Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Erigeron bellioides
(bellorita)

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Datasheet

Erigeron bellioides (bellorita)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Erigeron bellioides
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bellorita
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Erigeron bellioides is a small herb native to the Caribbean. It often grows as a weed in disturbed areas including wastelands, roadsides, cultivated grounds, parks, gardens, stream banks, moist grasslands and c...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Erigeron bellioides (bellorita); flowering habit, Punalau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2018.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionErigeron bellioides (bellorita); flowering habit, Punalau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2018.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Erigeron bellioides (bellorita); flowering habit, Punalau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2018.
Flowering habitErigeron bellioides (bellorita); flowering habit, Punalau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2018.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Erigeron bellioides (bellorita); flowering habit, Punalau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2018.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionErigeron bellioides (bellorita); flowering habit, Punalau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2018.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Erigeron bellioides (bellorita); flowering habit, Punalau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2018.
Flowering habitErigeron bellioides (bellorita); flowering habit, Punalau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2018.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Erigeron bellioides (bellorita); voucher specimen. Kapaa, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. February 2002.
TitleVoucher specimen
CaptionErigeron bellioides (bellorita); voucher specimen. Kapaa, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. February 2002.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Erigeron bellioides (bellorita); voucher specimen. Kapaa, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. February 2002.
Voucher specimenErigeron bellioides (bellorita); voucher specimen. Kapaa, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. February 2002.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Erigeron bellioides DC.

Preferred Common Name

  • bellorita

Other Scientific Names

  • Erigeron semiovalis Urb.

International Common Names

  • English: fleabane daisy

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: yerba del Canadá

Summary of Invasiveness

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Erigeron bellioides is a small herb native to the Caribbean. It often grows as a weed in disturbed areas including wastelands, roadsides, cultivated grounds, parks, gardens, stream banks, moist grasslands and coastal thickest. It has expanded beyond its native distribution range, probably introduced unintentionally as a soil contaminant, as a hitchhiker on footwear or on the feet of animals. Currently, it is listed as invasive in Hawaii, Guam, Mariana Islands, Marshall Islands, Micronesia and Palau and as ‘potentially invasive’ in Guadeloupe and Martinique where it is spreading rapidly. E. bellioides colonizes bare soils and forms dense monospecific stands that displace other plant species in the invaded areas. 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Erigeron
  •                                 Species: Erigeron bellioides

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Asteraceae, with 1620 genera and more than 23,600 species, is one of the most diverse families of flowering plants (Stevens, 2017). Erigeron is a cosmopolitan genus of about 400 species, the majority of which (ca. 300 species) occur across the Americas, but some also occur in the Old World (ca. 80-100 species) (Nesom, 2008). Erigeron species are closely related to Conyza species and the distinction between Erigeron and Conyza is not clear-cut. Hybrids between species in these two genera are common (Mundell, 2017).

Description

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Delicate annual herbs, spreading by slender stolons 10-15 cm long, ± with reduced leaves; stems 6-15 cm long, the flowering stems erect, ± with very reduced leaves. Leaves primarily basal, spatulate, 1-3.5 cm long, 0.3-1 cm wide, margins entire or crenulate, abruptly constricted into a winged petiole 1-.25 cm long. Heads solitary, 1.5-3 (-5) mm in diameter; involucral bracts in 2 series, the inner ones ca. 2 mm long, the outer ones similar but shorter; rays white, ca. 0.3 mm long. Achenes pale straw-coloured, ca. 1 mm long (Wagner et al., 1999).

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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E. bellioides is native to the north Caribbean and Greater Antilles including the Bahamas, Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012). It can be found naturalized in Florida and Hawaii in the USA and the Lesser Antilles, Taiwan, and on islands in the Pacific region (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Fried and Dumbardon‑Martial, 2015; PIER, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

TaiwanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedJung MingJer et al. (2009)Naturalized

North America

BahamasPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
CubaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedSoubeyran (2008)Listed as potentially invasive
HaitiPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
MartiniquePresentIntroducedSoubeyran (2008)Listed as potentially invasive
Puerto RicoPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
United StatesPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution
-FloridaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedMears (2009)Naturalized
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2018)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedFourdrigniez and Meyer (2008)
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)

History of Introduction and Spread

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On Pacific Islands, E. bellioides has been reported as naturalized in Guam since the 1970s, Hawaii in 1984 and more recently on the islands of Micronesia, Mariana, Marshall, and Palau. In Hawaii, this species continues to spread and new populations have been reported on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, Kauai, Lanai and Hawaii (Fosberg et al., 1979; Wagner et al., 1999; Oppenheimer, 2008; PIER, 2018).

In the Lesser Antilles, E. bellioides has been listed as naturalized in Guadeloupe and Martinique. It was first reported in Guadeloupe in 1990 occurring in Petit Bourg. Since then, this species has become widespread on this island, where it is invading mostly lawns and disturbed sites (Fournet, 2002; Fried and Dumbardon‑Martial, 2015). In Martinique, E. bellioides was first reported in St. Joseph in 2010 growing in public and private gardens. Since then, it has become more abundant and it is now known to occur in 12 of the 34 communities of the island, where it invades primarily grasslands and disturbed sites near towns and villages. Communities located in the centre (i.e. Fort of France, Lamentin and Ducos) and the north (i.e. St. Joseph, Gros-Morne and Sainte-Marie) of the island are the areas where E. bellioides is now more abundant (Fried and Dumbardon‑Martial, 2015).

In Taiwan, E. bellioides has been known to be present since 2005. It was first reported as well established and naturalized in 2009 in grasslands and along roadsides in Taipei City in the north of Taiwan (Jung et al., 2009).

In 2009, E. belloides was first reported growing outside cultivation in southern Florida. The report was based on collections and fieldwork spanning a six-year period. This apparently was the first record from Florida as well as from continental USA. The study showed that E. belloides can be found naturalized in several widely scattered localities in Miami Dade County (Mears, 2009).

Risk of Introduction

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No economic uses are known for E. belloides and consequently the risk of intentional introductions is low. However, this species behaves as a weed and has tiny seeds that can be easily dispersed with the movement of soil or as a hitchhiker on footwear or attached to animals, facilitating the spread of this species into new habitats (Nagata, 1995).

Habitat

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E. bellioides often grows as a weed in moist grassy places, waste and cultivated grounds, streambanks, grasslands, and coastal thickest at low to higher elevations. It can also be found along roadsides, disturbed sites, in the margins of parking lots, gardens, parks, and grassy and damp areas near villages (Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Jung et al., 2009; Mears, 2009; Fried and Dumbardon‑Martial, 2015).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for E. bellioides is 2n = 9 (Keil et al., 1988).

Reproductive Biology

There is no information available for the reproductive biology of E. belloides. However, for other Erigeron species it is known that flowers are often insect pollinated (i.e. bees and flies) and wind pollinated and many are facultative self-compatible species (Li et al., 2009; Bailey, 2013; Zhang et al., 2015).

Physiology and Phenology

E. bellioides flowers throughout the year (Mears, 2009).

Environmental Requirements

E. bellioides is adapted to grow in tropical and subtropical climates. It prefers moist and damp soils and open areas with direct sunlight. It is very successful colonizing bare soils. This species requires regular disturbance for successful establishment and colonization (Nagata, 1995; Wagner et al., 1999; Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Jung et al., 2009; Mears, 2009; Fried and Dumbardon‑Martial, 2015).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
25 25

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 17 28

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall9001550mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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E. bellioides spreads by seed. This species has tiny achenes that can be easily dispersed by wind, as a contaminant of soil, as a hitchhiker on footwear or on the feet of birds and other animals (Nagata, 1995; Wagner et al., 1999).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionWeed of cultivated grounds Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell, 2000
DisturbanceWeed of disturbed areas, roadsides, lawns etc Yes Yes Mears, 2009
Garden waste disposalCommon weed in gardens, parks and lawns Yes Yes Fried and Dumbardon-Martial, 2015
Nursery tradeWeed in potted nursery plants Yes Yes Fried and Dumbardon-Martial, 2015

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsSeeds as contaminant: hitchhiker on footwear Yes Yes Nagata, 1995
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesCommon weed in gardens, parks and lawns Yes Yes Fried and Dumbardon-Martial, 2015
Machinery and equipmentSeeds as contaminant on garden tools Yes Yes Nagata, 1995
Soil, sand and gravelSeed as contaminant in soil Yes Yes Nagata, 1995
WindTiny achenes Yes Yes Nagata, 1995

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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In the French Lesser Antilles, the risk assessment for this species indicated an intermediate level of risk with relatively low impact on natural environments but potentially higher economic impacts (Fried and Dumbardon‑Martial, 2015).

Environmental Impact

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E. bellioides is a weed with impacts on disturbed and semi-natural habitats mostly on insular ecosystems. It is a common weed in lawns, parks and gardens and in a variety of disturbed habitats. Currently it is listed as invasive in Hawaii, Guam, Mariana Islands, Marshall Islands, Micronesia and Palau and as ‘potentially invasive’ in Guadeloupe and Martinique where it is rapidly spreading and colonizing new habitats (Nagata, 1995; Wagner et al., 1999; Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Fried and Dumbardon‑Martial, 2015; PIER, 2018). E. bellioides colonizes bare soils and can occur as scattered populations but can also form dense monospecific stands that displace and replace all other plant species in the invaded areas. On the island of Martinique, dense stands can reach 100 m2 or more depending on the characteristics of the colonized environment. It is a common weed of disturbed sites and open grounds where it can outcompete native plant species and thus alter successional patterns (Fried and Dumbardon‑Martial, 2015; PIER, 2018).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

There is no information available for the control of E. belloides. However, herbicides such as 2,4-D, glyphosate and paraquat have been used to control other weedy and invasive Erigeron species such as E. canadensis [Conyza canadensis], E. floribundus [Conyza floribundus], and E. bonariensis [Conyza bonariensis] (Tilley, 2012; Sansom et al., 2013).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bailey P, 2019. Pollination biology of the endemic Erigeron lemmonii A. Gray, and its insect visitor networks compared to two widespread congeners Erigeron arisolius GL Nesom and Erigeron neomexicanus A. Gray (Asteraceae). Canada: University of Guelph.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2018. Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria.http://avh.ala.org.au

Fosberg, F. R., Sachet, M. H., Oliver, R., 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica, 15, 1-295.

Fourdrigniez M, Meyer JY, 2008. Liste et caractéristiques des plantes introduites naturalisées et envahissantes en Polynésie française. In: Contribution à la Biodiversité de Polynésie française N°17 . Papeete, French Polynesia: Délégation à la Recherche.62 pp.

Fournet J, 2002. Flore illustrée des phanérogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique, 2. Montpellier, France: CIRAD-Ed. Gondwana.2538 pp.

Fried G, Dumbardon-Martial E, 2015. Premier signalement et extension rapide d´Erigeron bellioides DC. (Asteraceae) en Martinique. Journal de Botanique de la Société Botanique de France, 70, 23-33.

Jung MingJer, Hsu TianChuan, Chung ShihWen, Peng ChingI, 2009. Three newly naturalized Asteraceae plants in Taiwan. Taiwania, 54(1), 76-81. http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/taiwania

Keil, D. J., Luckow, M. A., Pinkava, D. J., 1988. Chromosome studies in Asteraceae from the United States, Mexico, The West Indies, and South America. American Journal of Botany, 75(5), 652-668. doi: 10.2307/2444199

Li LinYu, Yang LiYing, Wang Xin, Gu AnYu, Yang Bin, Yan ShiWu, Li ShaoPing, 2009. Preliminary studies on breeding system and visiting insects of Erigeron breviscapus. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 22(2), 454-458.

Liogier AH, Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico.382 pp.

Mears RL, 2009. Erigeron bellioides (Asteraceae), new to Florida and the continental United States. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 3(2), 869-871.

Mundell, A. R. G., 2016. The genus Conyza in Britain and a name for the hybrid between Erigeron acris and Conyza floribunda (Asteraceae). New Journal of Botany, 6(1), 16-20. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/20423489.2016.1173806 doi: 10.1080/20423489.2016.1173806

Nagata, K. M., 1995. New Hawaiian plant records. IV. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, (No. 42), 10-13.

Nesom GL, 2008. Classification of subtribe Conyzinae (Asteraceae: Astereae). Lundellia, 11, 8-38.

Oppenheimer H, 2008. New Hawaiian plant records for 2007. In: Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2007 , 100 [ed. by Evenhuis NL, Eldredge LG]. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers.22-38.

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Sansom, M., Saborido, A. A., Dubois, M., 2013. Control of Conyza spp. with glyphosate - a review of the situation in Europe. Plant Protection Science, 49(1), 44-53. http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/web/PPS.htm

Soubeyran Y, 2008. Espèces exotiques envahissantes dans les collectivités françaises d’outre-mer. Etat des lieux et recommandations. In: Collection Planète Nature . Paris, France: Comité français de l’UICN.

Stevens PF, 2017. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Tilley D, 2012. Ecology and management of Canadian horseweed (Conyza canadensis) – Technical Note. In: TN Plant Materials , 59. Bosie, Idaho, USA: USDA-National Resources Conservation Service.www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_PLANTMATERIALS/publications/idpmctn11471.pdf

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

Wagner, W. L., Herbst, D. R., Sohmer, S. H., 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 and 2, (Edn 2) . Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i and Bishop Museum Press.xviii + 1919 pp.

Zhang Wei, Wei Xiang, Meng HengLin, Ma ChunHua, Jiang NiHao, Zhang GuangHui, Yang ShengChao, 2015. Transcriptomic comparison of the self-pollinated and cross-pollinated flowers of Erigeron breviscapus to analyze candidate self-incompatibility-associated genes. BMC Plant Biology, 15(248), (13 October 2015). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2229/15/248

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2018. Australia's virtual herbarium. In: Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.ala.org.au

Fourdrigniez M, Meyer JY, 2008. (Liste et caractéristiques des plantes introduites naturalisées et envahissantes en Polynésie française). In: Contribution à la Biodiversité de Polynésie française N°17, Papeete, French Polynesia: Délégation à la Recherche. 62 pp.

Jung MingJer, Hsu TianChuan, Chung ShihWen, Peng ChingI, 2009. Three newly naturalized Asteraceae plants in Taiwan. Taiwania. 54 (1), 76-81. http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/taiwania

Mears RL, 2009. Erigeron bellioides (Asteraceae), new to Florida and the continental United States. In: Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 3 (2) 869-871.

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Soubeyran Y, 2008. (Espèces exotiques envahissantes dans les collectivités françaises d’outre-mer. Etat des lieux et recommandations). In: Collection Planète Nature, Paris, France: Comité français de l’UICN.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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29/05/18 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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