Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Podosphaera leucotricha
(powdery mildew of apple)

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Datasheet

Podosphaera leucotricha (powdery mildew of apple)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Podosphaera leucotricha
  • Preferred Common Name
  • powdery mildew of apple
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Leotiomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Comparison of P. leucotricha-infected and healthy vegetal and flower buds.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionComparison of P. leucotricha-infected and healthy vegetal and flower buds.
CopyrightP. Creemers
Comparison of P. leucotricha-infected and healthy vegetal and flower buds.
SymptomsComparison of P. leucotricha-infected and healthy vegetal and flower buds. P. Creemers
Primary powdery mildew infections, baleen structure.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPrimary powdery mildew infections, baleen structure.
CopyrightP. Creemers
Primary powdery mildew infections, baleen structure.
SymptomsPrimary powdery mildew infections, baleen structure. P. Creemers
Secondary powdery mildew symptom, underside of leaf.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSecondary powdery mildew symptom, underside of leaf.
CopyrightP. Creemers
Secondary powdery mildew symptom, underside of leaf.
SymptomsSecondary powdery mildew symptom, underside of leaf. P. Creemers
Secondary powdery mildew symptom, upperside of leaf, chlorotic spot.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSecondary powdery mildew symptom, upperside of leaf, chlorotic spot.
CopyrightP. Creemers
Secondary powdery mildew symptom, upperside of leaf, chlorotic spot.
SymptomsSecondary powdery mildew symptom, upperside of leaf, chlorotic spot. P. Creemers
Podosphaera leucotricha symptoms on apple variety 'Golden Delicious' leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPodosphaera leucotricha symptoms on apple variety 'Golden Delicious' leaves.
CopyrightThorsten Kraska, University of Bonn, Germany
Podosphaera leucotricha symptoms on apple variety 'Golden Delicious' leaves.
SymptomsPodosphaera leucotricha symptoms on apple variety 'Golden Delicious' leaves. Thorsten Kraska, University of Bonn, Germany
Podosphaera leucotricha symptoms on apple variety 'Goldparmäne' leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPodosphaera leucotricha symptoms on apple variety 'Goldparmäne' leaves.
CopyrightThorsten Kraska, University of Bonn, Germany
Podosphaera leucotricha symptoms on apple variety 'Goldparmäne' leaves.
SymptomsPodosphaera leucotricha symptoms on apple variety 'Goldparmäne' leaves. Thorsten Kraska, University of Bonn, Germany
Podosphaera leucotricha symptoms on apple variety 'Goldparmäne' leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPodosphaera leucotricha symptoms on apple variety 'Goldparmäne' leaves.
CopyrightThorsten Kraska, University of Bonn, Germany
Podosphaera leucotricha symptoms on apple variety 'Goldparmäne' leaves.
SymptomsPodosphaera leucotricha symptoms on apple variety 'Goldparmäne' leaves. Thorsten Kraska, University of Bonn, Germany
Secondary powdery mildew symptoms on apple fruit (Jonagold), skin russet in network pattern.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSecondary powdery mildew symptoms on apple fruit (Jonagold), skin russet in network pattern.
CopyrightP. Creemers
Secondary powdery mildew symptoms on apple fruit (Jonagold), skin russet in network pattern.
SymptomsSecondary powdery mildew symptoms on apple fruit (Jonagold), skin russet in network pattern.P. Creemers
Secondary powdery mildew symptoms on apple fruit (Golden Delicious), skin russet in network pattern.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSecondary powdery mildew symptoms on apple fruit (Golden Delicious), skin russet in network pattern.
CopyrightP. Creemers
Secondary powdery mildew symptoms on apple fruit (Golden Delicious), skin russet in network pattern.
SymptomsSecondary powdery mildew symptoms on apple fruit (Golden Delicious), skin russet in network pattern.P. Creemers
Secondary powdery mildew symptoms on apple fruit (Jonagold), skin russet spots.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSecondary powdery mildew symptoms on apple fruit (Jonagold), skin russet spots.
CopyrightP. Creemers
Secondary powdery mildew symptoms on apple fruit (Jonagold), skin russet spots.
SymptomsSecondary powdery mildew symptoms on apple fruit (Jonagold), skin russet spots.P. Creemers
Secondary powdery mildew symptoms on pear fruit (Doyenne du Comice), skin russet and mycelium.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSecondary powdery mildew symptoms on pear fruit (Doyenne du Comice), skin russet and mycelium.
CopyrightP. Creemers
Secondary powdery mildew symptoms on pear fruit (Doyenne du Comice), skin russet and mycelium.
SymptomsSecondary powdery mildew symptoms on pear fruit (Doyenne du Comice), skin russet and mycelium.P. Creemers

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Podosphaera leucotricha (Ellis & Everh.) E.S. Salmon

Preferred Common Name

  • powdery mildew of apple

Other Scientific Names

  • Oidium farinosum Cooke
  • Oidium mespili Cooke
  • Sphaerotheca leucotricha Ellis & Everh.
  • Sphaerotheca mali Burrill

International Common Names

  • English: powdery mildew
  • Spanish: cenicilla polvorienta del manzano; mal blanco del manzano; oidio del manzano
  • French: blanc du cognassier; blanc du poirier; blanc du pommier; oidium du cognassier; oidium du poirier; oidium du pommier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Mehltau: Apfel

EPPO code

  • PODOLE (Podosphaera leucotricha)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Leotiomycetes
  •                     Order: Erysiphales
  •                         Family: Erysiphaceae
  •                             Genus: Podosphaera
  •                                 Species: Podosphaera leucotricha

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentCMI, 1987
ArmeniaPresentAmano, 1986
AzerbaijanPresentAmano, 1986
BhutanPresentCMI, 1987
ChinaPresentCMI, 1987
-ShandongPresentLiang et al., 2012
-YunnanPresentCMI, 1987
IndiaPresentCMI, 1987
-Himachal PradeshPresentBharat and Bhardwaj, 2000
-Jammu and KashmirPresentMondal, 2002
-KarnatakaPresentCMI, 1987
IranPresentCMI, 1987
IraqPresentCMI, 1987
IsraelPresentCMI, 1987
JapanPresentCMI, 1987
JordanPresentAmano, 1986
KazakhstanPresentCMI, 1987
Korea, DPRPresentCMI, 1987
KyrgyzstanPresentAmano, 1986
LebanonPresentCMI, 1987
NepalPresentCMI, 1987
PakistanPresentCMI, 1987
Saudi ArabiaPresentCMI, 1987
Sri LankaPresentAmano, 1986
SyriaPresentCMI, 1987
TaiwanPresentCMI, 1987
TurkeyPresentCMI, 1987
TurkmenistanPresentCMI, 1987
UzbekistanPresentAmano, 1986

Africa

AngolaPresentCMI, 1987
EthiopiaPresentCMI, 1987
KenyaPresentCMI, 1987
LibyaPresentCMI, 1987
MoroccoPresentCMI, 1987
MozambiquePresentAmano, 1986
South AfricaPresentCMI, 1987
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentAmano, 1986
TanzaniaPresentCMI, 1987
ZimbabwePresentCMI, 1987

North America

CanadaPresentCMI, 1987
-British ColumbiaPresentCMI, 1987
-Nova ScotiaPresentCMI, 1987
-OntarioPresentCMI, 1987
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCMI, 1987
MexicoPresentCMI, 1987
USAPresentCMI, 1987
-AlabamaPresentHagan et al., 2000
-AlaskaPresentCMI, 1987
-MarylandPresentMinnis et al., 2010
-VirginiaPresentYoder, 2000

Central America and Caribbean

GuatemalaPresentCMI, 1987; Amano, 1986
PanamaPresentCMI, 1987

South America

ArgentinaPresentCMI, 1987
BoliviaPresentAmano, 1986
BrazilPresentCMI, 1987
ChilePresentCMI, 1987
ColombiaPresentCMI, 1987
EcuadorPresentCMI, 1987
PeruPresentCMI, 1987
UruguayPresentCMI, 1987

Europe

AlbaniaPresentBraun, 1995
AustriaPresentCMI, 1987
BelgiumPresentCMI, 1987
BulgariaPresentCMI, 1987
CroatiaPresentDugalic et al., 2008
CyprusPresentCMI, 1987
Czech RepublicPresentBlazek et al., 2003
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentCMI, 1987
DenmarkPresentCMI, 1987
FinlandPresentCMI, 1987
Former USSRPresentCMI, 1987
FrancePresentCMI, 1987
GermanyPresentCMI, 1987
GreecePresentCMI, 1987
-CretePresentCMI, 1987
HungaryPresentCMI, 1987
IrelandPresentCMI, 1987
ItalyPresentCMI, 1987
JerseyPresentCMI, 1987
LatviaPresentCMI, 1987
LithuaniaPresentCMI, 1987
MacedoniaPresentTrajcevski, 2007
MaltaPresentAmano, 1986
MoldovaPresentCMI, 1987
NetherlandsPresentCMI, 1987
NorwayPresentCMI, 1987
PolandPresentCMI, 1987
PortugalPresentCMI, 1987
RomaniaPresentCMI, 1987
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russian Far EastPresentCMI, 1987
SloveniaPresentMiklavc and Matko, 2010
SpainPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
SwedenPresentCMI, 1987
SwitzerlandPresentCMI, 1987
UKPresentCMI, 1987
UkrainePresentCMI, 1987
-Krymskaya OblastPresentCMI, 1987
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCMI, 1987

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCMI, 1987
-New South WalesPresentCMI, 1987
-QueenslandPresentCMI, 1987
-South AustraliaPresentCMI, 1987
-TasmaniaPresentCMI, 1987
-VictoriaPresentCMI, 1987
-Western AustraliaPresentCMI, 1987
New ZealandPresentCMI, 1987

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal patterns
Fruit / reduced size
Inflorescence / discoloration (non-graminaceous plants)
Inflorescence / dwarfing; stunting
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / wilting
Stems / discoloration
Stems / stunting or rosetting

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Ampelomyces quisqualis Pathogen
Macroilleis hauseri Predator
Vibidia duodecimguttata Predator

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Aerts R; Soenen A, 1952. L'oïdium du pommier (Podosphaera leucotricha Ell. et Ev. Salm). Comptes-rendus de recherche de l' Institut pour l'Encourgement à la Recherche scientifique dans l'Industrie et l'Agriculture (IRSIA), Centre de Recherches de Gorsem, Tome I.

Aerts R; Soenen A, 1955. L'oïdium du pommier (Podosphaera leucotricha Ell. et Ev. Salm). Comptes-rendus de recherche de l' Institut pour l'Encourgement à la Recherche scientifique dans l'Industrie et l'Agriculture (IRSIA), Centre de Recherches de Gorsem, Tome II.

Agrios GN, 1997. Classification of Plant Pathogenic Fungi. In: Plant Pathology. Fourth Edition. San Diego, USA: Academic Press, 248-254.

Aldwinckle HS, 1974. Field susceptibility of 51 apple cultivars to apple scab and powdery mildew. Plant Disease Reporter, 58:625-629.

Amano K, 1986. Host range and geographical distribution of the powdery mildew fungi. Tokyo, Japan; Japan Scientific Societies Press, 741 pp.

Amano K, 1992. Notes on host range and geographical distribution of Podosphaera. Japan. Trans. Mycol. Soc., 33:139-148.

Berrie AM, 1997. Managing apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) using AdemTM. Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Integrated Control of Pome Fruit Diseases. Croydon, UK. Bulletin OILB, 20(9):32-41.

Bharat NK; Bhardwaj LN, 2000. Occurrence of perfect stage of powdery mildew of apple in north-western Himalaya. Plant Disease Research, 15(1):81-82.

Blazek J; Krelinová J; Blazková J, 2003. Results of a trial with 17 chosen apple cultivars bred in the Czech Republic that was evaluated 1996-2002 at Holovousy. (Výsledky pokusu se 17 vybranými odrudami jabloní vy?lechtenými v Ceské republice, který byl hodnocen v letech 1996-2002 v Holovousích.) Vedecké Práce Ovocnárské, No.18:7-23.

Braun U, 1987. A monograph of the Erysiphales (powdery mildews). Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia, 89:700 pp.

Braun U, 1995. The Powdery Mildews (Erysiphales) of Europe. Jena, Germany: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 337 pp.

Braun U; Cook RTA; Inman AJ; Shin HD, 2002. The taxonomy of the powdery mildew fungi. The powdery mildews: a comprehensive treatise, 13-55; many ref.

Breniaux D, 1996. L'oïdium du pommier, stratégie de l'alternance. L'arboriculture fruitiFre, 497:27-30.

Burchill RT, 1960. The role of secondary infections in the spread of apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Ev.) Salm). Journal of Horticulture Science, 35:66-72.

Burchill RT, 1965. Seasonal fluctuations in spore concentration of (Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Ev.) Salm). Annals of Applied Biology, 55:409-415.

Butt DJ, 1972. The timing of sprays for the protection of terminal buds on apple shoots from powdery mildew. Annals of Applied Biology, 72(3):239-248

Butt DJ, 1978. Epidemiology of powdery mildews. In: Spencer DM, ed. The Powdery Mildews. London, UK: Academic Press, 51-77.

Butt DJ; Jeger MJ, 1986. Components of spore production in apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha). Plant Pathology, 35(4):491-497

Bömeke H, 1961. Der Apfelmehltau und seine BekSmpfung. Mitt. Obstbauversuchsring Altes Land, 16:77-86.

Bömeke H, 1963. Wichtige Erkenntnisse aus der Forschung des Apfelmehltaus. Mitt. Obstbau Versuchsanstalt Jork, 3:93-107.

Bömeke H, 1964. Die BekSmpfung des Apfelmehltaues ist kein Problem mehr. Mitt. Obstbau Versuchsanstalt Jork, 19:155.

Clarke A, 1988. Powdery Mildew of Apple. Factsheet Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Ontario, Factsheet OMAFRA.

Cook RTA; Inman AJ; Billings C, 1997. Identification and classification of powdery mildew anamorphs using light and scanning electron microscopy and host range data. Mycological Research, 101(8):975-1002; 25 ref.

Coyier DL, 1968. Effects of temperature on germination of Podosphaera leucotricha conidia. Phytopathology, 58:1047-1048.

Creemers P, 1997. Anti-resistance strategy in the control of scab and powdery mildew on apple. Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on integrated control of pome fruit diseases, Croydon, UK. Bulletin OILB, 20(9):77-85.

Daines R; Weber DJ; Bunderson ED; Roper T, 1984. Effect of early sprays on control of powdery mildew fruit russet on apples. Plant Disease, 68(4):326-328

Dugalic K; Cvjetkovic B; ?poljaric J; Jurkovic Z, 2008. Apple cultivars suitable for ecological cultivation. (Kultivari jabuka pogodni za ekolo?ki uzgoj.) Glasnik Za?tite Bilja, 31(5):14-17. http://www.zastitabilja.com.hr

Ellis MA, 1994. Apple Powdery Mildew. Ohio State University Extension. Factsheet. HYG-3001-94. Ohio, USA: Ohio State University Extension.

Evans KM, 1997. Breeding with alternative sources of resistance to apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha): the potential for gene pyramiding. Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on integrated control of pome fruit diseases, Croydon, UK. Bulletin OILB, 20(9):101-104.

Goerre M; Kellerhals M; Koller B; Liebhard R; Weibel F, 1999. Powdery mildew in apple: Observations of incidence on different cultivars and increasing the resistance by marker-assisted breeding. Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Integrated Control of Pome Fruit Diseases, Fontevraud l'Abbaye, France, in press.

Grove G, 1999. Apple powdery mildew. World web site at: http://fruit.wsu.edu/Diseases/amildew.htm.

Hagan AK; Tilt KM; Williams JD; Akridge JR, 2000. Susceptibility of crabapple cultivars to several diseases in the Gulf Coast region of Alabama. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 18(4):192-196.

Heaney SP, 1999. Fungicide Resistance Action Committee FRAC, STAR (Strobilurine Type Action and Resistance) Working Group. World wide web site at: http://www.gcpf.org/frac/.

Hickey KD; Yoder KS, 1997. In: Jones AL, Aldwinckle HS, eds. Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: The American Phytopathological Society.

Hickey KD; Yoder KS; Biggs AR, 1997. Apple Powdery Mildew. West Virginia, USA: West Virginia University Kearneysville.

Hislop EC; Clifford DR; Holgate ME; Gendle P, 1978. Eradication of apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) with dormant-season sprays of surface-active agents. Pesticide Science, 9(1):12-21

Jeger MJ; Butt DJ, 1986. Epidemics of apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) in a mixed cultivar orchard. Plant Pathology, 35(4):498-505

Kapoor JN, 1967. Podosphaera leucotricha. Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No 158. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Kosswig M, 1959. Bemerkungen zur Biologie und BekSmpfung des Erregers des Apfelmehltaus Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Ev.) Salm. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 66:263-272.

Lalancette N; Hickey KD, 1986. An apple powdery mildew model based on plant growth, primary inoculum, and fungicide concentration. Phytopathology, 76(11):1176-1182

Liang C; Xing HH; Cho SE; Shin HD, 2012. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera leucotricha on Photinia serrulata in China. Plant Disease, 96(11):1695. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Mantinger H; Vigl J; Sgarbossa A; Raisigl U, 1993. Optimierung des Ausbringvolumens in Obstanlagen in Südtirol. Land- und Forstwirtschaftliches Versuchszentrum Laimburg I-39040 Auer/Pfatten, 29 pp.

Miklavc J; Matko B, 2010. Protecting apple orchards in 2010. (Varstvo nasadov jablane v letu 2010.) SAD, Revija za Sadjarstvo, Vinogradni?tvo in Vinarstvo, 21(3):3-8. http://www.sad.si

Minnis AM; Rossman AY; Clement DL; Malinoski MK; Rane KK, 2010. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera leucotricha on callery pear in North America. Plant Disease, 94(2):279. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Molnar L, 1971. The effects of environmental factors on the germination of conidia of Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Ev.) Salm. Ochrana Rostlin (Praha) 7:203-210.

Mondal AK, 2002. Boron in relation to quality and production of apple at Bhaderwah (J & K). Environment and Ecology, 20(3):611-613.

Müller R, 1957. Untersuchungen über die Biologie und BekSmpfung des Apfelmehltaues Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Ev.) Salm. PhD Thesis, University of Hohenheim, Germany.

Penroose LJ, 1997. Powdery mildew of Apple. Agfact H4.AB.8 Orange Agricultural Institute.

Pintye A; Legler SE; Kiss L, 2011. New records of microcyclic conidiogenesis in some powdery mildew fungi. Mycoscience, 52(3):213-216. http://www.springerlink.com/content/98040v2t6205465n/fulltext.html

Roosje GS, 1961. The importance of short time intervals between sprays against apple powdery mildew. Proceedings of British Insecticide and Fungicide Conferences, Volume 1:185-196.

Scheewe P; Ketzel A, 1994. In vitro screening for resistance against powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha [Ell. et Ev.] Salm.) in apple. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 101(4):368-377

Schmitz M; Noga G, 1996. Benocap: Aufnahme bei verschiedenen Wasseraufwandmengen. Obstbau, 21:232-233.

Seglias NP; Gessler C, 1997. Genetics of apple powdery mildew resistance from Malus zumi. Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Integrated Control of Pome Fruit Diseases, Croydon, UK. Bulletin OILB, 20(9):101-104.

Sivapalan A, 1993. Effects of water on germination of powdery mildew conidia. Mycological Research, 97(1):71-76

Soenen A; Verheyden C, 1978. L'oïdium du pommier (Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Ev.) Salm). Revue de l'Agriculture, 31(1):67-78.

Spotts RA, 1984. Infection of Anjou pear fruit by Podosphaera leucotricha. Plant Disease, 68(10):857-859

Spotts RA; Covey RP; Chen PM, 1981. Effect of low temperature on survival of apple buds infected with the powdery mildew fungus. HortScience, 16(6):781-783

Stephan S, 1989. Studies on the epidemiology of apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha Ell. et Ev. (Salm.)). Archiv für Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 25(5):449-458

Sutton TB; Jones AL, 1979. Analysis of factors affecting dispersal of Podosphaera leucotricha conidia. Phytopathology, 69(4):380-383

Trajcevski T, 2007. Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell.&Ev.) Salm, and success of chemical protection with new fungicides. (Pepelnica jabuke, uzrocnik Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell.&Ev.) Salm. i djelotvornost za?tite novijim fungicidima.) Glasnik Za?tite Bilja, 30(5):36-42. http://www.zastitabilja.com.hr

Webster J, 1986. Introduction to Fungi. Erisiphales. Second Edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 283-298.

Woodward RC, 1927. Studies on Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Ev.) Salm. I. The mode of penetration. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 12:173-204.

Xu XiangMing; Butt DJ, 1998. Effects of temperature and atmospheric moisture on the early growth of apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) colonies. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 104(2):133-140; 10 ref.

Xu XM, 1996. The effects of constant and fluctuating temperatures on the length of the incubation period of apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha). Plant Pathology, 45(5):924-932; 45 ref.

Xu XM, 1999. Modelling and forecasting epidemics of apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha). Plant Pathology, 48(4):462-471; 38 ref.

Xu XM; Butt DJ; Ridout MS, 1995. Temporal patterns of airborne conidia of Podosphaera leucotricha, causal agent of apple powdery mildew. Plant Pathology, 44(6):944-955; 21 ref.

Yoder KS, 2000. Effect of powdery mildew on apple yield and economic benefits of its management in Virginia. Plant Disease, 84(11):1171-1176.

Yoder KS; Hickey KD, 1983. Control of apple powdery mildew in the mid-Atlantic region. Plant Disease, 67(2):245-248

Distribution Maps

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