Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Polistes dominula
(European paper wasp)



Polistes dominula (European paper wasp)


  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Polistes dominula
  • Preferred Common Name
  • European paper wasp
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. dominula is a primitively eusocial paper wasp native to Mediterranean Europe. It is introduced and invasive in North America (

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Polistes dominula (European paper wasp); adult female, dorsal view. Museum set specimen. Maourine pond, Toulouse, France. July 2011.
CaptionPolistes dominula (European paper wasp); adult female, dorsal view. Museum set specimen. Maourine pond, Toulouse, France. July 2011.
Copyright©Muséum de Toulouse/Didier Descouens-2011 - CC BY-SA 4.0
Polistes dominula (European paper wasp); adult female, dorsal view. Museum set specimen. Maourine pond, Toulouse, France. July 2011.
AdultPolistes dominula (European paper wasp); adult female, dorsal view. Museum set specimen. Maourine pond, Toulouse, France. July 2011.©Muséum de Toulouse/Didier Descouens-2011 - CC BY-SA 4.0
Polistes dominula (European paper wasp); adult female, dorsal view. Close view of wing venation and thorax. Museum set specimen. Maourine pond, Toulouse, France. July 2011.
CaptionPolistes dominula (European paper wasp); adult female, dorsal view. Close view of wing venation and thorax. Museum set specimen. Maourine pond, Toulouse, France. July 2011.
Copyright©Muséum de Toulouse/Didier Descouens-2011 - CC BY-SA 4.0
Polistes dominula (European paper wasp); adult female, dorsal view. Close view of wing venation and thorax. Museum set specimen. Maourine pond, Toulouse, France. July 2011.
AdultPolistes dominula (European paper wasp); adult female, dorsal view. Close view of wing venation and thorax. Museum set specimen. Maourine pond, Toulouse, France. July 2011.©Muséum de Toulouse/Didier Descouens-2011 - CC BY-SA 4.0
Polistes dominula (European paper wasp); adult female, close view of head and antennae. Museum set specimen. Maourine pond, Toulouse, France. July 2011.
CaptionPolistes dominula (European paper wasp); adult female, close view of head and antennae. Museum set specimen. Maourine pond, Toulouse, France. July 2011.
Copyright©Muséum de Toulouse/Didier Descouens-2011 - CC BY-SA 4.0
Polistes dominula (European paper wasp); adult female, close view of head and antennae. Museum set specimen. Maourine pond, Toulouse, France. July 2011.
AdultPolistes dominula (European paper wasp); adult female, close view of head and antennae. Museum set specimen. Maourine pond, Toulouse, France. July 2011.©Muséum de Toulouse/Didier Descouens-2011 - CC BY-SA 4.0


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Polistes dominula (Christ, 1791)

Preferred Common Name

  • European paper wasp

Other Scientific Names

  • Polistes dominulus
  • Vespa dominula Christ 1791

International Common Names

  • English: paper wasp

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. dominula is a primitively eusocial paper wasp native to Mediterranean Europe. It is introduced and invasive in North America (Weiner et al., 2012). It is also naturalized in the Western Cape Province of South Africa (Veldtman et al., 2012).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hymenoptera
  •                         Family: Vespidae
  •                             Genus: Polistes
  •                                 Species: Polistes dominula

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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P. dominula is a primitively eusocial paper wasp from Mediterranean Europe (Weiner et al., 2012). It is referred to as the European paper wasp due to its native range and the fact that the nests are constructed of saliva and paper.

Despite the plethora of literature documenting this species as P. dominulus, it is stated that the species was originally described as Vespa dominula in 1791 by Johann Ludwig Christ, and that ‘dominula’ should be retained even though the species is now in a different genus (Polistes), following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Royal BC Museum, 2011).

Bruschini et al. (2007) showed that venom volatiles can be used as a taxonomic tool in Polistes wasps. They compared P. dominula, P. gallicus and P. nimphus and found that venom volatile composition was species-specific and could be used as a systematic tool.

Other authors (such as Ozbay and Akbayin, 1993) have shown that eight body variables can be used to distinguish between Vespidae species; for example, clypeus length, clypeus width, oculomalar space and length of tibia III could be used to discriminate between Polistes gallicus, Vespidae germanica and P. dominula buncharensis.


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Matthias et al. (2008) should be consulted for a description of P. dominula, but the following provides an introduction and is mainly based on this publication, unless otherwise stated:

Adult paper wasps are 20 to 25 mm long (McIlveen and Hamman, 1991). The wing length is 9.5 to 13.0 mm in males and 8.5 to 12.0 mm in females (Royal BC Museum, 2011).

In addition to compound eyes, adults have numerous ocelli (simple eyes) in a triangular formation (Royal BC Museum, 2011).

The antennae are mostly yellow and the body is black and yellow. A hard exoskeleton covers the head, mesosoma and metasoma. There is a yellow postocular stripe, often narrowed, and the female mandible is black, sometimes with a yellow spot.


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P. dominula originates from Mediterranean Europe (Weiner et al., 2012). It has been introduced to South Africa (Eardley et al., 2009) and North America (e.g. Borkent and Cannings, 2004). It was first introduced to the USA in Massachusetts, in the 1970s (according to Matthias et al., 2008), and first recorded in Michigan in 1995 (Judd and Carpenter, 1996).

According to Matthias et al. (2008), P. dominula is present from central and southern Europe to Mongolia and China, south to northern Africa, Israel, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and northern India, and introduced in Western Australia. However, individual records for this distribution could only be found for Europe and Iran, thus the rest of the statement is considered unverified and not included in the distribution table. The authors also stated that the species continues to spread and ‘should already be present in Quebec, and will soon be found in New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island.’

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


IranPresentAbbasi et al., 2009Zanjan province, north-west Iran
TurkeyPresentTezcan et al., 2005


South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Eardley et al., 2009; Veldtman et al., 2012

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedBorkent and Cannings, 2004
-Nova ScotiaPresentHoebeke and Wheeler, 2005First record
USAPresentIntroduced Invasive Cervo et al., 2000
-MainePresentJacobson, 1996
-MarylandPresentStaines and Smith, 1995; Jacobson, 1996
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedMatthias et al., 2008First recorded in N. America in the 1970s
-MichiganPresentIntroducedJudd and Carpenter, 1996First record in 1996
-MissouriPresentArduser and Stevens, 1999First record in central USA
-NebraskaPresentHesler, 2011First record
-PennsylvaniaPresentJacobson, 1991First record in the state
-South DakotaPresentHesler, 2010First record
-WashingtonPresentLandolt and Antonelli, 1999Widespread in Yakima County

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedSackmann et al., 2003
ChilePresentIntroducedElgueta, 1989; Willink and Chiappa, 1993


FranceUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
GermanyPresentDuty, 1997Mecklenburg
PolandPresentKowalczyk and Szczepko, 2003
SpainPresentMadero and Montero Tinaut Ranera, 1987
UkrainePresentRusina LYu, 2010

History of Introduction and Spread

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P. dominula originates from Mediterranean Europe (Weiner et al., 2012). It was introduced into northeastern USA in 1978 (Madden et al., 2010), but research has shown that that there have been multiple independent introductions of P. dominula into the USA (Liebert et al., 2006).


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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
South Africa 2008 No No Eardley et al. (2009)
USA Europe 1978 No No Madden et al. (2010)


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P. dominula lives in a wide range of habitats within temperate climates, including woodland, shrubland, grassland and agricultural, urban and suburban areas (Stout, 2013).

P. dominula build nests using paper and saliva. Bagriacik (2012) reported that fibres of the nests of this wasp are on average 8.7 um thick and that the nitrogen concentration was 27.42%. Nests consisted of 78% fibre and 22% saliva.

Gamboa et al. (2005) showed that colonies of P. dominula (and P. fuscatus) were most productive in old field habitats, compared to oak forests and oak forest-old field ecotones, and that P. dominula was more productive that P. fuscatus in all habitats tested.

Habitat List

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Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Secondary/tolerated habitat
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Natural

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Prunus avium (sweet cherry)RosaceaeHabitat/association
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeHabitat/association

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding

Biology and Ecology

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Johnson and Starks (2004) reported no significant reduction in gene diversity and no trace of a genetic bottleneck in the northeastern USA invasion population, even though successful biological invasions of social insects have been associated with genetic bottlenecks previously. Instead, they identified multiple private microsatellite alleles in Massachusetts and New York, suggesting that the population is made up of two introductions.

Reproductive Biology

P. dominula has a lek-based mating system, a lek being an aggregation of males competing for females. Females prefer males with smaller elliptical spots compared to males who have larger, more irregularly shaped spots (Izzo and Tibbetts, 2012).

Intraspecific usurpation is when a resident queen in a wasp colony is ejected from the nest by a usurping queen (Ayasse and Paxton, 2002). P. dominula rarely usurps and the pattern of brood destruction that this wasp displays differs from other Polistes species that frequently carry out intraspecific usurpation (Wensink et al., 2013). Wensink et al. (2013) stated that nest adoption may have shaped the pattern of brood destruction, which is a common alternative reproductive tactic in this species.

Green at al. (2012) studied the effect of temperature on the intrasexual signal in P. dominula. They reported that when pupae were stored under different temperatures, there were differences in the expression of the signal and that it exhibited phenotypic plasticity.

It has been shown that the most active copulating males in experiments had light mesopleura, sternite, fore and middle coxae (Firman and Rusina, 2009). The authors found that most P. dominula females mated only once and that their colouration represented the majority of the females in the population. It was suggested that colour and pattern in both sexes could be a marker of their reproductive strategies and their reproductive success.

Eggs are laid by the queens and the subordinate females generally forage and do not lay eggs, unless the queen is removed from the nest (Royal BC Museum, 2011).

Foundresses (overwintering founding queens) construct a nest and make provisions for offspring for approximately a month in the spring. The first offspring will be daughter workers. If there are several foundresses, the one who lays the most eggs becomes the dominant queen and the rest are subordinates (Queller at al., 2000).

Male wasps are produced later and daughter workers may mate and become foundresses in the next season (gynes) (Royal BC Museum, 2011).

In the late summer, the colony disperses and only males and future foundresses are produced (not workers). A cluster of individuals in a group for overwintering is called a hibernaculum (Royal BC Museum, 2011).

Experiments by Green et al. (2013) indicated that the black clypeal patterns in P. dominula are not an indication of the rank the females achieve within the hierarchy, nor their survival during next founding, despite previous experiments indicating that the patterns provided information about a paper wasp’s competitive ability during agonistic interactions. The authors also found that reproductive success over the nesting season was not correlated with the patterning.


Males and non-reporductive females live during spring, summer and autumn, but do not survive the winter. Reproductive females may survive several seasons (Stout, 2013).

Theraulaz et al. (1988) reported that longevity of female P. dominula is influenced by the social environment found at the time of emergence. The proportion of wasps able to overwinter and to found a nest in the following spring is reduced if the females are separated from the natal colony early on. They also reported that if older larvae are removed from the brood, there was an increase in the proportion of ‘long-lived’ wasps in the brood.

Activity Patterns

The process of foraging by P. dominula can be divided into four main stages: approach, attack, butchering and balling (Brown et al., 2012). Brown et al. (2012) reported that behavioural variation exists within each stage, but there is a common theme from prey approach to moving the prey back to the nest. The balling stage refers to the construction of a bolus of flesh for moving back to the colony. It was reported that foundresses can carry heavier loads than workers; the authors suggested that this gave the foundresses a foraging advantage during the initial stages of colony development. It was also reported that body mass is significantly positively correlated with load capacity in foundresses. This relationship is not seen in workers or late reproductive wasps and suggests foundresses have an adaptation allowing them to combat early season pressures associated with foundation of a new colony.

Population Size and Structure

A single comb makes up the nest and this is the heart of the colony, where food is stored and immature brood is reared, as well as being the central place where most individuals of the nest spend their time (Baracchi et al., 2010).

Pleometrosis is when one or more queens start a colony together (e.g. Johnson, 2004). Rusina et al. (2006), studying seasonal changes of different colour variations in P. dominula, found that a tendency to display pleometrosis is shown by females of different colour morphs in different years. Colour patterns in populations before and after hibernation are different, and the frequency of colour morphs in autumn populations is similar in different years, in contrast to the frequency in spring, which is unique for each year.

Pleometrosis is important because it has been shown that this can increase colony productivity and have a positive bearing on foundress survival (Tibbetts and Reeve, 2003).

In the structures of most social insects, colonies are made up of related individuals; however, this is not the case for P. dominula, where 35% of the nest mates are unrelated. Despite this, the unrelated individuals submit to the queen and work for her, and this is thus thought to be evidence of altruism (Queller et al., 2000).

Female P. dominula are able to recognize nest mates using the chemicals (cuticular hydrocarbons) on the surface of wasp bodies (Inoue-Murayama et al., 2011).


Colonies of P. dominula are adversely affected by a decrease in prey availability; in particular, nutritional oophagy and larval development are most affected (Mead et al, 1994).

P. dominula feeds on many different genera of insects (Royal BC Museum, 2011) and food is stored in the nest (Baracchi et al., 2010).

Environmental Requirements

Tibbetts et al. (2011) reported a substantial individual variation in response to cues of the termination of diapause, indicating that this is likely to have an important impact on the fitness of nest-founding females. The timing of activity, post-diapause, was associated with facial patterns that are a signal of quality (though some authors refute this: see Green et al., 2013). Those foundresses that became active at lower temperatures had facial patterns that indicated high quality.

Madero Montero and Tinaut Ranera (1987) reported that numbers of Vespidae, including P. dominula, decreased as altitude increased.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Dibrachys cavus Parasite
Xenos vesparum Parasite

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Polistes sulicifer (e.g. Ortolani and Cervo, 2004), P. semenowi (e.g. Zacchi et al., 1996) and P. atrimandibularis (e.g. Fanelli et al., 2001) are social parasites of P. dominula. P. sulicifer usurps host nests just prior to the workers emerging (Ortolani and Cervo, 2004). Other parasitoids found in the nests of P. dominula include Elasmus schmitti and Baryscapus elasmi, gregarious parasitoids found in southern Ukraine (Gumovsky et al., 2007).

Smit and Smit (2005) reported Xenos vesparum from the Netherlands for the first time, parasitizing P. dominula.

Xenos vesparum is a strepsipteran endoparasite of P. dominula (Manfredini et al., 2010).

Dani et al. (1994) reported long chain carboxylic acids in the V and VI sternal glands of P. dominula, which are thought to protect the wasps against invertebrate predators. In a later study, Dani et al. (1996) demonstrated that the secretions repelled three ant species: Crematogaster scutellaris, Formica crunicularia and Lasius sp..

Benade et al. (2014) identified two unidentified parisitoid wasps and a parasitic fly (Anacamptomyia sp.) associated with P. dominula and P. marginalis in South Africa.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Mated daughter workers may mate and leave the nest the following season to set up their own colonies (Royal BC Museum, 2011).

Accidental Introduction

Royal BC Museum (2011) stated that P. dominula was possibly introduced to Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) crossing the continent from the east or on a boat from Asia.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Interconnected waterways Yes Royal BC Museum, 2011

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Ship structures above the water line Yes Royal BC Museum, 2011

Impact Summary

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Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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Cranshaw et al. (2011) reported that P. dominula is a common pest in fruit orchards in western Colorado, USA, where it damages grapes Vitis vinifera, sweet cherries Prunus avium and ‘other thin-fleshed stone fruits.’ P. dominula also spreads yeast and fungi that harm fruit (Royal BC Museum, 2011).

Environmental Impact

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P. dominula has been shown to displace P. fuscatus in the USA (Miller et al., 2013).

Social Impact

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Polistes sp. have the ability to sting humans and therefore when humans and Polistes are in the same environment there is always a risk of attack. Several papers have investigated allergic responses and there are reports to suggest that P. dominula venoms have exclusive allergens, and thus are necessary for diagnosis and therapy in Europe. Until 1996, the American Polistes venom mixture was the only commercially available mixture for diagnosis and therapy; however, this is not as suitable for Italian patients as European Polistes venom is (Severino et al., 2006).

P. dominula also spreads yeast and fungi that harm fruit and may adversely affect people who work in the damaged environments (Royal BC Museum, 2011).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Induces hypersensitivity
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally


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P. dominula is a model species in animal communication studies (Cini et al., 2009), and so there is a wealth of literature on this subject using this social wasp.

Environmental Services

Urbini et al. (2006), working in Florence, Italy, reported that P. dominula showed potential as bioindicators. This is due to the fact that the larvae feed on herbivorous insects, the digested residues of which can be found in a semi-solid ball on the floor of the cell during larval metamorphis. Lead accumulates in the larval faeces, which can be used to distinguish different zones with different levels of lead pollution. It was found that the lead concentration in larval faecal masses was directly correlated with vehicle traffic density, the main lead source in Florence at the time of the survey.

Considering the fact that they are not species-specific predators, Nannoni et al. (2001) suggested that P. dominula (as well as P. gallicus and P. nimphus) could be used to control phytophagous insect pests. When the effect of P. dominula was studied on gregarious caterpillars, Hemileuca lucina, it was found that not only did the wasps kill the larvae, but they also indirectly affected larval fitness by slowing larval growth, forcing them into an area of habitat where host plant leaves were of a lower quality (Stamp and Bowers, 1988).

Uses List

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  • Biological control

Detection and Inspection

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Wegner and Jordan (2005) assessed three liquid lures for trapping social wasps, including P. dominula. They compared two citrus-based sodas and an isobutanol-acetic acid mixture, and reported that Polistes and Dolichovespula were found in significantly lower numbers than Vespula. However, they concluded that the citrus products were better than the known wasp attractant for attracting almost all of the wasp species.

In an earlier study by Landolt et al. (1999) in the USA, it was shown that the attractant properties of an isobutanol-acetic acid mixture varied according to location. Females of P. dominula were attracted to the mixture in Oklahoma.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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P. dominula and P. fuscatus compete in Eastern North America, but one reason for P. dominula’s success compared to P. fuscatus is greater productivity (Gamboa et al., 2004; Weiner at al., 2012; Miller et al, 2013). Weiner et al. (2012) attributed this to more foraging trips made by the foundresses during the pre-worker period, thus probably assisting with quicker rearing of workers.

Gamboa et al. (2004) reported a shorter larval and pupal development time for P. dominula compared to P. fuscatus, leading to the former producing workers earlier than the latter. The authors also reported significantly less parasitism by Strepsiptera of P. dominula in a field site in Rochester, Michigan, USA; as well as significantly greater probability of re-nesting after predation by raccoons; significantly lower usurpation pressures; and possibly longer foraging days.

Successful invasion by P. dominula has also been ascribed, in part, to a lack of natural enemies (Madden et al., 2010; Miller et al., 2013). The high productivity of P. dominula is attributed to the lack of natural enemies to keep it in check (Miller et al., 2013). Miller et al. (2013) showed that P. dominula displaced P. fuscatus rapidly and then this slowed until the two populations stabilized. The decreasing displacement of P. fuscatus by P. dominula was shown to correspond to not only a decline in productivity, but also an increase in Dibrachys cavus infesting P. dominula.                        

Curtis and Stamp (2006) suggested that the less aggressive response of P. dominula to human presence compared with P. fuscatus may aid its successful invasion in North America.

The optimum temperature for flight by P. dominula is 30-33°C, in contrast to P. fuscatus, which can fly over a broad range of temperatures (Weiner et al., 2012). This is a limiting factor in the invasiveness of the P. dominula. However, temperature also has an important role to play in successful invasion by P. dominula: Weiner et al. (2011) reported thorax temperature of P. fuscatus, while in flight, was less affected by ambient temperature compared to P. fuscatus, and although P. fuscatus reached its relative minimum flight temperatures earlier than P. dominula, the latter maintained higher elevated temperatures for longer.

Other behavioural characteristics leading to successful invasion by P. dominula include a greater tendency to store nectar, which may explain higher survivorship, more flexibility in comb position, and possibly stronger attachment of the comb to substrate (meaning it is less susceptible to bird predation when compared to P. fuscatus; Silagi et al., 2003), a versatile diet, the ability to colonize new environments and a short development time of the immature brood (Cervo et al., 2000).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Biological Control

In preliminary investigations by Lambardi et al. (2007), to explore the defense mechanisms of P. dominula against the entomopathogens Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, it was found that polar cuticular substances played an important role in protecting the wasps against infection.


Zhang et al. (2013) studied the repellency effect of essential oils against several pestiferous social wasps, including P. dominula. 17 out of 21 essential oils tested showed significant repellent properties against yellowjackets and paper wasps, mainly P. dominula. It was concluded that these oils and their active compositions have potential in IPM programmes against pestiferous wasps.


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Abbasi R, Mashhadikhan M, Abbasi M, Kiabi B, 2009. Geometric morphometric study of populations of the social wasp, Polistes dominulus (Christ, 1791) from Zanjan province, north-west Iran. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 36(1):41-46

Arduser MS, Stevens JA, 1999. Polistes dominulus (Christ) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) established in St. Louis, Missouri. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 72(3):334-335

Ayasse M, Paxton RJ, 2002. Chapter 5: Brood protection in social insects. In: Chemoecology of Insect Eggs and Egg Deposition [ed. by Hiker, M. \Meiners, T.]. Berlin, Germany: Blackwell, 117-148

Bagriaçik N, 2012. Comparison of the nest materials of Polistes gallicus (L.), Polistes dominulus (Christ) and Polistes nimpha (Christ) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Archives of Biological Sciences, 64(3):1079-1084.

Baracchi D, Zaccaroni M, Cervo R, Turillazzi S, 2010. Home range analysis in the study of spatial organization on the comb in the paper wasp Polistes dominulus. Ethology, 116(7):579-587.

Benadé PC, Veldtman R, Samways MJ, Roets F, 2014. Rapid range expansion of the invasive wasp Polistes dominula (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae) and first record of parasitoids on this species and the native Polistes marginalis in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. African Entomology, 22(1):220-225.

Borkent CJ, Cannings RA, 2004. Polistes dominulus (Christ) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae) in British Columbia: first collection records of an invasive European paper wasp in Canada. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 101:149-150

Brown R, Payne A, Graham KK, Starks PT, 2012. Prey capture and caste-specific payload capacities in the European paper wasp Polistes dominulus. Insectes Sociaux, 59(4):519-525.

Bruschini C, Cervo R, Dani FR, Turillazzi S, 2007. Can venom volatiles be a taxonomic tool for Polistes wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae)? Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 45(3):202-205.

Cervo R, Zacchi F, Turillazzi S, 2000. Polistes dominulus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) invading North America: some hypotheses for its rapid spread. Insectes Sociaux, 47(2):155-157

Cini A, Gioli L, Cervo R, 2009. A quantitative threshold for nest-mate recognition in a paper social wasp. Biology Letters, 5(4):459-461.

Cranshaw WS, Larsen HJ Jr, Zimmerman RJ, 2011. Notes on fruit damage by the European paper wasp, Polistes dominula (Christ) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Southwestern Entomologist, 36(1):103-105.

Curtis TR, Stamp NE, 2006. Effects of human presence on two social wasp species. Ecological Entomology, 31(1):13-19.

Dani FR, Cannoni S, Turillazzi S, Morgan ED, 1996. Ant repellent effect of the sternal gland secretion of Polistes dominulus (Christ) and P. sulcifer (Zimmermann). (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 22(1):37-48

Dani FR, Turillazzi S, Morgan ED, 1994. Analysis of the sternal glands of the paper wasp Polistes dominulus (Christ) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). (Analisi della secrezione delle ghiandole sternali di Polistes dominulus (Christ) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).) In: Atti XVII Congresso Nazionale Italiano di Entomologia, Udine, Italy, 13-18 Giugno 1994. Udine, Italy: Arti Grafiche Friulane, 365

Duty I, 1997. Notes on the occurrence of Vespidae (Hym.) in Mecklenburg, mainly around Rostock. (Zum Vorkommen von Faltenwespen (Hym., Vespidae) in Mecklenburg mit Schwerpunkt im Raum Rostock.) Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte, 41(2):113-119

Eardley C, Koch F, Wood AR, 2009. Polistes dominulus (Christ, 1791) (Hymenoptera: Polistinae: Vespidae) newly recorded from South Africa. African Entomology, 17(2):226-227.

Elgueta D M, 1989. Antecedents of species recently introduced into Chile (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Hymenoptera: Vespidae). (Antecedents sobre especies de reciente introducción a Chile (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Hymenoptera: Vespidae).) Revista Chilena de Entomología, 17:97-98

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29/09/14 Original text by:

Claire Beverley, CABI, UK

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