Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Panolis flammea
(pine beauty moth)

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Datasheet

Panolis flammea (pine beauty moth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Panolis flammea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pine beauty moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Panolis flammea (pine beauty moth); adult, at light. Dresden, Saxony, Germany. April 2006.
TitleAdult
CaptionPanolis flammea (pine beauty moth); adult, at light. Dresden, Saxony, Germany. April 2006.
Copyright©Olaf Leillinger-2006/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Panolis flammea (pine beauty moth); adult, at light. Dresden, Saxony, Germany. April 2006.
AdultPanolis flammea (pine beauty moth); adult, at light. Dresden, Saxony, Germany. April 2006.©Olaf Leillinger-2006/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Panolis flammea (pine beauty moth); 5th instar larvae on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).
TitleLarvae
CaptionPanolis flammea (pine beauty moth); 5th instar larvae on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).
Copyright©Hannes Lemme/Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Panolis flammea (pine beauty moth); 5th instar larvae on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).
LarvaePanolis flammea (pine beauty moth); 5th instar larvae on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).©Hannes Lemme/Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Panolis flammea Denis & Schiffermüller 1775

Preferred Common Name

  • pine beauty moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Bombyx spreta Fabricus 1787
  • Noctua flammea Denis & Schiffermüller
  • Noctua piniperda
  • Panolis griseovariegata
  • Panolis griseovariegatus
  • Panolis piniperda Loschege 1785
  • Phalaena griseovariegata Goeze 1781
  • Phalaena pini de Villers 1789
  • Phalaena telifera Paykull 1786
  • Trachea piniperda

International Common Names

  • English: pine beauty (England)
  • French: noctuelle piniperde

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: fyrreugle
  • Finland: maenty-yoekkoenen
  • Germany: Eule, Kiefern-; Forleule
  • Italy: Nottua del pino
  • Netherlands: Dennenrups, gestreepte; Dennerupsvlinder, gestreepte
  • Norway: furufly
  • Sweden: tallfly

EPPO code

  • PANLFL (Panolis flammea)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Panolis
  •                                 Species: Panolis flammea

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Europe

AndorraPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
AustriaPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
BelarusPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
BelgiumPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
BulgariaPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
CroatiaPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
Czech RepublicPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
Czechoslovakia (former)Unconfirmed record
DenmarkPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
EstoniaPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
FinlandPresentWatt and Leather, 1988; Karsholt et al., 2013
Former USSRPresentCAB Abstracts
FrancePresentKarsholt et al., 2013
GermanyPresentSchwenke, 1978; Watt and Leather, 1988; Karsholt et al., 2013
GibraltarPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
GreecePresentKarsholt et al., 2013
HungaryPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
IrelandPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
ItalyPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
LatviaPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
LithuaniaPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
LuxembourgPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
MacedoniaPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
MoldovaPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
MontenegroPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
NorwayPresentWatt and Leather, 1988; Karsholt et al., 2013
PolandPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
RomaniaPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
Russian FederationPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
-Central RussiaPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
-Northern RussiaPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
-Southern RussiaPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
-Western SiberiaPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
SerbiaPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
SpainPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
SwedenPresentWatt and Leather, 1988; Karsholt et al., 2013
SwitzerlandPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
UKPresentStoakley, 1978, publ. 1979; South, 1961; Watt and Leather, 1988; Karsholt et al., 2013
-Channel IslandsPresentKarsholt et al., 2013
UkrainePresentKarsholt et al., 2013

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / external feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphanistes gliscens Parasite Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. dendrolimus Pathogen Larvae
Banchus hastator Parasite Larvae
Barichneumon bilunulatus Parasite Poland forest trees
Batkoa major Pathogen Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Larvae
Blepharomyia angustifrons Parasite
Calathus micropterus Predator Larvae
Campoletis Parasite Larvae
Campoplex adjunctus Parasite
Carabus glabratus Predator Larvae
Carabus problematicus Predator Larvae
Carabus violaceus Predator Larvae
Coelichneumon bilineatus Parasite
Coelichneumon comitator Parasite Poland forest trees
Coelichneumon desinatorius Parasite
Corvus corax Predator Larvae
Cratichneumon fabricator Parasite
Cratichneumon viator Parasite Larvae Poland
Cryptus dianae Parasite
Drino inconspicua Parasite
Enicospilus merdarius Parasite
Entomophaga aulicae Pathogen Larvae
Erdoesina alboannulata Parasite Poland forest trees
Erithacus rubecula Predator Larvae
Formica cinerea Predator
Formica polyctena Predator
Gonia picea Parasite
Heteropelma megarthrum Parasite
Ichneumon haesitator Parasite
Ichneumon septentrionalis Parasite not specific
Lampronota murinus Parasite not specific
Meteorus gyrator Parasite
Meteorus versicolor Parasite
Mitopus morio Predator Larvae
Nemastoma bimaculatum Predator Larvae
Nomuraea rileyi Pathogen Larvae
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae UK
Oligolophus tridens Predator Larvae
Ophion luteus Parasite
Ophion ventricosus Parasite
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen Pupae
Pales pavida Parasite
Panzeria rudis Parasite Larvae
Parus ater Predator Larvae
Parus major Predator Larvae
Phalangium opilio Predator Larvae
Phobocampe bicingulata Parasite Larvae
Phryxe magnicornis Parasite
Pimpla hypochondriaca Parasite
Polytribax arrogans Parasite Poland forest trees
Rictichneumon pachymerus Parasite
Sorex araneus Predator Pupae
Tachina fera Parasite
Therion circumflexum Parasite
Timavia amoena Parasite
Trichogramma evanescens Parasite
Trichogramma minutum Parasite Eggs UK Pinus
Turdus iliacus Predator Larvae
Turdus pilaris Predator Larvae
Zele albiditarsus Parasite Larvae
Zoophthora Pathogen Larvae

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly mobile locally
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts forestry

References

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Ballard J, 1987. Larval behaviour of the pine beauty moth. Population Biology and Control of the Pine Beauty Moth, Forestry Commission Bulletin 67.

Barbour DA, 1987. Pine beauty moth population dynamics. General considerations and life-table work. Population Biology and Control of the Pine Beauty Moth, Forestry Commission Bulletin 67.

Cory JS; Green BM; Paul RK; Hunter-Fujita F, 2005. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of a baculovirus population within an individual insect host. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 89(2):101-111. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00222011

Evans HF; Stoakley JT; Leather SR; Watt AD, 1991. Development of an integrated approach to control of pine beauty moth in Scotland. In: Forest Ecology and Management, 39(1-4) [ed. by Raske, A.G.\Wickman, B.E.]. 19-28.

Gilligan TM; Passoa SC, 2014. Screening aid: Pine beauty, Panolis flammea (Denis & Schiffermuller). Identification Technology Program (ITP). Fort Collins, Colorado, USA: USDA-APHIS-PPQ-S&T, 5 pp.

Hicks BJ; Aegerter JN; Leather SR; Watt AD, 2007. Asynchrony in larval development of the pine beauty moth, Panolis flammea, on an introduced host plant may affect parasitoid efficacy. Arthropod - Plant Interactions, 1(4):213-220. http://www.springerlink.com/content/h4831x6735864543/?p=dc1c0ee588254e05bb543a21a827e400&pi=1

Hicks BJ; Barbour DA; Evans HF; Heritage S; Leather SR; Milne R; Watt AD, 2001. The history and control of the pine beauty moth, Panolis flammea (D. & S.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in Scotland from 1976 to 2000. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 3(3):161-168.

Hicks BJ; Leather SR; Watt AD, 2008. Changing dynamics of the pine beauty moth (Panolis flammea) in Britain: the loss of enemy free space? Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 10(3):263-271. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/afe

Hicks BJ; Watt AD; Cosens D, 2001. The potential of Beauveria bassiana (Hyphomycetes: Monilialea) as a biological control agent against the pine beauty moth, Panolis flammea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Forest Ecology and Management, 149:275- 281.

Karsholt O; Nieukerken EJ; van; Jong YSDMde, 2013. Fauna Europaea: Lepidoptera, Moths. Fauna Europaea version 2.6. Berlin, Germany: Fauna Europaea. http://www.faunaeur.org

Klimetzek D, 1979. Insekten-Grosschadlinge an Kiefer in Nordbayern und der Pfalz: Analyse und Vergleich 1810-1970. (Insekten-Grosschadlinge an Kiefer in Nordbayern und der Pfalz: Analyse und Vergleich 1810-1970.) Freiburger Waldschutz Abhandlungen, 2:1-173.

Leather SR, 1984. Factors affecting pupal survival and eclosion in the pine beauty moth, Panolis flammea (D & S). Oecologia, 63(1):75-79.

Leather SR; Barbour DA, 1983. The effect of temperature on the emergence of pine beauty moth, Panolis flammea Schiff. (Lep., Noctuidae). Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 96(5):445-448.

Lines R, 1976. The development of forestry in Scotland in relation to the use of Pinus contorta. Research and Development Paper, Forestry Commission, UK [Pinus cortorta provenance studies.], No. 114:2-5.

Lowe AJ; Hicks BJ; Worley K; Ennos RA; Morman JD; Stone G; Watt AD, 2005. Genetic differentiation in Scottish populations of the pine beauty moth, Panolis flammea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 95(6):517-526. http://www.ingenta.com/journals/browse/cabi/ber

Molet T, 2011. CPHST Pest Datasheet for Panolis flammea., USA: USDA_APHIS_PPQ_CPHST.

Novak V; Hrozinka F; Stary B, 1976. Atlas of insects harmful to forest trees. Volume I. Amsterdam, The: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company., Netherlands 125 pp.

Schwenke W, 1965. Uber die Jungraupenparasiten der Forleule, Panolis flammea Schiff. (Uber die Jungraupenparasiten der Forleule, Panolis flammea Schiff.) Anzeiger fur Schadlkunde Pflanzenschutz, 38:153-156.

Schwenke W, 1978. Die Forstschadlinge Europas (Die Forstschadlinge Europas). Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey, 467 pp.

Sinclair WT; Morman JD; Ennos RA, 1999. The postglacial history of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in western Europe: evidence from mitochondrial DNA variation. Molecular Ecology, 8(1):83-88.

South R, 1907. The moths of the British Isles (Edn 4, 1961), I. London, UK.

Stoakley JT, 1977. A severe outbreak of the pine beauty moth on lodgepole pine in Sutherland. Scottish Forestry, 31(2):113-125.

Stoakley JT; 1978, publ. 1979. The pine beauty moth - its distribution, life cycle and importance as a pest in Scottish forests. Control of pine beauty moth by fenitrothion in Scotland 1978 [ed. by Holden, A. V.\Bevan, D.]. Edinburgh, UK: Forestry Commission., 7-12.

Vanbergen AJ; Hodgson DJ; Thurlow M; Hartley SE; Watt AD, 2003. Food-plant effects on larval performance do not translate into differences in fitness between populations of Panolis flammea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 93(6):553-559.

Wainhouse D; Jukes MR, 1997. Geographic variation within populations of Panolis flammea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Britain. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 87(1):95-99.

Wang HouShuai; Fan XiaoLing; Owada M; Wang Min; Nylin Sören, 2014. Phylogeny, systematics and biogeography of the genus Panolis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) based on morphological and molecular evidence. PLoS ONE, 9(3):e90598. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0090598

Watt AD, 1987. The effect of shoot growth stage of Pinus contorta and Pinus sylvestris on the growth and survival of Panolis flammea larvae. Oecologia, 72(3):429-433.

Watt AD, 1989. The chemical composition of pine foliage in relation to the population dynamics of the pine beauty moth, Panolis flammea, in Scotland. Oecologia, 78(2):251-258.

Watt AD; Hicks BJ, 2000. A reappraisal of the population dynamics of the pine beauty moth, Panolis flammea, on lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta, in Scotland. Population Ecology, 42(3):225-230.

Watt AD; Leather SR, 1988. The pine beauty in Scottish lodgepole pine plantations. In: Dynamics of Forest Insect Population [ed. by Berryman, A. A.]. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 243-266 pp.

Watt AD; Leather SR; Evans HF, 1991. Outbreaks of the pine beauty moth on pine in Scotland: influence of host plant species and site factors. In: Forest Ecology and Management, 39(1-4) [ed. by Raske, A. G.\Wickman, B. E.]. 211-221.

Distribution Maps

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