Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Alfalfa mosaic virus
(alfalfa yellow spot)

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Datasheet

Alfalfa mosaic virus (alfalfa yellow spot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Alfalfa mosaic virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • alfalfa yellow spot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Bromoviridae
  •         Genus: Alfamovirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Alfalfa mosaic virus particles.

Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
TitleVirus particles
CaptionAlfalfa mosaic virus particles. Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
CopyrightIACR/Rothamsted
Alfalfa mosaic virus particles.

Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
Virus particlesAlfalfa mosaic virus particles. Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/IACR/Rothamsted

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Alfalfa mosaic virus

Preferred Common Name

  • alfalfa yellow spot

Other Scientific Names

  • alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus
  • alfalfa virus 1 and 2
  • lucerne mosaic virus
  • Marmor medicaginis
  • potato calico virus

International Common Names

  • English: tomato necrotic tip curl

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Luzerne Mosaikvirus; Nekrotische Spitzenkraeuselung der Tomate; Paprikabuntblaettrigkeit

English acronym

  • AMV

EPPO code

  • AMV000 (Alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Bromoviridae
  •                 Genus: Alfamovirus
  •                     Species: Alfalfa mosaic virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentICRISAT, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-Nei MengguPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentLu and Li, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
IndiaPresentNain et al., 1994b; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentMali et al., 1998; Mali et al., 1977; Vyanjane and Mali, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
IranPresentKaiser et al., 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014; Pourrahim and Farzadfar, 2016
IraqPresentSalama and El-Behadli, 1979; El-Muadhidi et al., 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2002
IsraelPresentMarco and Bar-Joseph, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoPresentIizuka and Yoshida, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentIizuka, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
JordanWidespreadNienhaus and Saad, 1967; Al-Mabrouk and Mansour, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentPark et al., 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
KyrgyzstanPresentGorbunova et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
LebanonWidespreadNienhaus and Saad, 1967; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
MyanmarRestricted distributionReddy et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresentICRISAT, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
OmanPresentZadjali et al., 2002
PakistanPresentMakkouk et al., 1998; Makkouk et al., 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentAl-Shahwan et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentMouhanna et al., 1994; Haj-Kassem et al., 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentLee, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
TajikistanPresentGorbunova et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentNart, 1972; Erdiller and Akbas, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Ozdemir et al., 2011; EPPO, 2014
UzbekistanPresentGorbunova et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
YemenPresentAlhubaishi et al., 1987; Walkey et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNechardi et al., 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
EgyptPresentElnagar et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
EthiopiaPresentMih and Hanson, 1998; Edeme and Hanson, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
KenyaRestricted distributionKaiser and Robertson, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
LibyaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentFischer, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
NigeriaPresentChalam et al., 2008
South AfricaPresentPietersen et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
SudanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
TanzaniaRestricted distributionKaiser and Robertson, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaPresentBen-Moussa et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
ZambiaPresentNdunguru and Kapooria, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-ManitobaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014; Nie et al., 2015
-OntarioPresentBerkeley, 1947; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentPaliwal, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
MexicoPresentDiaz-Valasis et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-AlabamaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-ArkansasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentSnyder and Rich, 1942; Campbell et al., 1971; Rahman and Peaden, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-DelawarePresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoPresentRahman and Peaden, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-IowaPresentFisher and Nameth, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-KansasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-KentuckyPresentTaylor et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentFisher and Nameth, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Lockhart et al., 2002; EPPO, 2014
-MinnesotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; Lockhart et al., 2002; EPPO, 2014
-MississippiPresentTaylor et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-MissouriPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-MontanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-NebraskaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-NevadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-New HampshirePresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-New MexicoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentSchroeder and Provvidenti, 1972; Carroll and Provvidenti, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Lockhart et al., 2002; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentLucas and Harper, 1972; Gooding and Rufty, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-North DakotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; Hobbs et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentFisher and Nameth, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentFord, 1965; Rahman and Peaden, 1993; Larsen and Myers, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentLeath and Barnett, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentBarnett and Gibson, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-TennesseePresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-UtahPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-VermontPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentRahman and Peaden, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentCrill et al., 1970; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Pineyro et al., 2002; EPPO, 2014
-WyomingPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
BrazilPresentAlmeida et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-ParanaPresentKatajima et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentMoreira et al., 2010
ChilePresentCastro & Sandaval, 1998; Sepulveda et al., 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Peña et al., 2011; EPPO, 2014
ColombiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
EcuadorPresentColimba et al., 2016
PeruPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
VenezuelaPresentMayoral et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
BelarusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentVanderveken, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaWidespread****CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaPresentVrandecic et al., 2013
CyprusPresentIoannou & Vakis, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresent****Polak, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)Widespread****Musil et al., 1972
DenmarkPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
FinlandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
FrancePresentBlanchard et al., 1994; Marchoux and Rougier, 1974; Vuittenez et al., 1974; Cardin and Moury, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Cardin et al., 2002; EPPO, 2014
GermanyWidespread****Schmelzer and Schmidt, 1968; Beczner et al., 1972; Bercks et al., 1973; Cardin and Moury, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentAvgelis and Katis, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
HungaryWidespread****Kasinczi et al., 2002; Beczner, 1972; Gaborjanyi and Nagy, 1972; Wolf, 1972; Beczner et al., 1973; Wolf and Schmelzer, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
IrelandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
ItalyWidespreadConti et al., 1972; Parrella et al., 1998; Bellardi et al., 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaPresentStanyulis, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentHenriques, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentDelibasic et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
SlovakiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
SloveniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
SpainPresentDelgado-Enquita and Luna-Calvo, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Mallor et al., 2002; Parrella et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
UKPresent, few occurrences****Gibbsm 1962; Gibbs and Tinsley, 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-England and WalesPresentEPPO, 2014
-Northern IrelandPresentEPPO, 2014
-ScotlandPresentEPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentMoskovets and Lavrukh, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentTosic and Pesic, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2002

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNorton and Johnstone, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentHulse et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentHulse et al., 1993; Jayasena et al., 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentHulse et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentHulse et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentLathan & Jones, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Coutts and Jones, 2002; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandPresentFletcher, 1993; Fletcher, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Roots / reduced root system
Stems / discoloration of bark
Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration
Whole plant / dwarfing

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
True seeds (inc. grain) Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Wood

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

Top of page
VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Acyrthosiphon kondoiInsect
Acyrthosiphon pisumInsect
Aphis craccivoraInsect
Aphis gossypiiInsect
Aphis spiraecolaInsect
Myzus persicaeInsect

References

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Alhubaishi AA, Walkey DGA, Webb MJW, Bolland CJ, Cook AA, 1987. A survey of horticultural plant virus diseases in the Yemen Arab Republic. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 35(4):135-143

Al-Mabrouk O, Mansour AN, 1998. Viruses affecting lentil in Jordan. Indian Phytopathology, 51(1):1-9.

Almeida AM, Bianchini A, Costa AS, Vega J, 1982. Calico mosaic, a new virus disease of soybean in Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 7(1):133-138

Al-Shahwan IM, Abdalla OA, Al-Saleh MA, 1998. Potato viruses in central Saudi Arabia. Journal of King Saud University, Agricultural Sciences, 10(1):45-53; 17 ref.

Avgelis A, Katis N, 1989. Identification of alfalfa mosaic virus in Greek alfalfa crops. Journal of Phytopathology, 125(3):231-237

Babovic M, 1975. Comparative studies of alfalfa mosaic virus transmission through seeds of some American and Yugoslav lucerne populations. Arhiv za Poljoprivredne Nauke, 28(103):73-79

Bailiss KW, Offei SK, 1990. Alfalfa mosaic virus in lucerne seed during seed maturation and storage, and in seedlings. Plant Pathology, 39(3):539-547

Bailiss KW, Ollennu LLA, 1986. Effect of alfalfa mosaic virus isolates on forage yield of lucerne (Medicago sativa) in Britain. Plant Pathology, 35(2):162-168

Balasubramaniam M, Ibrahim A, Kim BS, Loesch-Fries LS, 2006. Arabidopsis thaliana is an asymptomatic host of Alfalfa mosaic virus. Virus Research, 121(2):215-219. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01681702

Bariana HS, Shannon AL, Chu PWG, Waterhouse PM, 1994. Detection of five seedborne legume viruses in one sensitive multiplex polymerase chain reaction test. Phytopathology, 84(10):1201-1205

Barnett OW, Gibson PB, 1977. Effect of virus infection on flowering and seed production of the parental clones of Tillman white clover (Trifolium repens). Plant Disease Reporter, 61(3):203-207

Beczner L, 1972. The occurrence of new strains of alfalfa mosaic virus in Hungary. Novenyvedelmi Kutato Intezet Kozlemenyei, 6:101-118

Beczner L, Hosszu J, Kajati I, 1973. Data on the incidence of alfalfa mosaic virus in Hungary. Novenytermeles, 23(3):259-265

Beczner L, Manninger S, 1973. The spread of alfalfa mosaic virus on different lucerne varieties. Novenytermeles, 22(1):15-23

Beczner L, Schmelzer K, Schmidt HE, 1972. Investigations on the occurrence of alfalfa mosaic virus in lucerne stands of the German Democratic Republic. Archiv fur Pflanzenschutz, 8:407-419

Bellardi MG, Autonell CR, Bertaccini A, 1999. Virus and phytoplasma infections on 'officinal' plants in Emilia-Romagna. III report. Informatore Fitopatologico, 49(6):47-53; 27 ref.

Ben Moussa A, Makni M, Marrakchi M, 2000. Identification of the principal viruses infecting tomato crops in Tunisia. Bulletin OEPP, 30(2):293-296; 22 ref.

Bercks R, Lesemann D, Querfurth G, 1973. On the detection of alfalfa mosaic virus in a grapevine. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 76(2):166-171

Berkeley GH, 1947. A strain of alfalfa mosaic virus on pepper in Ontario. Phytopathology 37:781-789.

Blancard D, Ano G, Cailleteau B, 1994. Principal viruses affecting tobacco in France. Annales du Tabac. Section 2, No. 26:39-50; 51 ref.

Brederode FT, Taschner PEM, Posthumus E, Bol JF, 1995. Replicase-mediated resistance to alfalfa mosaic virus. Virology (New York), 207(2):467-474; 34 ref.

Brunt AA, Crabtree K, Dallwitz MJ, Gibbs AJ, Watson L (eds), 1996. Viruses of plants. Descriptions and lists from the VIDE database. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 1484 pp.

Burke DW, 1963. Incidence of viruses infectious to beans in plants of twelve alfalfa varieties. Plant Disease Reporter, 47:845-847.

CABI/EPPO, 2002. Alfalfa mosaic virus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 388. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cali S, 1990. Investigations of virus infections of lucerne in central Anatolia and their transmission through weeds and seeds. Arastirma Yayinlari Serisi Yayin, No. 72.

Campbell RN, Melugin N, Stella A, 1971. Plant Disease Reporter 55:322-325.

Cardin L, Moury B, 2000. First report of alfalfa mosaic virus in Pachysandra terminalis in Europe. Plant Disease, 84(5):594; 2 ref.

Cardin L, Onesto JP, Moury B, 2002. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus in Physostegia virginiana. Plant Disease, 86(1):72; 1 ref.

Carroll JE, Provvidenti R, 1989. First reported viral disease of Swedish ivy caused by alfalfa mosaic virus. Plant Disease, 73(2):183

Castro R, Sandoval BC, 1998. Virus diseases affecting tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) in South-Central Chile. Agro-Ciencia, 14(2):289-292; 8 ref.

Chalam VC, Parakh DB, Khetarpal RK, Maurya AK, Anju Jain, Shamsher Singh, 2008. Interception of seed-transmitted viruses in cowpea and mungbean germplasm imported during 2003. Indian Journal of Virology, 19(1):12-16. http://www.virologysociety.org

Colimba J, Falcón E, Castro ER, Davila-Aldas D, Pallas V, Sanchez-Navarro JA, Gomez G, 2016. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus in red pepper plants in Ecuador. Plant Disease, 100(5):1026. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Conti GG, Favali MA, Vegetti G, 1972. The behaviour of yellow spot mosaic virus, a strain of alfalfa mosaic virus, in different host plants. Symptomatology and ultrastructural observations. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 4, 8(4):323-340

Coutts BA, Jones RAC, 2002. Temporal dynamics of spread of four viruses within mixed species perennial pastures. Annals of Applied Biology, 140(1):37-52; 49 ref.

Crill P, Hagedorn DJ, Hanson EW, 1970. Agricultural Research Bulletin, University of Wisconsin 280, 40 pp.

Delgado Enquita I, Luna Calvo L, 1992. Incidences of mosaic and enation viruses in selected alfalfa plants. Pastos, 22(1):85-92; 6 ref.

Delibasic G, Tanovic B, Hrustic J, Stankovic I, Bulajic A, Vucurovic A, Krstic B, 2013. First report of the natural infection of Robinia pseudoacacia with Alfalfa mosaic virus. Plant Disease, 97(6):851. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Diaz-Valasis M, Cadena-Hinojosa MA, Torres Vazquez E, Cardenas S E, 1992. Aetiology of yellow spot of potatoes grown on the central plateau of Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatologia, 10(1):60-63

Edeme J, Hanson J, 2000. First report of alfalfa mosaic, bean common mosaic, and broad bean stain viruses in Macrotyloma axillare. Plant Disease, 84(5):594; 1 ref.

Edwardson JR, Christie RG, 1997. Viruses infecting peppers and other solanaceous crops. Volume 1. Viruses infecting peppers and other solanaceous crops. Volume 1., 336 pp.; [^italic~University of Florida Monograph 18-I.^roman~]; many ref.

El-Muadhidi MA, Makkouk KM, Kumari SG, Myasser Jerjess, Murad SS, Mustafa RR, Feras Tarik, 2001. Survey for legume and cereal viruses in Iraq. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 40(3):224-233; 42 ref.

Elnagar S, El-Sheikh MAK, Maklad FM, Kabeil SSA, 1995. Field observations on the natural infection of potato with two aphid-borne viruses. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cairo, 46(2):289-297

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Erdiller G, Akbas B, 1994. Plant viruses in Ankara rivers and lakes. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 23(3):119-126; 25 ref.

Fajolu OL, Wen RH, Hajimorad MR, 2010. Occurrence of Alfalfa mosaic virus in soybean in Tennessee. Plant Disease, 94(12):1505. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Finetti Sialer MM, Parrella G, Papanice M, Vovlas C, Gallitelli D, 2000. Biodiversity of viruses infecting tomato in Italy: methods for diagnosis and diversification. Bulletin OEPP, 30(2):301-304; 13 ref.

Fischer HU, 1979. The identification and differentiation of virus infections of broad bean. Awamia, 57:41-72

Fisher JR, Nameth ST, 2000. Virus assessment of Ajuga reptans cultivars reveals alfalfa mosaic, tobacco streak, and cucumber mosaic (CMV) viruses, and a CMV satellite RNA. HortScience, 35(2):230-234; 23 ref.

Fitchen JH, Beachy RN, 1993. Genetically engineered protection against viruses in transgenic plants. Annual Review of Microbiology, 47:739-763

Fletcher JD, 1993. Surveys of virus diseases in pea, lentil, dwarf and broad bean crops in South Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 21(1):45-52

Fletcher JD, 2001. New hosts of alfalfa mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus, potato virus Y, soybean dwarf virus, and tomato spotted wilt virus in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 29(3):213-217.

Ford RE, 1965. Enation symptoms on tobacco induced by alfalfa mosaic virus. Plant Disease Reporter, 49:684-686.

Fortass M, Bos L, 1991. Survey of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) for viruses in Morocco. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 97(6):369-380

Frosheiser FI, 1974. Alfalfa mosaic virus transmission to seed through alfalfa gametes and longevity in alfalfa seed. Phytopathology, 64:102-105.

Fuentes S, Jayasinghe U, 1993. Potato yellowing, caused by a new bacilliform virus. Fitopatologia, 28(1):22-37

Gaborjanyi R, Nagy F, 1972. Termesztett gyogynovenyeink virus- es mikoplazma betegsegei. Herba-Hungarica, 11(2):39-51.

Gibbs AJ, 1962. Lucerne mosaic virus in British lucerne crops. Plant Pathology, 11:167-171.

Gibbs AJ, Tinsley TW, 1961. Lucerne mosaic virus in Great Britain. Plant Pathology, 10:61.

Gooding GV Jr, Rufty RC, 1987. Distribution, incidence, and strains of viruses in burley tobacco in North Carolina. Plant Disease, 71(1):38-40

Gorbunova NI, Shevtsova LB, Shevyakova MI, Soboleva AB, 1989. Virus and mycoplasma diseases of lucerne. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), 7:20

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