Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Pongamia pinnata
(Indian beech)



Pongamia pinnata (Indian beech)


  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pongamia pinnata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Indian beech
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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TitleYoung tree
Copyright©K.M. Siddiqui
Young tree©K.M. Siddiqui
TitleLeaves and pods
Copyright©K.M. Siddiqui
Leaves and pods©K.M. Siddiqui
1. flowering branch
2. flower
3. pods
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. flowering branch 2. flower 3. pods
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
1. flowering branch
2. flower
3. pods
Line artwork1. flowering branch 2. flower 3. podsPROSEA Foundation


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

Preferred Common Name

  • Indian beech

Other Scientific Names

  • Cytisus pinnatus L.
  • Derris indica (Lam.) Bennet
  • Galedupa indica Lam.
  • Galedupa pinnata (L.) Taub.
  • Pongamia glabra Vent., nom. illeg.
  • Pongamia mitis Kurz, nom. illeg.

International Common Names

  • French: arbre de pongolote

Local Common Names

  • India: kanji; karanga; karanja; papar; pongam
  • Myanmar: thiuwia

EPPO code

  • PNGPI (Pongamia pinnata)

Trade name

  • kanji
  • karanj

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Faboideae
  •                                 Genus: Pongamia
  •                                     Species: Pongamia pinnata

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes


South AfricaPresentPlanted


-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentPlanted
-Himachal PradeshPresentPlanted
-Madhya PradeshPresentPlanted
-Tamil NaduPresentPlanted
-Uttar PradeshPresentPlanted
-West BengalPresentPlanted
Saudi ArabiaPresent
Sri LankaPresentPlanted


New ZealandPresentPlanted

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 -20 0 1200

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -1
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 27
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 35 45
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 8 15


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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration24number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall3002500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • sodic

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed


  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil improvement
  • Windbreak


  • Fuelwood


  • Ornamental


  • Dye/tanning
  • Essential oils
  • Pesticide
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Wood Products

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  • Posts


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Ali SL, 1977. Flora of West Pakistan. Karachi, Pakistan: Department of Botany, Karachi University.

Cheng WE; Horng FW; Chen TH, 1996. The response of four windbreak trees to fertilization during planting in Penghu. Taiwan Journal of Forest Science, 11(3):303-313.

Devarnavadagi SB; Murthy BG, 1995. Performance of different tree species on eroded soils of northern dry zone of Karnataka. Advances in Agricultural Research in India, 4: 73-77.

Faridah Hanum I; Maesen LJG van der, eds. , 1997. Plant resources of southeast Asia. No. 11. Auxillary plants. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys.

Gupta BN; Williams AJ; Banerjee SK, 1995. Impact of thermal power plant emission on vegetation and soil. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy.-Part-B,-Biological-Sciences, 61(6):457-469; 21 ref.

Hiremath IG; Ahn YJ; Kim SI, 1997. Insecticidal activity of Indian plant extracts against Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 32(1):159-166.

Hocking D, ed. , 1993. Trees for drylands. New Delhi, India: Oxford and IBH.

Iqbal MZ; Siddiqui AD, 1996. Effects of autovehicular emissions on pods and seed germination of some plants. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 5(1):67-69; 9 ref.

Manonmani V; Vanangamudi K; Rai RSV; Vinaya Rai RS, 1996. Effect of seed size on seed germination and vigour in Pongamia pinnata. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 9(1):1-5; 19 ref.

Parker RN, 1956. A forest flora for the Punjab with Hazara and Delhi. Lahore, Pakistan: Government Printing Press.

Patil SG; Hebbara M; Devarnavadagi SB, 1996. Screening of multipurpose trees for saline vertisols and their bioameliorative effects. Annals of Arid Zone, 35(1):57-60; 9 ref.

Paulsamy S; Arumugasamy K; Rangarajan RN; Manorama S, 1996. Evaluation of calcareous mine spoils for tree seedling growth. Annals of Forestry, 4(2):159-162.

Phlomina NS; Srivasuki KP, 1996. Allelopathic studies on agro-forestry species: effect of leaf leachates on seed germination of crop plants. Indian Journal of Forestry, 19(1):45-53; 9 ref.

Pokhriyal TC; Chaukiyal SP; Singh KCH, 1996. Nitrogen fixation and nodulation behaviour in relation to seasonal changes in six multipurpose tree species. Indian Forester, 122(8):718-726; 18 ref.

Shashikumar KC; Hosetti BB; Kumar JPPJ; Madhyastha MN; Jeba Kumar JPP, 1996. Ecology of pentatomid bug Cyclopelta siccifolia with reference to feeding behavior. Environment and Ecology, 14(4):828-833.

Shyam L, 1996. Rehabilitation of fly ash dump yard [of] Shaktinagar super thermal power station through afforestation. Indian Forester, 122(9):777-782.

Singh RK; Joshi VK; Goel RK; Gambhir SS; Acharya SB, 1996. Pharmacological actions of Pongamia pinnata seeds-a preliminary study. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 34(12):1204-1207.

Singh S, 1997. Description of a new and notes on some other species of Encyrtus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) parasitising scale insects in Assam, India. Oriental Insects, 31:419-426.

Singh SP, 1989. Wasteland development. New Delhi, India: Agricole.

Streets RJ, 1962. Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Sushilkumar, 1995. Epidemics of leaf miner (Lithocolletis virgulata) on Pongamia pinnata. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 3(2):164-190; 1 ref.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

El-Sherbiny A A, 2011. Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with ornamental shrubs, trees and palms in Saudi Arabia, including new host records. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 29 (2), 147-164.

Firdousi S A, 2018. First report of fungal disease at nursery of social forestry department, Jalgaon (M.S.) India. Flora and Fauna (Jhansi). 24 (1), 88-90.

Hemant Pathak, Saurabh Maru, Satya H N, Silawat S C, 2015. Fungal diseases of trees in forest nurseries of Indore, India. Journal of Plant Pathology and Microbiology. 6 (8), 297.

Rasthra Vardhana, 2007. Plant's havoc by Cuscuta spp. in district Meerut U.P. India. Plant Archives. 7 (2), 917-918.

Rasthra Vardhana, 2007a. Plant's havoc by Cuscuta spp. in district Ghaziabad U.P. India. Plant Archives. 7 (2), 921-922.

Saengyot S, 2016. Predatory thrips species composition, their prey and host plant association in Northern Thailand. Agriculture and Natural Resources. 50 (5), 380-387. DOI:10.1016/j.anres.2015.10.002

Tariq M, Firoza K, Shahina F, 2007. Medicinal plants as new hosts of root-knot and other nematodes from Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 25 (1), 165-172.

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