Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Alfalfa mosaic virus
(alfalfa yellow spot)

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Datasheet

Alfalfa mosaic virus (alfalfa yellow spot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Alfalfa mosaic virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • alfalfa yellow spot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Bromoviridae
  •         Genus: Alfamovirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Alfalfa mosaic virus particles.

Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
TitleVirus particles
CaptionAlfalfa mosaic virus particles. Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
CopyrightIACR/Rothamsted
Alfalfa mosaic virus particles.

Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
Virus particlesAlfalfa mosaic virus particles. Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/IACR/Rothamsted

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Alfalfa mosaic virus

Preferred Common Name

  • alfalfa yellow spot

Other Scientific Names

  • alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus
  • alfalfa virus 1 and 2
  • lucerne mosaic virus
  • Marmor medicaginis
  • potato calico virus

International Common Names

  • English: tomato necrotic tip curl

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Luzerne Mosaikvirus; Nekrotische Spitzenkraeuselung der Tomate; Paprikabuntblaettrigkeit

English acronym

  • AMV

EPPO code

  • AMV000 (Alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Bromoviridae
  •                 Genus: Alfamovirus
  •                     Species: Alfalfa mosaic virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresent, Localized
LibyaPresent
MoroccoPresent
NigeriaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent, Localized
TunisiaPresent
ZambiaPresent

Asia

AzerbaijanPresent
BangladeshPresent
ChinaPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
JordanPresent, Widespread
KyrgyzstanPresent
LebanonPresent, Widespread
MyanmarPresent, Localized
NepalPresent
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent
TajikistanPresent
TurkeyPresent
UzbekistanPresent
YemenPresent

Europe

AlbaniaPresent
AustriaPresent
BelarusPresent
BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent, Widespread
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresent
CzechiaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Musil et al., 1972
DenmarkPresent
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent, Widespread
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent, Widespread
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresent, Widespread
LithuaniaPresent
NetherlandsPresent, Localized
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent, Widespread
-Central RussiaPresent
-Southern RussiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent, Few occurrences
-EnglandPresent
-Northern IrelandPresent
-ScotlandPresent
-WalesPresent

North America

CanadaPresent, Widespread
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-New BrunswickPresent
-OntarioPresent
-Prince Edward IslandPresent
-QuebecPresent
MexicoPresent
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-AlabamaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-DelawarePresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-NevadaPresent
-New HampshirePresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent2010
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-UtahPresent
-VermontPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent
-WyomingPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
PeruPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Roots / reduced root system
Stems / discoloration of bark
Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration
Whole plant / dwarfing

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
True seeds (inc. grain) Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Wood

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Acyrthosiphon kondoiInsect
Acyrthosiphon pisumInsect
Aphis craccivoraInsect
Aphis gossypiiInsect
Aphis spiraecolaInsect
Myzus persicaeInsect

References

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Fletcher JD, 1993. Surveys of virus diseases in pea, lentil, dwarf and broad bean crops in South Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 21(1):45-52

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Ford RE, 1965. Enation symptoms on tobacco induced by alfalfa mosaic virus. Plant Disease Reporter, 49:684-686.

Fortass M, Bos L, 1991. Survey of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) for viruses in Morocco. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 97(6):369-380

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Fuentes S, Jayasinghe U, 1993. Potato yellowing, caused by a new bacilliform virus. Fitopatologia, 28(1):22-37

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Lockhart B, Mollov D, Daughtrey M, 2013. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus occurrence in hydrangea in the United States. Plant Disease, 97(9):1258. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

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Makkouk KM, Bashir M, Jones R, 1998. First record of faba bean necrotic yellows virus and beet western yellows luteovirus affecting lentil and chickpea in Pakistan. Plant Disease, 82(5):591; 2 ref.

Makkouk KM, Bashir M, Jones RAC, Kumari SG, 2001. Survey for viruses in lentil and chickpea crops in Pakistan. Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 108(3):258-268; 34 ref.

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Mallor C, Luis-Arteaga M, Cambra MA, Fernßndez-Cavada S, 2002. Natural infection of field-grown borage (Borago officinalis) by alfalfa mosaic virus in Spain. Plant Disease, 86(6):698; 2 ref.

Marchoux G, Rougier J, 1974. Alfalfa mosaic virus: isolation from lavandin (Lavandula hybrida Rev.) and eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Annales de Phytopathologie, 6(2):191-196

Marco S, Bar-Joseph M, 1972. A mosaic disease of Tecomaria capensis caused by alfalfa mosaic virus. Plant Disease Reporter, 56(12):1035-1037

Mayoral ML, Uzcategui R, Oropeza T, Gil F, Garcia V, 1988. Weeds and alfalfa cultivars as reservoirs of a temperature-sensitive strain of alfalfa mosaic virus in Venezuela. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 95(6):635-641

McKirdy SJ, Jones RAC, 1994. Infection of alternative hosts associated with annual medics (Medicago spp.) by alfalfa mosaic virus and its persistence between growing seasons. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 45(7):1413-1426

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