Levine, E., Isard, S. A., Domier, L. L., Hartman, G. L., 2003. Distribution of leaf-feeding beetles and bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) in Illinois and transmission of BPMV in soybean. Plant Disease, 87(10), 1221-1225. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.10.1221

Marianelli L, Paoli F, Peverieri GS, Benvenuti C, Barzanti GP, Bosio G, Venanzio D, Giacometto E, Roversi PF, 2019. Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets: a new integrated pest management approach for Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Environmental Management, 15(2), 259-265.

Marianelli L, Paoli F, Torrini G, Mazza G, Benvenuti C, Binazzi F, Peverieri GS, Bosio G, Venanzio D, Giacometto E, Priori S, Koppenöfer AM, Roversi PF, 2017. Entomopathogenic nematodes as potential biological control agents of Popilia japonica (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) in Piedmont Region (Italy). Journal of Applied Entomology, 142(3), 311-318.

Marianelli, L., Paoli, F., Peverieri, G. S., Benvenuti, C., Barzanti, G. P., Bosio, G., Venanzio, D., Giacometto, E., Roversi, P. F., 2018. Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets: a new integrated pest management approach for Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management (IEAM), 15(2), 259-265. doi: 10.1002/ieam.4107

Mazza, G., Paoli, F., Strangi, A., Torrini, G., Marianelli, L., Peverieri, G. S., Binazzi, F., Bosio, G., Sacchi, S., Benvenuti, C., Venanzio, D., Giacometto, E., Roversi, P. F., Poinar, G. O., 2017. Hexamermis popilliae n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitizing the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Italy. Systematic Parasitology, 94(8), 915-926. doi: 10.1007/s11230-017-9746-0

National Plant Board, 2016. US domestic Japanese beetle harmonization plan. https://nationalplantboard.org/wp-content/uploads/docs/jbhp_2017_update.pdf

O’Hara J, 2014. New tachinid records for the United States and Canada. The Tachinid Times, 27, 34-40.

Ohba M, Iwahana H, Asano S, Suzuki N, Sato R, Hori H, 1992. A unique isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar japonensis with a high larvicidal activity specific for scarabaeid beetles. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 14(2):54-57; 13 ref

Pettis, G. V., Braman, S. K., Guillebeau, L. P., Sparks, B., 2005. Evaluation of insecticides for suppression of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, and crapemyrtle aphid, Tinocallis kahawaluokalani Kirkaldy. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 23(3), 145-148.

Ping L, 1988. The Popillia fauna of China. Pianze Eldonejo:71 pp

Piombino, M., Smitley, D., Lewis, P., 2020. Survival of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, larvae in field plots when infected with a microsporidian pathogen, Ovavesicula popilliae. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 174 doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2020.107434

Potter DA, Patterson CG, Redmond CT, 1992. Influence of turfgrass species and tall fescue endophyte on feeding ecology of Japanese beetle and southern masked chafer grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(3):900-909; 29 ref

Potter DA, Powell AJ, Spicer PG, Williams DW, 1996. Cultural practices affect root-feeding white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in turfgrass. Journal of Economic Entomology, 89:156-164

Potter DA, Spicer PG, Held D, McNiel RE, 1998. Relative susceptibility of cultivars of flowering crabapples, lindens, and roses to defoliation by Japanese beetles. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 16(2):105-110; 13 ref

Potter MF, Potter DA, Townsend LH, 2006. Japanese beetles in the urban landscape. In: University of Kentucky – Cooperative Extension Service: ENTFACT-451 . https://entomology.ca.uky.edu/ef451

Potter, D. A., 1998. Destructive turfgrass insects: biology, diagnosis and control, [ed. by Potter, D. A. ]. Chelsea, USA: Ann Arbor Press.xvi + 344 pp.

Potter, D. A., Held, D. W., 1999. Absence of food-aversion learning by a polyphagous scarab, Popillia japonica, following intoxication by geranium, Pelargonium × hortorum. In: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata [Proceedings of the 10th international symposium on insect-plant relationships, Oxford, UK, 4-10 July, 1998], 91(1) [ed. by Simpson, S., Mordue, J., Hardie, J.]. 83-88. doi: 10.1023/A:1003641021691

Potter, D. A., Held, D. W., 2002. Biology and management of the Japanese beetle. Annual Review of Entomology, 47, 175-205. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ento.47.091201.145153

Potter, D. A., Loughrin, J. H., Rowe, W. J., II, Hamilton-Kemp, T. R., 1996. Why do Japanese beetles defoliate trees from the top down?. In: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata [Ninth International Symposium on Insect-Plant Relationships held on 24-30 June 1995 in Gwatt, Switzerland], 80(1) . 209-212. doi: 10.1007/BF00194759

Rahemi, A., Dale, A., Fisher, H., Kelly, J., Taghavi, T., Singleton, C., Bonnycastle, A., 2015. Distribution of pests on Vitis riparia in sandy soils of the south-western Ontario. Journal of Plant Studies, 4(1), 21-26. http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jps/article/view/42081/23780

Ranney TG, Walgenbach JF, 1992. Feeding preference of Japanese beetles for taxa of birch, cherry and crabapple. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 10(3):177-180; 6 ref

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Reed DK, Lee MH, Kim SH, Klein MG, 1991. Attraction of scarab beetle populations (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) to Japanese beetle lures in the Republic of Korea. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 36(3-4):163-174

Richmond, D. S., Grewal, P. S., Cardina, J., 2004. Influence of Japanese beetle Popillia japonica larvae and fungal endophytes on competition between turfgrasses and dandelion. Crop Science, 44(2), 600-606. doi: 10.2135/cropsci2004.6000

Rowe WJII, Potter DA, 1996. Vertical stratification of feeding by Japanese beetles within linden tree canopies: selective foraging or height per se?. Oecologia, 108(3):459-466; 36 ref

Rowe, W. J., Potter, D. A., McNiel, R. E., 2002. Susceptibility of Purple-Versus Greenleaved Cultivars of Woody Landscape Plants to the Japanese Beetle. HortScience, 37(2), 362-366. doi: 10.21273/HORTSCI.37.2.362

Seagraves, B. L., Redmond, C. T., Potter, D. A., 2013. Relative resistance or susceptibility of maple (Acer) species, hybrids and cultivars to six arthropod pests of production nurseries. Pest Management Science, 69(1), 112-119. doi: 10.1002/ps.3375

Shanovich, H. N., Dean, A. N., Koch, R. L., Hodgson, E. W., 2019. Biology and management of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in corn and soybean. Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 10(1), 9. doi: 10.1093/jipm/pmz009

Simoes AMMA, 1984. Observations on Popillia japonica Newman on the island of Terceira. Arquipélago, Ciencias da Natureza, 5:129-156; [9 fig.]; 9 ref

Smetnik AI, Nikritin LM, Vlasova VA, 1978. The Japanese beetle. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 2:40-42

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Smith, A. W., Hammond, R. B., Stinner, B. R., 1988. Influence of rye-cover crop management on soybean foliage arthropods. Environmental Entomology, 17(1), 109-114. doi: 10.1093/ee/17.1.109

Spicer PG, Potter DA, McNiel RE, 1995. Resistance of flowering crabapple cultivars to defoliation by the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(4):979-985

Switzer, P. V., Cumming, R. M., 2014. Effectiveness of hand removal for small-scale management of Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 107(1), 293-298. doi: 10.1603/EC12303

Szendrei, Z., Mallampalli, N., Isaacs, R., 2005. Effect of tillage on abundance of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Col., Scarabaeidae), larvae and adults in highbush blueberry fields. Journal of Applied Entomology, 129(5), 258-264. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2005.00961.x

Tashiro H, 1987. Turfgrass insects of the United States and Canada. Ithaca, New York, USA; Cornell University Press, xiv + 391 pp

Terry LA, Potter DA, Spicer PG, 1993. Insecticides affect predatory arthropods and predation on Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) eggs and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pupae in turfgrass. Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(3):871-878

Tumlinson JH, Klein MG, Doolittle RE, Ladd TL, Proveaux AT, 1977. Identification of the female Japanese beetle sex pheromone: inhibition of male response by an enantiomer. Science, l97:789-792

USDA/APHIS, 2015. Managing the Japanese beetle. In: A homeowner's handbook Washington DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.https://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/jb/downloads/JBhandbook.pdf

USDA/APHIS, 2016. Japanese beetle program manual. Washington DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.https://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/domestic/downloads/japanese_beetle.pdf.

Vega FE, Dowd PF, Lacey LA, Pell JK, Jackson DM, Klein MG, 2007. Dissemination of beneficial microbial agents by insects. In: Field manual of techniques in invertebrate pathology, [ed. by Lacey LA, Kaya HK]. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. 127-148.

Villani MG, Wright RJ, 1988. Entomogenous nematodes as biological control agents of European chafer and Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabpidae) larvae infesting turfgrass. Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(2):484-487

Villani MG, Wright RJ, Baker PB, 1988. Differential susceptibility of Japanese beetle, Oriental beetle, and European chafer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) larvae to five soil insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(3):785-788

Vittum PJ, 1986. Biology of the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabpidae) in eastern Massachusetts. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(2):387-391

Vittum, P. J., Villani, M. G., Tashiro, H., 1999. Turfgrass insects of the United States and Canada, Ithaca, USA: Comstock Publishing Associates.xviii + 422 pp.

Wickizer SL, Gergerich RC, 2007. First report of Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) as a vector of Southern bean mosaic virus and Bean pod mottle virus. Plant Disease, 91(5):637.

Wright RJ, Villani MG, Agudelo-Silva F, 1988. Steinernematid and heterorhabditid nematodes for control of larval European chafers and Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in potted yew. Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(1):152-157

Zenger JT, Gibb TJ, 2001. Identification and impact of egg predators of Cyclocephala lurida Bland and Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scaraaeidae) in turfgrass. Environmental Entomology, 30:425-430

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CERIS, 2020. Survey status of Japanese beetle – Popillia japonica., USA: Purdue University. https://pest.ceris.purdue.edu/map.php?code=INBPAZA&year=2020

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Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, 1978. [Nos. 379-384 and 16, 64 and 215 (revised).]. In: Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A (Agricultural),

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Fleming WE, 1972. Biology of the Japanese beetle. In: USDA Technical Bulletin 1449, Washington, DC,

Imura O, 2003. Herbivorous arthropod community of an alien weed Solanum carolinense L. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 38 (3), 293-300. DOI:10.1303/aez.2003.293

Keathley C P, Potter D A, 2008. Quantitative resistance traits and suitability of woody plant species for a polyphagous scarab, Popillia japonica Newman. Environmental Entomology. 37 (6), 1548-1557. DOI:10.1603/0046-225X-37.6.1548

Kim J Y, Leal W S, 2000. Ultrastructure of pheromone-detecting sensillum placodeum of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newmann (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Arthropod Structure & Development. 29 (2), 121-128. DOI:10.1016/S1467-8039(00)00022-0

Klein M G, Lacey L A, 1999. An attractant trap for the autodissemination of entomopathogenic fungi into populations of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology. 151-158.

Lacey L A, Amaral J J, Coupland J, Klein M G, Simões A M, 1995. Flight activity of Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) after treatment with Metarhizium anisopliae. Biological Control. 5 (2), 167-172. DOI:10.1006/bcon.1995.1020

Lacey L A, Martins A, Ribeiro C, 1994. The pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana for adults of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). European Journal of Entomology. 91 (3), 313-319.

Loughrin J H, Potter D A, Hamilton-Kemp T R, 1995. Volatile compounds induced by herbivory act as aggregation kairomones for the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman). Journal of Chemical Ecology. 21 (10), 1457-1467. DOI:10.1007/BF02035145

Mabry T R, Hobbs H A, Steinlage T A, Johnson B B, Pedersen W L, Spencer J L, Levine E, Isard S A, Domier L L, Hartman G L, 2003. Distribution of leaf-feeding beetles and bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) in Illinois and transmission of BPMV in soybean. Plant Disease. 87 (10), 1221-1225. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.10.1221

Morales-Rodriguez A, Peck D C, 2009. Synergies between biological and neonicotinoid insecticides for the curative control of the white grubs Amphimallon majale and Popillia japonica. Biological Control. 51 (1), 169-180. DOI:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.06.008

NAPIS, 2009. Reported Status of Japanese Beetle - Popillia japonica. In: Reported Status of Japanese Beetle - Popillia japonica, Washington DC, USA: USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. http://pest.ceris.purdue.edu/searchmap.php?selectName=INBPAZA

Ping L, 1988. The Popillia fauna of China., Pianze Eldonejo. 71 pp.

Rahemi A, Dale A, Fisher H, Kelly J, Taghavi T, Singleton C, Bonnycastle A, 2015. Distribution of pests on Vitis riparia in sandy soils of the south-western Ontario. Journal of Plant Studies. 4 (1), 21-26. http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jps/article/view/42081/23780

Ranney T G, Walgenbach J F, 1992. Feeding preference of Japanese beetles for taxa of birch, cherry and crabapple. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 10 (3), 177-180.

Reed D K, Lee M H, Kim S H, Klein M G, 1991. Attraction of scarab beetle populations (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) to Japanese beetle lures in the Republic of Korea. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 36 (3-4), 163-174. DOI:10.1016/0167-8809(91)90013-N

Seagraves B L, Redmond C T, Potter D A, 2013. Relative resistance or susceptibility of maple (Acer) species, hybrids and cultivars to six arthropod pests of production nurseries. Pest Management Science. 69 (1), 112-119. DOI:10.1002/ps.3375

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Smitha R, Rajendran P, Sandhya P T, Aparna V S, Rajees P C, 2017. Insect pest complex of rose at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Ambalavayal, Wayanad. Acta Horticulturae. 39-44. DOI:10.17660/actahortic.2017.1165.6

Switzer P V, Escajeda K, Kruse K C, 2001. Pairing patterns in Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica Newman): effects of sex ratio and time of day. Journal of Insect Behavior. 14 (6), 713-724. DOI:10.1023/A:1013075915697

Szendrei Z, Mallampalli N, Isaacs R, 2005. Effect of tillage on abundance of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Col., Scarabaeidae), larvae and adults in highbush blueberry fields. Journal of Applied Entomology. 129 (5), 258-264. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.2005.00961.x

Tashiro H, 1987. Turfgrass insects of the United States and Canada. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Press. xiv + 391pp.

Wickizer S L, Gergerich R C, 2007. First report of Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) as a vector of Southern bena mosaic virus and Bean pod mottle virus. Plant Disease. 91 (5), 637. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-5-0637C

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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19/10/2020 Updated by:

Erin Hodgson, Iowa State University, Department of Entomology, USA

Ashley Dean, Iowa State University, Department of Entomology, USA


27/03/2008 Updated by:

Michael Klein, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, USA

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