Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Popillia japonica
(Japanese beetle)



Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle)


  • Last modified
  • 03 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Popillia japonica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Japanese beetle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The Japanese beetle was first discovered in New Jersey, USA in 1916. It probably entered the USA as grubs with iris bulbs before 1912 when plant materials were first examined. Although not a pest in Japan, extensive, we...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report


Top of page
Adult P. japonica ('Japanese beetle') on flowerhead.
TitleAdult beetle
CaptionAdult P. japonica ('Japanese beetle') on flowerhead.
CopyrightAgriculture & Agri-Food Canada/Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Adult P. japonica ('Japanese beetle') on flowerhead.
Adult beetleAdult P. japonica ('Japanese beetle') on flowerhead.Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada/Canadian Food Inspection Agency


Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Popillia japonica Newman

Preferred Common Name

  • Japanese beetle

International Common Names

  • English: beetle, Japanese
  • Spanish: escarabajo japonés
  • French: hanneton japonais; scarabé japonais

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: Japanbille
  • Germany: Japankäfer; Kaefer, Japan-
  • Italy: scarabeo giapponese
  • Japan: mame-kogane
  • Sweden: Japanbagge

EPPO code

  • POPIJA (Popillia japonica)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

The Japanese beetle was first discovered in New Jersey, USA in 1916. It probably entered the USA as grubs with iris bulbs before 1912 when plant materials were first examined. Although not a pest in Japan, extensive, well-watered, turf, and a lack of parasites, allowed populations to rapidly build up and spread steadily west to the Mississippi River. The loss of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, and the end of the Federal quarantine on nursery stock, has allowed beetles to move into western states at a rapid rate. Beetles are pests of quarantine concern in the western USA and Europe. P. japonica was found on Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal in the 1980s. Again, extensive turf allowed establishment of beetles, population explosions, the infestation of that island, and subsequently of three more of the Azorean Islands. Beetles have moved considerably outside of the climatic conditions in their native Japan.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Scarabaeidae
  •                             Genus: Popillia
  •                                 Species: Popillia japonica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, is a member of the order Coleoptera, family Scarabaeidae, subfamily Rutelinae and tribe Anomlini.


Top of page


Newly-laid eggs are about 1.5 mm long, pearly white and oblong. Eggs absorb water from the soil, becoming spherical and nearly doubling in size within a week. The external surface of the protection chorion is marked with small hexagonal areas. The developing embryo can be seen within the eggs that are close to hatching (Fleming, 1972a).


P. japonica larvae are typical scarabaeid grubs (Fleming, 1972a). The head is yellowish-brown, with strong, dark-coloured mandibles. The body consists of three thoracic segments, each with a pair of jointed legs, and a 10-segmented abdomen. The grubs assume a typical, scarab, C-shaped position in the soil. The cuticle is transversely wrinkled and is covered with scattered brown hairs, which are interspersed with short, blunt, brown spines. The raster, located on the ventral side of the last abdominal segment, has many scattered, brown, hooked spines; medially, two conspicuous rows of 6-7 shorter straight spines are arranged in the form of a truncated V. This V-shaped arrangement on the raster distinguishes P. japonica from other larval scarabaeids in the USA. The last abdominal segment also bears many yellowish hairs at the sides and the end.

Newly-hatched grubs are about 1.5 mm long and translucent white. The abdominal area becomes dark once the larva has fed and the rectal sacs, or fermentation chambers, fill with soil. There are three instars. Just prior to moulting, first and second instars attain average middorsal lengths of 10.5 and 18.5 mm, respectively, whereas the mature, third instar, averages 32 mm. Head capsules of first, second and third instars average 1.2 mm wide and 0.7 mm long, 1.9 mm wide and 1.2 mm long, and 3.1 mm wide and 2.1 mm long, respectively.


When mature, the grub stops feeding, voids the gut so that the rectal sacs lose their dark appearance, and become cream-coloured and a pale, somewhat shrunken prepupa. The body straightens out, except for a slight crook at the caudal end. Eventually, the developing appendages are everted from their sacs and lie outside the newly developed pupal cuticula, beneath the old larval cuticula. The transformation to prepupa and pupa, both of which are very delicate, occurs in an earthen cell formed by the mature larva (Fleming, 1972a).


The young pupa forms within the old larval and prepupal exuviae, which changes in appearance to a fine, light tan, mesh-like tissue. This shroud-like covering splits along the middorsal line as the pupa develops. The pupa, which averages 14 mm long and 7 mm wide, resembles the adult beetle, except the wings and other appendages are closely folded to the body. It is a pale-cream colour at first, gradually becoming tan and finally taking on the metallic green of the adult (Fleming, 1972a).


Fleming (1972a) published an illustrated description of the beetle, including characters on the fore tibia and tarsi by which the sexes can be distinguished (the male tibial spur is hook-like, not spatulate, and the tarsi attach at the end of the tibia, not upto a few mm). The adult is an attractive, broadly oval beetle, 8-11 mm long, and about 5-7 mm wide. Females are usually slightly bigger than males. The head and body are dark, metallic green, with darker copper-green legs. The coppery-brown elytra, which do not quite reach the tip of the abdomen, expose a row of five lateral patches of white hairs on each side of the abdomen, and a pair of these patches on the dorsal surface of the last abdominal segment. These white patches on the green abdomen distinguish P. japonica from all other beetles that resemble it in the USA. However, there are several similar Popillia species in the far-east that require an expert to distinguish them from P. japonica (see Ping, 1988).


Top of page

P. japonica originates from north-eastern Asia where it is native in northern Japan and in the far east of Russia (Fleming, 1972a). Fleming’s (1972a) report of P. japonica in China and Korea, probably referred to closely-related species, but not the Japanese beetle (Ping, 1988; Reed et al., 1990).

In Japan, the beetle is most abundant in northern Honshu and all of Hokkaido where grasslands occur, but it does not reach the high population densities that occur in the USA. It is common, but not abundant in Kyushu, Shikoku and southern Honshu. It was not considered to be a pest in Japan until the increase in golf courses, and is still not the major scarab pest species.

In the USA, P. japonica, is established in all states boarding, or east of the Mississippi River, with the possible exception of Florida. Several western states have isolated established populations of the beetle. Pest survey data are submitted to NAPIS by participating USA states in the Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey (CAPS) with USDA, APHIS, PPQ and the resulting distribution of P. japonica in the USA is mapped from 2001 to the present (2010), and can be found here: See also Smith et al. (1997).

In Russia, the last report of P. japonica restricted it to the South Kirile region of Sakhalin, on the island of Kunashir (Chebanov, 1977). It is absent in the EPPO region except for Terceira Island, Azores (Portugal), where the pest probably spread from the USA air base (Simoes, 1984). An infestation on the island of Faial was found in 1996. More recently Pico and San Miguel both become infested in 2006. Both Terceira and Faial are generally infested, but eradication programmes are being considered for the isolated infestations on Pico and San Miguel.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 24 Jun 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


ChinaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Ping (1988); EPPO (2020)
-HeilongjiangAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Ping (1988); EPPO (2020)
-HunanAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Ping (1988); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-JilinAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Ping (1988); EPPO (2020)
Hong KongAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Ping (1988); EPPO (2020)
IndiaAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
-KeralaPresentEPPO (2020)
JapanPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-HokkaidoPresentFleming (1972); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978); Tashiro (1987); EPPO (2020)Whole island
-HonshuPresentFleming (1972); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978); Tashiro (1987); EPPO (2020)
-KyushuPresentFleming (1972); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978); Tashiro (1987); EPPO (2020)Light infestation
-ShikokuPresentFleming (1972); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978); Tashiro (1987); EPPO (2020)
North KoreaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
South KoreaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020); Reed et al. (1991)
TaiwanAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)


BelgiumAbsentEPPO (2020)
ItalyPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
LithuaniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2020)
NetherlandsAbsent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2020)
PortugalPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-AzoresPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)On four of nine islands
RussiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Russian Far EastPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978); CABI (Undated)
SloveniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2020)
SwitzerlandPresent, Transient under eradicationEPPO (2020)

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-British ColumbiaPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
-New BrunswickPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Nova ScotiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentCommonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978); EPPO (2020)Southeastern
-Prince Edward IslandPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-QuebecPresentCommonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978); EPPO (2020)Southern
United StatesPresent, Localized1916EPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-ArkansasPresentWickizer and Gergerich (2007); EPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaAbsent, EradicatedEPPO (2020)
-ColoradoPresent, Few occurrencesNAPIS (2009); EPPO (2020)
-ConnecticutPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-DelawarePresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-District of ColumbiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-GeorgiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-IdahoAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020); EPPO (2014)
-IllinoisPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-IndianaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-IowaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-KansasPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
-KentuckyPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-LouisianaPresentNAPIS (2009)
-MainePresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-MarylandPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-MassachusettsPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-MichiganPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-MinnesotaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-MississippiPresentNAPIS (2009); EPPO (2020)
-MissouriPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-MontanaPresentNAPIS (2009)
-NebraskaPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
-NevadaAbsent, EradicatedEPPO (2020)
-New HampshirePresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-New JerseyPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-New MexicoPresentNAPIS (2009)
-New YorkPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-North CarolinaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-OhioPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-OklahomaPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
-OregonAbsent, EradicatedEPPO (2020)
-PennsylvaniaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-Rhode IslandPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-South CarolinaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-South DakotaPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
-TennesseePresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-TexasPresentNAPIS (2009); EPPO (2020)
-UtahPresentNAPIS (2009)
-VermontPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-VirginiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-WashingtonPresentCommonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978); NAPIS (2009)
-West VirginiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)
-WisconsinPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Commonwealth Institute of Entomology (1978)

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

P. japonica is an A1 quarantine organism for EPPO (OEPP/EPPO, 1980), and is also of quarantine significance for CPPC, JUNAC, NAPPO, and OIRSA. Within the USA, P. japonica is the object of an USDA/APHIS quarantine, restricting interstate movement of aircraft from regulated airports (USDA-APHIS, 2004). The interstate shipment of plant material is covered by the US Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan (National Plant Board, 2004). Very few of the P. japonica infestations in states west of the Mississippi River have been associated with movement of beetles by aircraft.

Temperature and particularly soil moisture are the main factors limiting potential spread of the beetle into new areas. According to Fleming (1972a), the Japanese beetle is adapted to regions were the mean soil temperature is between 17.5 and 27.5oC during the summer, and above -9.4oC in the winter. It should be noted that the winter temperature is 0.5-1.0 m below ground surface where the larvae overwinter. In addition, precipitation must be adequate and rather uniformly distributed throughout the year, averaging at least 25 cm during the summer. However, these parameters were established before irrigation was prevalent in much of the midwest and western USA. The Japanese beetle distribution in the USA is far south of the beetle distribution in its native Japan. The distribution in Japan may be influenced by other species of Popillia, or other scarabs, competing for limited resources.

Allsopp (1996) used a computer-generated modified Match Index to analyze climatic suitability and predict the potential worldwide distribution of P. japonica. According to the model, in North America the beetle has the potential to spread west to the middle of Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, south to the middle of South Carolina and Georgia, and most of Alabama and Mississippi. The Japanese beetle has already met or exceeded all of these parameters in the past 12 years. The southern parts of the Canadian Maritimes and eastern British Columbia, and parts of Washington and Oregon are also suitable. Indeed, Oregon has had several P. japonica infestations, as has California, and now Colorado and Utah. In addition Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia all have infestations in eastern Canada. Most of continental Europe, except most of Scandinavia and the Mediterranean areas, are suitable, as are the UK and Ireland. Suitable areas in Asia include the Caucasus and areas to the north, eastern central China, and the Korean Peninsula. In Africa, the mountains of Morocco and coastal south-eastern South Africa seem suitable. In the Southern Hemisphere, the south-eastern highlands of Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, and the Rio de la Plata area between Argentina and Uruguay, and parts of costal Chile are suitable. Once established in these areas, P. japonica could cause enormous damage and significant economic loss. It is interesting to note that unlike the weevils, no scarab has established on the opposite side of the equator from its native land (Jackson and Klein, 2006).

Habitat List

Top of page

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

In the USA, adult P. japonica have been observed feeding on at least 295 species of plants in 79 plant families (Fleming, 1972a). These include small fruits, tree fruits, vegetable and garden crops, field crops, woody and herbaceous ornamentals, shade trees, various weeds, and many non-economic species. Economic damage has been recorded on more than 100 species. The beetles are particularly attracted to certain species of Aceraceae, Anacardiaceae, Betulaceae, Clethraceae, Ericaceae, Fagaceae, Gramineae, Hippocastanaceae, Juglandaceae, Lauraceae, Leguminosae, Liliaceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Onagraceae, Platanaceae, Polygonaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, Tiliaceae, Ulmaceae and Vitaceae. The grubs feed on roots of a wide range of vegetable crops, ornamental plants and tender grasses. In Japan, the host range appears to be smaller than in North America.

Within the EPPO region, the host range of P. japonica would be similar. Malus, Prunus, Rubus and Vitis, with their wide distribution and intensive cultivation, would be especially favourable food sources for the adults. Lush pasture and turfgrasses provide a favourable habitat for the grubs.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage


Top of page

Skeletonized foliage is the most common symptom of feeding by the adult. The beetles generally feed from the upper surface of leaves, chewing out the tissue between the veins and leaving a lacelike skeleton. Severely damaged leaves soon turn brown and drop. The adults are gregarious, usually beginning to feed on foliage at the top of a plant and working downward. On some plants with thin leaves and fine venation, and on petals of flowers, the beetles consume irregularly-shaped sections in the same manner as many Lepidoptera. Plants with thick, tough leaves are usually not attacked, but when such leaves are eaten (Concord grapes), the feeding is often restricted to the palisade mesophyll and does not penetrate to the lower leaf surface.

Maize is one field crop seriously damaged in North America. The beetles feed on the maturing silk, preventing pollination; this results in malformed kernels and reduced yield. This appears to be more of a back-yard maize growing situation because the light-loving beetles rarely venture more than 1-2 rows into a maize field. However, beetles can feed over an entire soyabean field and cause their damage. They also defoliate asparagus, nearly all varieties of grapes, and many fruit-bearing trees, especially apple, cherry, plum, and peach. Beetles can aggregate and feed in large numbers on the fruit of early-ripening varieties of apple, peach, nectarine, plum, raspberries, and quince. This feeding renders fruit unmarketable, unless they have been protected by pesticides.

The larvae are most abundant in well-kept lawns and golf courses, and less often in pastures. As the grub feeds just below the surface, it cuts off and consumes the grass roots. Early symptoms include thinning, yellowing, and wilting, culminating in large patches of dead, brown grass that appears in late summer or early autumn because of water stress, and less often in the following spring when more moisture is normally available. When grubs are numerous (400/m2+) the root system is completely severed and the sod can be lifted or rolled back like a carpet. Secondary damage from skunks, raccoons, crows, or other predators often causes more disruption to the sward than the grubs themselves. Feeding by grubs on roots of maize, beans, tomatoes, strawberries, nursery seedlings, or other crops reduces their vitality and yield and sometimes kills the plants. Damage is often most severe when these crops are planted into areas which were previously turf.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Roots / external feeding
Roots / reduced root system
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Recent general reviews of P. japonica should be consulted for additional information on this pest (Potter, 1998; Vittum et al., 1999; Potter and Held, 2002; Jackson and Klein, 2006). Fleming (1972a) provided a detailed account of the biology of P. japonica. Larvae (mainly third-instar) overwinter in an earthen cell about 15-20 cm deep in the soil. In early spring, when the soil temperatures increase to about 10oC, the grubs move closer to the surface and resume feeding on plant roots at 2.5 to 5.0 cm depth. Pupation usually occurs after 4-6 weeks of feeding, and the adults emerge from mid-May to mid-July, depending on latitude.

Mating begins at emergence, and egg-laying soon follows. Virgin females produce a volatile sex pheromone (Ladd, 1970), identified and called Japonilure (Tumlinson et al., 1977). Early in the seasonal flight period, aggregations containing up to many dozens of males form on the ground around a single, emerging female. Females also remate on food plants between bouts of oviposition, with the last male’s sperm being used. The beetles normally feed in groups, usually starting near the top of a plant and working downward (Fleming, 1972a; Rowe and Potter, 1996). The adults are attracted to feeding-induced plant volatiles, resulting in aggregation on damaged plants (Fleming, 1972a; Loughrin et al., 1996). Females may leave host plants during the day and fly to suitable sites for oviposition. Areas with moist, loamy soil covered with turf or pasture grasses are preferred (Fleming, 1972a; Allsopp et al., 1992). Eggs are laid singly or in small clusters (2-4 eggs) in the upper 7.5 cm of soil. The cycle of feeding, mating and oviposition is repeated every few days. The average lifespan of a female is 30-45 days, during which she may lay 40-60 eggs.

Eggs hatch in about 2 weeks, and the young larvae begin feeding on fine roots and organic matter. They moult and become second-instars after 2-3 weeks, and third-instars after 3-4 weeks more. Feeding continues until late autumn, when the grubs move deeper into the soil in response to declining soil temperatures. At the latitude of Virginia and Maryland, the populations consist of mainly adults and eggs in July, first- and second-instars by mid-August, second- and third-instars by early September, and third-instars from late September to late April, and prepupae and pupae in May and early June. Normally, there is one generation per year, even in the most southern areas, but at the northern edge of its range, a few individuals may need 2 years to complete the life cycle (Fleming, 1972a; Vittum, 1986; Vittum et al., 1999).

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Adapsilia flaviseta USA ornamental plants
Bacillus popilliae lentimorbus Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae USA, Japan turf
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults/Larvae USA ornamentals, turf
Campsomeris annulata Parasite Larvae Fleming, 1968
Campsomeris marginella modesta Parasite Larvae Fleming, 1968
Carabidae Predator Eggs/Larvae USA turf
Craspedonotus tibialis Predator Larvae Fleming, 1968
Dexia ventralis Parasite Larvae Fleming, 1968
Entoderma colletosporium Pathogen Larvae Fleming, 1968
Erythrocera genalis Parasite Adults Fleming, 1968
Eutrixopsis javana Parasite Adults Fleming, 1968
Formicidae Eggs/Larvae USA turf
Hamaxia incongrua Parasite Adults Fleming, 1968
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Parasite Larvae Azores, USA turf
Heterorhabditis heliothidis Parasite
Heterorhabditis marelatus Parasite Larvae USA turf
Heterorhabditis megidis Parasite Larvae USA turf
Istocheta aldrichi Parasite Adults USA ornamental plants, turf
Istocheta ussuriensis Parasite Adults Fleming, 1968
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Adults/Larvae Azores, USA ornamentals, turf
Nomuraea rileyi Pathogen
Ovavesicula popilliae Pathogen Larvae Connecticut, Michigan, USA turf
Paenibacillus popilliae Pathogen Larvae USA turf
Pexopsis clauseni Parasite
Prosena siberita Parasite Larvae New Jersey, USA turf
Rickettsiella popilliae Pathogen Larvae Fleming, 1968
Scolia japonica Parasite Larvae Fleming, 1968
Serratia Pathogen Larvae Fleming, 1968
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite Larvae USA turf
Steinernema feltiae Parasite Larvae Fleming, 1968
Steinernema glaseri Parasite Larvae Azores, New Jersey, USA turf
Steinernema kushidai Parasite Larvae Japan turf
Steinernema riobravis Parasite Larvae Fleming, 1968
Steinernema scapterisci Parasite Larvae Fleming, 1968
Steinernema scarabaei Parasite Larvae New Jersey, USA turf
Tiphia asericae Parasite Larvae Fleming, 1968
Tiphia biseculata Parasite Larvae Fleming, 1968
Tiphia brevilineata Parasite Larvae Fleming, 1968
Tiphia burrelli Parasite USA ornamental plants
Tiphia communis Parasite Larvae Fleming, 1968
Tiphia koreana Parasite Larvae Fleming, 1968
Tiphia matura Parasite Larvae Fleming, 1968
Tiphia notopolita Parasite Larvae Fleming, 1968
Tiphia phyllophagae Parasite Larvae Fleming, 1968
Tiphia popilliavora Parasite Larvae Virginia, USA turf
Tiphia pullivora Parasite Larvae Fleming, 1968
Tiphia tegitiplaga Parasite Larvae Fleming, 1968
Tiphia vernalis Parasite Larvae eastern USA turf
Trophops clauseni Parasite Adults Fleming, 1968

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Several indigenous, generalist, predators, especially ants and ground beetles, help to suppress Japanese beetle populations by feeding on eggs and grubs (Terry et al., 1993; Zenger and Gibb, 2001). Both adults and larvae are fed upon by various birds including starlings, crows, grackles, and gulls. Moles, skunks, raccoons and armadillos, feed on the grubs, but cause considerable damage to the turf or pastures. No native parasitic insect attacks P. japonica in North America. However, at least three species of imported parasitic insects have become established in eastern and midwest states (see 'Prevention and Control'). Grubs are susceptible to several naturally-occurring fungal pathogens including Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, entomopathogenic nematodes including Steinernema and Heterorhabditis species, bacterial pathogens such as Paneibacillus popilliae, the protozoan, Ovavesicula popilliae, and the rickettsia Rickettsiella popilliae. Unfortunately, humans are also susceptible to the rickettsia.

For further information see reviews by Fleming (1968), Potter and Held (2002), and Jackson and Klein (2006), and the text section on 'Prevention and Control'. Natural enemy records from older literature are presented in the 'Natural Enemy' table, and referenced as Fleming (1968).


Top of page

P. japonica is the single most destructive insect pest on golf courses, lawns and pastures, and on herbaceous and woody landscape plants in the eastern USA (Tashiro, 1987; Potter, 1998; Vittum et al., 1999). A decade ago it was estimated that more than $460 million is spent each year to control the grubs and adults, and about $156 million in renovating or replacing damaged turf or ornamental plants (USDA/APHIS, 2000). Damage to tree fruits, small fruits, maize, and soybeans is also significant. In addition, many millions of US dollars, and considerable quantities of pesticides, are also lost trying to limit the beetle’s spread by nursery stock and aeroplanes in North America. The Japanese beetle has never been a major pest in Japan, and has not caused extensive damage up to this point in the Azores. Costs connected with quarantine concerns are likely to increase greatly with the discovery of the beetle on San Miguel Island, USA.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Soil accretion
  • Transportation disruption
Impact mechanisms
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult/costly to control


Top of page

A diagnostic protocol for P. japonica is given in OEPP/EPPO (2006).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page

Adult P. japonica are easily detected by inspecting the most vulnerable plants for aggregations of beetles on foliage, flowers, or fruits (not blueberries), or for skeletonized leaves during the beetles flight period in early- to mid-summer. Adults are most active on warm days between 10 am and 3 pm. Traps containing the three part food-type lure (phenethyl propionate + eugenol + geraniol) and the sex attractant (Japonilure) (Ladd et al., 1981) are widely used in the USA and Azores for monitoring and survey purposes, and to delineate infestations. Grubs can be detected by cutting sections of sod with a spade or golf cup cutter in late summer, autumn, or in early spring and examining the soil and roots to a depth of about 8 cm. For grubs in nursery trees, removal and examination of soil down to 30 cm may be required to get an accurate sample.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.


The destructive potential and economic importance of this pest have led to intensive studies of various means for control. Note that the adults and grubs cause very different types of damage, above ground and below ground. Because the adults can fly considerable distances, controlling one life stage will not necessarily preclude problems with the other.


Host-plant resistance

Fleming (1972a) provided a ranking of the extent of feeding by adult P. japonica on 435 plant species in 95 families. Within some generally susceptible genera such as Betula, Malus and Tilia, less susceptible cultivars have been found (Ranney and Walgenbach, 1992; Spicer et al. 1995; Potter et al., 1998). Use of resistant, or less susceptible species and cultivars when planning a landscape, or replacing damaged plant material, is a key to managing adults. Highly susceptible trees such as Sassafras, Prunus cerasifera, Ancer ploatanoides, and Tillia spp., or certain wild plants, such as species of Malva, Parthenocissus, Polygonum, and Vitis, will attract numerous beetles.

Although tolerance varies, all species of cool-season turfgrasses are susceptible to the grubs (Potter et al., 1992). Infection of tall fescue, Festuca arundinacae or perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne, with fungal endophytes (Neotyphodium spp.) does not provide resistance to this pest.

Physical removal and exclusion

Hand removal may provide some control for small plantings. Beetles on plants are sluggish in the morning, before 9 am, or when the temperature is <21oC, and can be killed by picking them, or shaking them, into a bucket of soapy water (Ladd and Klein, 1982). This is most effective when done before damage to the plants. High-value plants such as roses can be protected with fine netting or Reemay fabric around each blossom during the period of beetle activity.


Although mass trapping has held isolated populations in check, and reduced the regulatory situation at some airports, it has not been effective in reducing established P. japonica infestations. However, Japanese beetle traps are an important tool in the identification and delimitation of new P. japonica infestations. California (Potter and Held, 2002) and Oregon monitor 10,000 and 5,000 traps per year, respectively, and have both eradicated isolated infestations in their states. Other western states utilize traps to a lesser extent. Small-scale trapping may aggravate defoliation damage in landscapes because the traps may attract more beetles than actually enter the traps (Gordon and Potter, 1985). Although beetles can fly up to 5 miles, they rarely do, and are not attracted to traps more than 50-100 m away (Lacey et al., 1994).

Cultural control

Female beetles seek out sites that are most optimal for egg laying and survival (Allsopp et al., 1992). Withholding irrigation during peak beetle flight can help to reduce subsequent grub populations in time of drought, and in naturally dry areas (Potter et al., 1996). In contrast, rainfall or irrigation in summer and early autumn, during early instar feeding, promotes tolerance and recovery of grub-damaged turfgrass. Vigorous, well-watered turf can withstand two to three times the normal threshold of grubs (ca. 100/m2) that would destroy a weak, wilted, or starved sward. Raising cutting height, and maintaining a balanced fertility regime to promote growth of roots also enhances tolerance of root-feeding by grubs (Crutchfield et al., 1995).

Biological control

During 1920-1933, the USDA imported about 49 species of parasites of P. japonica and related scarabs from the orient and Australia and released them into Japanese beetle-infested areas in the USA (Fleming, 1968). Only a few of these became established, the most widely distributed are Tiphia vernalis, a wasp that parasitizes overwintered grubs in the spring, and Istocheta aldrichi, a tachinid fly that parasitizes adults ( The spring Tiphia seems to be well-established throughout the beetle-inhabiting areas. Istocheta had been restricted to the New England states, but has recently been established in North Carolina, Michigan, Minnesota, and Missouri, USA (Jackson and Klein, 2006). A third established parasitoid, Tiphia popilliavora, the fall tiphia, has not been recovered since 1969, although isolated populations may still be present. These parasitoids provide some suppression, particularly I. aldrichi, in areas with restricted turf, but do not usually provide adequate beetle control.

Spores of Paenibacillus (=Bacillus) popilliae, the primary causal agent of milky disease in P. japonica were widely distributed in colonization programmes around the middle of the last century in eastern USA (Fleming, 1968). Although milky disease is one of the primary natural biological agents reducing Japanese beetle populations, the value of augmenting this natural incidence with commercial spore powder has come under question (Redmond and Potter, 1995; Potter and Held, 2002; Jackson and Klein, 2006). Another bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis – serovar japonensis, strain Buibui, has shown strong larvacidal activity against P. japonica and other grubs (Ohba et al., 1992; Alm et al., 1997), but lacks a commercial product in the USA.

Entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are the most commonly used pathogens against P. japonica. Nematodes such as Steinernema glaseri and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora are better-adapted to locate and parasitize the grubs in the soil (Gaugler et al., 1997). Wright et al. (1988) showed that nematodes could be used to control P. japonica grubs in container-grown nursery plants. Techniques for using these nematodes can be found at, or in the training video “Entomopathogenic Nematodes: Tools for pest management” (Gaugler and Klein, 1998). Autodissemination of the fungus Metarrhizium anisopliae has been used to suppress Japanese beetle populations in the Azores and the USA (Klein and Lacey, 1999; Vega et al., 2007).

Chemical control

Adult beetles have been controlled by treating susceptible plants with carbamates, organophosphates, or more recently, pyrethroid insecticides (Potter, 1998; Potter and Held, 2002). After the banning of long-residual insecticides grubs were treated with short-residual organophosphates and carbamates. More recently, neonicotinyl (imidacloprid) and moult accelerators (halofenozide) have been used for preventive larval control in turf (Potter and Held, 2002), and may have an effect for more than 1 year (George et al., 2007).

Phytosanitary Measures

Control of larvae in nursery stock is a far greater problem with quarantine concerns. Approved procedures are limited to chlorpyrifos dips of balled and burlapped nursery stock, and application of Marathon (imidacloprid) and Discus (imidacloprid + cyfouthrin) to field stock (Mannion et al., 2000; 2001; National Plant Board, 2004; Oliver et al., 2007). None of these materials provide 100% mortality of grubs, resulting in the three west-coast states (CA, OR, WA) prohibiting plants with any soil. Adult beetles are usually eliminated from fresh produce by commercial grading. However, grading has failed to remove P. japonica from blueberries, where adult beetles eat inside the berry and can not be seen. Movement of beetles by aircraft from infested to protected States is regulated by USDA/APHIS (2004). Compliance agreements require aircraft at regulated airports to be sprayed with an insecticide. In addition, express package services have expended millions of dollars to use physical excluders and teams of beetle spotters to reduce the chance of beetles getting on a plane. Aircraft are examined upon arrival in protected USA states, and retreated if live beetles are found.


Top of page

===, 1980. Data sheets on quarantine organisms. Set 3. EPPO Bulletin, 10(1). unnumbered

Allsopp PG, 1996. Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): rate of movement and potential distribution of an immigrant species. Coleopterists Bulletin, 50(1):81-95; 56 ref

Allsopp PG, Klein MG, McCoy, EL, 1992. Effects of soil moisture and soil texture on oviposition by Japanese beetle and rose chafer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 85:2194-2200

Alm SR, Villani MG, Yeh T, Shutter R, 1997. Bacillus thuringiensis serovar japonensis strain Buibui for control of Japanese and oriental beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 32(3):477-484; 16 ref

Balachowsky AS, 1962. Entomologie appliqueT a l'agriculture. Tome I. ColToptFres. Paris, France: Masson et Cie, 564 pp

Booth RG, Cox ML, Madge RB, 1990. IIE guides to insects of importance to man. 3. Coleoptera. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Bourke PA, 1961. Climatic aspects of the possible establishment of the Japanese beetle in Europe. Technical Note, World Metereological Organization No. 41, 9 pp

Chebanov GE, 1977. Disinfestation regimes. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 1:55-56

CIE, 1978. Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A No. 16 (revised). Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Crutchfield BA, Potter DA, Powell AJ, 1995. Irrigation and nitrogen fertilization effects on white grub injury to Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue turf. Crop Science, 35(4):1122-1126

EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization

EPPO, 2006. Popillia japonica. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 36(3):447-450.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Fleming WE, 1968. Biological control of the Japanese beetle. USDA Technical Bulletin 1383, Washington, DC

Fleming WE, 1972. Biology of the Japanese beetle. USDA Technical Bulletin 1449, Washington, DC

Fleming WE, 1972. Preventing Japanese beetle dispersion by farm products and nursery stock. Technical Bulletin, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture No. 1441

Gaugler R Klein MG, 1998. Insect Parasitic Nematodes: Tools for Pest Management.

Gaugler R, Lewis E, Stuart RJ, 1997. Ecology in the service of biological control: the case of entomopathogenic nematodes. Oecologia, 109(4):483-489; 55 ref

George J, Redmond CT, Royalty RN, Potter DA, 2007. Residual effects of imidacloprid on Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) oviposition, egg hatch, and larval viability in turfgrass. Journal of Economic Entomology, 100:431-439

Georgis R, Gaugler R, 1991. Predictability in biological control using entomopathogenic nematodes. Journal of Economic Entomology, 84(3):713-720

Gordon FC, Potter DA, 1985. Efficiency of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabpidae) traps in reducing defoliation of plants in the urban landscape and effect on larval density in turf. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(4):774-778

Gordon FC, Potter DA, 1986. Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabpidae) traps: evaluation of single and multiple arrangements for reducing defoliation in urban landscape. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(5):1381-1384

Jackson TA, Klein MG, 2006. Scarabs as pests: a continuing problem. Coleopterists Society Monograph, 5:102-119

Klein MG, Lacey LA, 1999. An attractant trap for the autodissemination of entomopathogenic fungi into populations of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology, 9:151-158

Lacey LA, Amaral JJ, Coupland J, Klein MG, 1994. The influence of climatic factors on the flight activity of the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): implications for use of a microbial control agent. Biological Control, 4:298-303

Ladd Jr TL, Klein MG, 1982. Controlling the Japanese beetle. USDA Home and Garden Bulletin, 159:16 pp

Ladd TL Jr, 1970. Sex attraction in the Japanese beetle. Journal of Economic Entomology, 63:905-908

Ladd TL Jr, 1976. Controlling the Japanese beetle. USDA Home and Garden Bulletin, 159

Ladd TL Jr, Lawrence KO, 1986. Elimination of Japanese beetle larvae from plant growth medium by using isofenphos. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 3(2):170-174

Ladd TL, Klein MG, Tumlinson JH, 1981. Phenethyl propionate + eugenol + geraniol (3:7:3) and Japonilure: a highly effective joint lure for Japanese beetles. Journal of Economic Entomology, 74(6):665-667

Loughrin JH, Potter DA, Hamilton-Kemp TR, Byers MW, 1996. Role of feeding-induced plant volatiles in aggregative behaviour of the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Environmental Entomology, 25(5):1188-1191; 17 ref

Mannion CM, McLane W, Klein MG, Moyseenko J, Oliver JB, Cowan D, 2001. Management of early-instar Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in field-grown nursery crops. Journal of Economic Entomology, 94:1151-1161

Mannion CM, McLane W, Klein MG, Nielsen DG, Herms DA, 2000. Insecticide dips for control of Japanese beetle and other soil-infesting white grubs in B&B nursery stock. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 18:89-93

Mayer K, 1962. [Is Japanese beetle a risk for European agriculture? Thoughts on a publication of the World Meteorological Organization]. Nachrichtenblatt Pflanzenschutzdienst DDR, Berlin, 14:58-61

Milberg RP, 1997. Revisions to Japanese beetle domestic quarantine 7 CFR Part 301.48. In: Proceedings of the 1997 Japanese Beetle/Pine Shoot Beetle Regulatory Review, Louisville, KY, USA:USDA, 1-4

NAPIS, 1998. National Agricultural Pest Information Service. Washington, DC, USA: USDA/APHIS. World Wide Web Page at

NAPIS, 2009. Reported Status of Japanese Beetle - Popillia japonica. Washington DC, USA: USDA/APHIS.

National Plant Board, 2004. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan. http://www.nationalplantboard.ord/docs/jbcolumn

Niemczyk HD, 1987. The influence of application timing and posttreatment irrigation on the fate and effectiveness of isofenphos for control of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabpidae) larvae in turfgrass. Journal of Economic Entomology, 80(2):465-470

Ohba M, Iwahana H, Asano S, Suzuki N, Sato R, Hori H, 1992. A unique isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar japonensis with a high larvicidal activity specific for scarabaeid beetles. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 14(2):54-57; 13 ref

Oliver JB, Reding ME, Klein MG, Youssef NN, Mannion CM, Bishop B, James SS, Callcott, 2007. Chlorpyrifos emmersion to eliminate third instar Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in balled and burlapped trees and subsequent effects on red maple. Journal of Economic Entomology, 100:307-314

Ping L, 1988. The Popillia fauna of China. Pianze Eldonejo:71 pp

Potter DA, 1998. Destructive Turfgrass Insects: Biology, Diagnosis, and Control. Chelsea, Michigan, USA: Ann Arbor Press

Potter DA, Held DW, 2002. Biology and management of Japanese beetle. Annual Review of Entomology, 47:175-205

Potter DA, Patterson CG, Redmond CT, 1992. Influence of turfgrass species and tall fescue endophyte on feeding ecology of Japanese beetle and southern masked chafer grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(3):900-909; 29 ref

Potter DA, Powell AJ, Spicer PG, Williams DW, 1996. Cultural practices affect root-feeding white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in turfgrass. Journal of Economic Entomology, 89:156-164

Potter DA, Spicer PG, Held D, McNiel RE, 1998. Relative susceptibility of cultivars of flowering crabapples, lindens, and roses to defoliation by Japanese beetles. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 16(2):105-110; 13 ref

Primault B, 1962. Des possibilités de développement du Hanneton japonais en Suisse. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 34:377-381

Ranney TG, Walgenbach JF, 1992. Feeding preference of Japanese beetles for taxa of birch, cherry and crabapple. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 10(3):177-180; 6 ref

Redmond CT, Poter DA, 1995. Lack of efficacy of in vivo- and putatively in vitro-produced Bacillus popilliae against field populations of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) grubs in Kentucky. Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(4):846-854; 29 ref

Reed DK, Lee MH, Kim SH, Klein MG, 1991. Attraction of scarab beetle populations (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) to Japanese beetle lures in the Republic of Korea. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 36(3-4):163-174

Rowe WJII, Potter DA, 1996. Vertical stratification of feeding by Japanese beetles within linden tree canopies: selective foraging or height per se?. Oecologia, 108(3):459-466; 36 ref

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp

Shetlar DJ, Suleman PE, Georgis R, 1988. Irrigation and use of entomogenous nematodes, Neoaplectana spp. and Heterorhabditis heliothidis (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) for control of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabpidae) grubs in turfgrass. Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(5):1318-1322

Simoes AMMA, 1984. Observations on Popillia japonica Newman on the island of Terceira. Arquipélago, Ciencias da Natureza, 5:129-156; [9 fig.]; 9 ref

Smetnik AI, Nikritin LM, Vlasova VA, 1978. The Japanese beetle. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 2:40-42

Smith IM McNamara DG Scott PR Holderness M Burger B, 1997. Popillia japonica. In: Quarantine Pests for Europe Wallingford, UK: CABI, 456-460

Smith IM McNamara DG Scott PR Holderness M Burger B, 1997. Popillia japonica. In: Quarantine Pests for Europe Wallingford, UK: CABI, 456-460

Smith IM McNamara DG Scott PR Holderness M Burger B, 1997. Popillia japonica. In: Quarantine Pests for Europe Wallingford, UK: CABI, 456-460

Spicer PG, Potter DA, McNiel RE, 1995. Resistance of flowering crabapple cultivars to defoliation by the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(4):979-985

Tashiro H, 1987. Turfgrass insects of the United States and Canada. Ithaca, New York, USA; Cornell University Press, xiv + 391 pp

Terry LA, Potter DA, Spicer PG, 1993. Insecticides affect predatory arthropods and predation on Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) eggs and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pupae in turfgrass. Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(3):871-878

Tumlinson JH, Klein MG, Doolittle RE, Ladd TL, Proveaux AT, 1977. Identification of the female Japanese beetle sex pheromone: inhibition of male response by an enantiomer. Science, l97:789-792

USDA, 1975. Japanese beetle quarantines (map). Cooperative Economic Insect Report, 25(9):110

USDA/APHIS, 2000. Managing the Japanese Beetle. A Homeowner's Handbook.,cic_text/housing/japanese-beetle/jbeetle.html

USDA/APHIS, 2004. Japanese beetle program manual for airports. Marketing and Regulatory Programs.

Vega, FE, Dowd PF, Lacey LA, Pell JK, Jackson DM, Klein MG, 2007. Dissemination of beneficial microbial agents by insects. In: Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology [ed. by Lacey LA, Kaya HK] Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer, 127-148

Villani MG, Wright RJ, 1988. Entomogenous nematodes as biological control agents of European chafer and Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabpidae) larvae infesting turfgrass. Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(2):484-487

Villani MG, Wright RJ, Baker PB, 1988. Differential susceptibility of Japanese beetle, Oriental beetle, and European chafer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) larvae to five soil insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(3):785-788

Vittum PJ, 1986. Biology of the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabpidae) in eastern Massachusetts. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(2):387-391

Vittum PJ, Villani MG, Tashiro H, 1999. Turfgrass Insects of the United States and Canada. Ithaca, USA: Cornell University Press, 422 pp

Wickizer SL, Gergerich RC, 2007. First report of Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) as a vector of Southern bena mosaic virus and Bean pod mottle virus. Plant Disease, 91(5):637. HTTP://

Wright RJ, Villani MG, Agudelo-Silva F, 1988. Steinernematid and heterorhabditid nematodes for control of larval European chafers and Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabpidae) in potted yew. Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(1):152-157

Zenger JT, Gibb TJ, 2001. Identification and impact of egg predators of Cyclocephala lurida Bland and Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scaraaeidae) in turfgrass. Environmental Entomology, 30:425-430

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, 1978. [Nos. 379-384 and 16, 64 and 215 (revised).]. In: Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A (Agricultural),

EPPO, 2014. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO.

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Fleming WE, 1972. Biology of the Japanese beetle. In: USDA Technical Bulletin 1449, Washington, DC,

NAPIS, 2009. Reported Status of Japanese Beetle - Popillia japonica. In: Reported Status of Japanese Beetle - Popillia japonica, Washington DC, USA: USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Ping L, 1988. The Popillia fauna of China., Pianze Eldonejo. 71 pp.

Reed D K, Lee M H, Kim S H, Klein M G, 1991. Attraction of scarab beetle populations (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) to Japanese beetle lures in the Republic of Korea. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 36 (3-4), 163-174. DOI:10.1016/0167-8809(91)90013-N

Tashiro H, 1987. Turfgrass insects of the United States and Canada. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Press. xiv + 391pp.

Wickizer S L, Gergerich R C, 2007. First report of Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) as a vector of Southern bena mosaic virus and Bean pod mottle virus. Plant Disease. 91 (5), 637. HTTP:// DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-5-0637C

Links to Websites

Top of page
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.


Top of page

27/03/2008 Updated by:

Michael Klein, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Adjunct Associate Professor, 1680 Madison Avenue, Wooster, OH 44691, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map