Poa compressa (Canada bluegrass)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Air Temperature
- Soil Tolerances
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Poa compressa L.
Preferred Common Name
- Canada bluegrass
Other Scientific Names
- Paneion compressum (L.) Lunell
- Poa compressa f. depauperata Millsp.
- Poa compressa var. sylvestris Torr.
- Poa langeana Rchb.
- Poa pallens Poir.
- Poa planicularis F.H.Wiggers
- Poa planiculmis Weber
- Poa polynoda Parn.
- Poa subcompressa Parn.
- Poa thurmanniana Montandon
International Common Names
- English: Canadian bluegrass; flattened meadow grass
- Spanish: poa comprimada
- French: pâturin comprimé; pâturin du Canada
- Chinese: jia na da zao shu he
- Portuguese: poa-chata
Local Common Names
- North America: English bluegrass; wire grass
- Canada: creeping Poa; smaller blue grass; Virginia blue grass
- Germany: Rispengras, Flaches; Rispengras, Platthalm-; Rispengras, Zusammengedrücktes
- Italy: gramigna compressa; ruba lana; strappa lana
- Japan: koichigotsunagi
- Korea, Republic of: jompoapul
- Netherlands: beemdgras, plat
- Russian Federation: mjatlik spljusnutyj
- Sweden: groee, berg-
- USA: flat-stem bluegrass
- POACO (Poa compressa)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
P. compressa (Canada Bluegrass) is a rhizomatous perennial grass species native to Europe and parts of Asia, which was introduced into the USA in the early 1800’s as the grass grew very well on poor soils. It is now widely spread throughout North America from Newfoundland to Alaska and all the continental United States except Florida and is present in all states of New England. It is also present in New Zealand where it is fully naturalised. Some consider it an invasive weed: it is present on a number of invasive plant lists in North America, and is banned in Connecticut (St John et al., 2012) and listed as invasive and “potentially of national concern” in Canada (Native Plant Database, 2015). It can reproduce by both seeds and rhizomes, can be spread long distances by cattle and deer carrying seeds, and establishes well in disturbed areas (St John et al., 2012). However, it is still sometimes planted in pastures, and used for erosion control on disturbed sites. P. compressa does not appear to outcompete other grasses unless on poor soil, but once established is difficult to eradicate due to proximity to native species.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Monocotyledonae
- Order: Cyperales
- Family: Poaceae
- Genus: Poa
- Species: Poa compressa
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Poa compressa is a member of the family Poaceae. It was one of the many species described in Species Plantarum by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. Poa is Greek for fodder and compressa is Latin for flattened, named for the flattened stems which are only present in this one species in the genus Poa. One of the common names for this species is Canada (or Canadian) bluegrass, reflecting its early introduction to Canada.
DescriptionTop of page
The following description comes from the Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015): Perennials, strongly rhizomatous, shoots extravaginal. Culms wiry, compressed, erect, often geniculate at base, simple or sparsely tufted, 15–50(–60) cm tall, 1.5–2 mm wide, nodes compressed, 3–6, 2–5 exserted. Leaf sheaths compressed to keeled, smooth, uppermost closed for 1/10–1/5 of length; blades flat, 5–12 cm × 1.4–4 mm, surfaces smooth or adaxially scabrid; ligule 1–3 mm, abaxially scabrid, truncate to obtuse. Panicle contracted or slightly open, erect, narrow, 4–11 × 0.5–1(–3) cm; branches erect or steeply ascending, or eventually spreading, 1–3 per node, densely scabrid angled from base, longest 2–4 cm with spikelets moderately crowded from the base or in distal 2/3. Spikelets ovate-lanceolate, 3.5–5 mm, florets 2–4; glumes lanceolate, nearly equal, 2–3 mm, 3-veined, apex acute or thinly mucronate, keel scabrid, rachilla smooth or minutely bumpy; lemmas oblong, 2.3–3.5 mm, apex obtuse, keel shortly villous for 2/3 of length, marginal veins to 1/3, intermediate veins faint, areas between veins glabrous; callus sparsely webbed or glabrous; palea keels scabrid. Anthers 1.3–1.8 mm. Caryopses 1.5 mm long.
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
P. compressa is native to Europe and southwestern Asia (Clark and Malte, 1913), but has now spread worldwide as an introduced species. It is widely spread throughout North America from Newfoundland to Alaska and all the continental United States except Florida (USDA-NRCS, 2015). It is also present and naturalized in eastern Australia and New Zealand (USDA-ARS, 2015). It is infrequent in China, and perhaps present only as an introduction here (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). USDA-ARS (2015) includes North Africa (Algeria and Morocco) in the native range.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 14 Dec 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||It is infrequent in China and is perhaps present only as an introduction|
|India||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Taiwan||Present, Localized||Introduced||Found at Tatachia, Hsin-yi Hsiang, Nantou-Hsien|
|Turkey||Present||Native||In European part, including Gökçeada|
|Italy||Present||Native||Excluding Sardinia and Sicily|
|Portugal||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Russian Far East||Present||Possibly introduced to central and eastern Russia|
|United Kingdom||Present, Widespread||Native|
|-British Columbia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Only occurs in the south|
|-Newfoundland and Labrador||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Found in open ground, open woods, meadows and waste places|
|-Prince Edward Island||Present||Introduced||Invasive|
|Saint Pierre and Miquelon||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive|
|-Alabama||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Found in open ground, open woods, meadows and waste places|
|-Alaska||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Found in open ground, open woods, meadows and waste places|
|-California||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Found in open ground, open woods, meadows and waste places|
|-Connecticut||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Habitat of abandoned or disturbed areas|
|-District of Columbia||Present||Introduced|
|-Georgia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Found in open ground, open woods, meadows and waste places|
|-Illinois||Present||Introduced||Invasive||In every county of Illinois: usually found in areas of disturbed land|
|-Maine||Present||Introduced||Habitat of abandoned or disturbed areas|
|-Massachusetts||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Habitat of abandoned or disturbed areas|
|-New Hampshire||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Habitat of abandoned or disturbed areas|
|-New Mexico||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Found in open ground, open woods, meadows and waste places|
|-Oklahoma||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Found in open ground, open woods, meadows and waste places|
|-Rhode Island||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Habitat of abandoned or disturbed areas|
|-Tennessee||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Found in open ground, open woods, meadows and waste places|
|-Virginia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Colonial National Hiistorical Park|
|-Wyoming||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Yellowstone National Park|
|-New South Wales||Present||Introduced|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
P. compressa was introduced into Canada in the late 1700’s (St John et al., 2012) and into much of North America in the early 1800s (Clark and Malte, 1913). It was found along the Saskatchewan River in Canada in 1823 and at other isolated locations unfrequented by European explorers by the early 1800s (Oakley, 1910). It has since spread throughout almost all the continental USA and Canada. The spread in North America is thought to have been as a contaminant of Kentucky bluegrass (P. pratensis) seed (St John et al., 2012). It has been cultivated for pastures in poor soils (Hitchcock, 1951). It was introduced into New Zealand and is now fully naturalized (Edgar, 1986).
IntroductionsTop of page
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
The species is already very widely spread, but may be introduced to new sites for erosion control and low maintenance landscaping. Once introduced, it has the potential to spread into adjoining plant communities under ideal climatic and environmental conditions (St John et al., 2012). It is expected to appear in Heilongjiang because it is common on the Russian side of the border with China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).
HabitatTop of page
P. compressa is unable to compete with other grasses on good soils and generally develops best on soils of low fertility or poor drainage. It has moderate drought and salinity tolerances but is not shade tolerant (US Forest Service, 2016). In the UK, Hubbard (1959) records it as occurring in poor, thin grassland, on dry banks, on waste ground, mostly on shallow, well-drained soils; also on old walls and ruins.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Principal habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Principal habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Scrub / shrublands||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Arid regions||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Chromosome number is 2n=42 (St John et al., 2012).
P. compressa is apomictic (St John et al., 2012). Seeds germinate between 20 and 30°C and prechilling temperatures of 10°C increase germination rates. The US Forest Service (2016) indicates that it also needs light for germination. The species is reported as flowering in May to June in Canada (Native Plants Database, 2015) and June to August in China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). P. compressa also spreads by rhizomes (St John et al., 2012).
P. compressa has C3 physiology.
Canada Bluegrass is adapted to wet sites but thrives on moderately acidic and droughty soils with poor fertility, including rocky outcrops and mountain tops (St John et al., 2012; Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, 2015). In Canada, it grows best on clay or clay loam soil (Oakley, 1910; Clark and Malter, 1913). It is not very competitive on fertile soils. Seeds require direct light for germination (Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, 2015).
ClimateTop of page
|BS - Steppe climate||Preferred||> 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Preferred||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
|Df - Continental climate, wet all year||Preferred||Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)|
|Ds - Continental climate with dry summer||Preferred||Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)|
|Dw - Continental climate with dry winter||Preferred||Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-39|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Mean annual rainfall||300||1140||mm; lower/upper limits|
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
P. compressa has been deliberately introduced by man into new countries for use as a forage grass on poor soils, for controlling erosion on disturbed sites, and for low maintenance landscaping. It has also been spread by contamination of P. pratensis seed. Once introduced, it is spread effectively locally by rhizomes, and over longer distances through the numerous tiny seeds, dispersed by both wind and animals (Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, 2015). Cattle and deer can carry P. compressa seeds long distances (Klein, 2008).
Pathway CausesTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
Environmental ImpactTop of page
P. compressa may become weedy or spread from its intended growing area (for erosion control or landscaping) to adjoining plant communities and displace more desirable vegetation if not properly managed (St John et al., 2012). In Alaska, it is reported to have little impact on native plant communities or successional processes (Klein et al., 2008). In New England, it does not pose a large threat to undisturbed natural areas, but has potential to be a nuisance in areas recovering from disturbance, and could crowd out native species when it grows in dense clumps (Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, 2015). Together with P. pratensis, it can out-compete native species for light and water in British Columbia (Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, 2015).
In trying to reestablish the Lakeside Daisy (Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra) at the upland habitats of Lockport and Romeoville Prairies, Illinois, proliferation of herbaceous plants, including P. compressa, has shaded and/or outcompeted the daisy, making control of P. compressa and other introduced plants vital to this endangered species (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1990).
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Is a habitat generalist
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Tolerant of shade
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Reproduces asexually
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition - shading
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
UsesTop of page
Clark and Malte (1913) reported that on poor clay soils, P. compressa grew better than the related pasture grass P. pratensis (Kentucky Blue Grass). Its’ early use was as a permanent pasture grass which thrived under close grazing. More recently, St John et al. (2012) state that the primary use is for controlling erosion on disturbed sites such as roadsides and mined land, heavily used recreational areas, and for low maintenance landscaping. The grass provides food for deer, small mammals and birds, which utilize both the seeds and leaves (St John et al., 2015; Illinois Wild Flowers, 2015; Native Plant Database, 2015).
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Fodder/animal feed
- Erosion control or dune stabilization
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
P. compressa is very similar in appearance to P. pratensis (Kentucky Bluegrass) but is distinguishable by its flattened stems, which are found in no other cultivated species of the genus Poa (Clark and Malte, 1913). The leaves on P. compressa are not as broad and numerous as those on P. pratensis. Flowers in P. pratensis are in a panicle which is more pyramidal in shape, the lower branches being numerous at each joint. In P. compressa, the panicle is generally oblong, or narrowly egg-shaped (Clark and Malter, 1913).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
In Canada, where P. compressa is an invasive plant of potential national concern, the recommended control method is cutting (Native Plant Database, 2015). While as a weed in agricultural settings it can be controlled by herbicides including tebuthiuron (Stroud et al., 1977), chemical control is not typically recommended in natural settings as the grass generally occurs in mixed stands together with native species (Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, 2015). Burning of young plants in late spring can be effective, but should only be undertaken with expert advice as the effects vary with timing and species composition (Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, 2015). Klein (2008) suggests a combination of mechanical and chemical methods, but warns that eradication efforts are likely to also damage coexisting species as P. compressa is often in close proximity to other plants.
ReferencesTop of page
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015. Atlas of Living Australia. http://bie.ala.org.au/
Clark GH; Malte MO, 1913. Fodder and Pasture Plants. Ottawa, Canada: Dominion of Canada Department of Agriculture, 143 pp.
EDDMapS, 2013. Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System. USA: The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. http://www.eddmaps.org/
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, 2015. Poa compressa and pratensis. Canada and Kentucky bluegrass. http://www.goert.ca/documents/P.compressa+pratensis.pdf
Gray A, 1908. Grey's New Manual of Botany: A Handbook of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Central and Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, Seventh edition [ed. by Robinson BL, Fernald ML]. Chicago, USA: American Book Company, 926 pp.
Hitchcock AS, 1951. Manual of Grasses of the United States. USDA Miscellaneous Publication No. 200. Washington DC, USA: USDA.
Hoffman R; Kearns K, 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants, Publ. ER-090 97. Madison, WI, USA: Bur. Endangered Resources, Dept. Natural Resources, 103 pp.
Hubbard CE, 1959. Grasses. London, UK: Penguin Books.
Hulten E, 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories, a manual of the vascular plants. Stanford, USA: Stanford University Press.
Hulten E, 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press.
Illinois Wildflowers, 2015. Canada bluegrass, Poa compressa. http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/grasses/plants/cn_bluegrass.htm
Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, 2015. Canada bluegrass datasheet. https://www.eddmaps.org/ipane/ipanespecies/grass/Poa_compressa.htm
Invasiveorg, 2015. Canada bluegrass, Poa compressa L. http://www.invasive.org/browse/subinfo.cfm?sub=6214
Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2015. Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council Species List. http://www.se-eppc.org/ky/list.htm
Klein H, 2008. Canada Bluegrass (Poa compressa)., USA: Alaska Natural Heritage Program, University of Alaska. http://accs.uaa.alaska.edu/invasive-species/non-native-plant-species-list/
Native Plant Database, 2015. Poa compressa, Canada bluegrass. https://nativeplants.evergreen.ca/search/view-plant.php?ID=04546
New Zealand Plants, 2015. Nga Tipo o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants. Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research databases. http://nzflora.landcareresearch.co.nz/
Oakley R, 1910. Canada bluegrass: its culture and uses. Farmers Bulletin, 402:19 pp.
Pacific Northwest Invasive Plant Council, 2015. Pacific Northwest Noxious Weed List. http://depts.washington.edu/waipc/pnwnoxiousweedlist.shtml
Rose F; Stokoe WJ; Jackson AB, 1974. The observer's book of grasses, sedges and rushes (Observer's pocket series No. 7). London, UK: Frederick Warne and Co. Ltd.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2015. Flora Europaea. Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2015. The Herbarium Catalogue. Richmond, Surrey, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. www.kew.org/herbcat
St John L; Tilley D; Winslow S, 2012. Plant guide for Canada bluegrass (Poa compressa). USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service.
Stroud DJ; Johnson GB; Perkins AT, 1977. The effects of application timing on the control of Canadian bluegrass (Poa compressa) using tebuthiuron, a soil residual herbicide. In: Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference, 1977, Vol. 32. 127.
Swearingen JM, 2009. Survey of Invasive Plants Impacting National Parks in the United States. Washington, DC, USA: National Park Service. http://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/parksurvey.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1990. Recovery plan for the Lakeside Daisy (Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra). Twin Cities, Minnesota, USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service, 80 pp.
US Forest Service, 2016. Poa compressa. http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/poacom/all.html
USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/
Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, 2015. Virginia Invasive Plant Species List 2014. http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/document/nh-invasive-plant-list-2014.pdf
Anon, 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. In: Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants, [ed. by Hoffman R, Kearns K]. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: Bur. Endangered Resources, Dept. Natural Resources. 103 pp.
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015. Atlas of Living Australia., http://bie.ala.org.au/
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri; Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, 2015. Poa compressa and pratensis. Canada and Kentucky bluegrass., http://www.goert.ca/documents/P.compressa+pratensis.pdf
Illinois Wildflowers, 2015. (Canada bluegrass, Poa compressa)., http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/grasses/plants/cn_bluegrass.htm
Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, 2015. Canada bluegrass datasheet., https://www.eddmaps.org/ipane/ipanespecies/grass/Poa_compressa.htm
Invasiveorg, 2015. Canada bluegrass, Poa compressa L., http://www.invasive.org/browse/subinfo.cfm?sub=6214
Klein H, 2008. Canada Bluegrass (Poa compressa)., USA: Alaska Natural Heritage Program, University of Alaska. http://accs.uaa.alaska.edu/invasive-species/non-native-plant-species-list/
Native Plant Database, 2015. Poa compressa, Canada bluegrass., https://nativeplants.evergreen.ca/search/view-plant.php?ID=04546
New Zealand Plants, 2015. Nga Tipo o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants. Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research databases., http://nzflora.landcareresearch.co.nz/
Royal Botanic Garden, 2015. Flora Europaea., Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2015. The Herbarium Catalogue., Richmond, Surrey, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. http://www.kew.org/herbcat
Swearingen JM, 2009. Survey of Invasive Plants Impacting National Parks in the United States., Washington, DC, USA: National Park Service. http://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/parksurvey.pdf
USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx
USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov
ContributorsTop of page
15/12/2015 Original text by:
Belinda Luke, CABI, UK
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