Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Pimenta racemosa
(bay rum tree)

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Datasheet

Pimenta racemosa (bay rum tree)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pimenta racemosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bay rum tree
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. racemosa is a tree native to the Caribbean and northern South America. Known as the bay rum tree, crushed leaves have a characteristic odour with hints of clove and cinnamon, and are distilled to produce a t...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pimenta racemosa (bay rum tree); habit. Limbe Botanical Gardens, Limbe, Cameroon. September 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionPimenta racemosa (bay rum tree); habit. Limbe Botanical Gardens, Limbe, Cameroon. September 2013.
Copyright©Guillaume Goursat/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Pimenta racemosa (bay rum tree); habit. Limbe Botanical Gardens, Limbe, Cameroon. September 2013.
HabitPimenta racemosa (bay rum tree); habit. Limbe Botanical Gardens, Limbe, Cameroon. September 2013.©Guillaume Goursat/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Pimenta racemosa (bay rum tree); habit, showing foliage. Limbe Botanical Gardens, Limbe, Cameroon. September 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionPimenta racemosa (bay rum tree); habit, showing foliage. Limbe Botanical Gardens, Limbe, Cameroon. September 2013.
Copyright©Guillaume Goursat/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Pimenta racemosa (bay rum tree); habit, showing foliage. Limbe Botanical Gardens, Limbe, Cameroon. September 2013.
HabitPimenta racemosa (bay rum tree); habit, showing foliage. Limbe Botanical Gardens, Limbe, Cameroon. September 2013.©Guillaume Goursat/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Pimenta racemosa (bay rum tree); foliage. Limbe Botanical Gardens, Limbe, Cameroon. September 2013.
TitleFoliage
CaptionPimenta racemosa (bay rum tree); foliage. Limbe Botanical Gardens, Limbe, Cameroon. September 2013.
Copyright©Guillaume Goursat/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Pimenta racemosa (bay rum tree); foliage. Limbe Botanical Gardens, Limbe, Cameroon. September 2013.
FoliagePimenta racemosa (bay rum tree); foliage. Limbe Botanical Gardens, Limbe, Cameroon. September 2013.©Guillaume Goursat/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Pimenta racemosa (bay rum tree); seeds. Route de Clairière, Fort-de-France, Martinique. November 2013.
TitleSeeds
CaptionPimenta racemosa (bay rum tree); seeds. Route de Clairière, Fort-de-France, Martinique. November 2013.
Copyright©Philmarin/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Pimenta racemosa (bay rum tree); seeds. Route de Clairière, Fort-de-France, Martinique. November 2013.
SeedsPimenta racemosa (bay rum tree); seeds. Route de Clairière, Fort-de-France, Martinique. November 2013.©Philmarin/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J. W. Moore

Preferred Common Name

  • bay rum tree

Other Scientific Names

  • Amomis acris (Sw.) O. Berg
  • Amomis caryophyllata (Jacq.) Krug & Urb.
  • Amomis grisea (Kiaersk.) Britton
  • Amomis pimento O. Berg
  • Amomis pimentoides (DC.) O. Berg
  • Caryophyllus racemosus Mill.
  • Myrcia acris (Sw.) DC.
  • Myrcia pimentoides DC.
  • Myrtus acris Sw.
  • Myrtus caryophyllata Jacq.
  • Pimenta acris (Sw.) Kostel.
  • Pimenta acris auct.
  • Pimenta acuminata Bello & Espinosa
  • Pimenta pimento (O. Berg) Griseb.

International Common Names

  • English: bay oil tree; bay tree; West Indian bay; wild cilliment; wild cinnamon
  • Spanish: malagueta
  • French: bois d'Inde; piment couronné

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bayrumbaum
  • Sweden: bayoljeträd
  • Tonga: binamoni

EPPO code

  • PMTRA (Pimenta racemosa)

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. racemosa is a tree native to the Caribbean and northern South America. Known as the bay rum tree, crushed leaves have a characteristic odour with hints of clove and cinnamon, and are distilled to produce a tonic containing essential oils with many medical uses. It has been widely exploited for this reason in previous centuries, though not so much in recent times. It has not been extensively introduced, reported in only a few African and Asian countries and Pacific islands, and Florida, USA. Seeds are spread by birds that eat the fruit. It has been recorded as invasive only in the Pacific, including some of the Cook Islands, Fiji, Hawaii and Tonga, where it can form dense patches that crowd out native species. The closely related allspice tree (P. dioca) is also reported as invasive. Noting P. racemosa naturalization in Benin and some Pacific islands, there appears to be a high risk of further escape and naturalization in other countries where it is currently cultivated or otherwise present.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Myrtales
  •                         Family: Myrtaceae
  •                             Genus: Pimenta
  •                                 Species: Pimenta racemosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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There are various delimitations to species in the genus. Only two species of Pimenta are accepted by USDA-ARS (2013), the bay rum tree P. racemosa and the allspice tree P. dioica. These are certainly the two most economically valued species, but GBIF (2013) records eight other species: P. cainitoides, P. filipes, P. obscura, P. odiolens, P. oligantha, P. podocarpoides, P. pseudocaryophyllus and P. richardii. The Plant List (2013) accepts all of these and adds six more, P. adenoclada, P. communis, P. ferruginea, P. guatemalensis, P. haitiensis and P. jamaicensis, making 16 species in total. Paula et al. (2010) reports 15 known Pimenta species and confirm that P. dioica and P. racemosa have the greatest economic importance and consequently have been the most studied.
 
Several varieties have been recorded: var. grisea (Kiaersk.) Fosberg; var. hispaniolensis (Urb.) Landrum; var. ozua (Urb. & Ekman) Landrum; and var. terebinthina (Burret) Landrum (GBIF, 2013; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013; The Plant List, 2013). A number of other varieties have also been described and applied to names now considered as synonyms, such as var. jamaicensis, var. surinamensis ascribed to Amomis pimento O. Berg, and var. pimentoides ascribed to Pimenta acris (DC.) Griseb., though these may now correspond to other species.

Description

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P. racemosa is a generally upright tree, 4-12 m tall or more, with trunk up to 25 cm in diameter. Trees are evergreen, columnar or pyramidal in overall form and branches tend to grow upwards giving a compact appearance. The trunk is slightly fluted, with bark smooth, grey to light brown and which peels off to reveal lighter shades underneath. Bark tends to become rough and fissured in older trees. Leaves are stiff and leathery, (1.5-) 4-10 (-12.5) cm long, 2.5-6 cm wide, with petioles 0.3-1 cm long. Leaves are obovate to oblanceolate or elliptic, coriaceous, obtuse, acute basally, margins entire, finely reticulately veined, with 5-7 pairs of rather obscure, main lateral veins. Leaves may have a red hue when young, dark green when mature, shiny above, dull and pale beneath. Crushed leaves give off the characteristic ‘bay rum’ odour (with hints of clove and cinnamon). Flowers are white, fragrant, about 1.0-1.5 cm across, with pedunculate cymes and a 5-lobed calyx. The fruit is ovoid, 7-12 mm long, green at first turning black when mature, borne in clusters 2.5-7.5 cm across both laterally and terminally (Kent Kirk, 2009; PIER, 2013). Seeds brown, 4-7 mm long (PROSEA, 2012).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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The native range of the genus Pimenta is almost entirely restricted to Central America and the Caribbean, with the exception of P. pseudocaryophyllus which is native to central and southern Brazil (Paula et al., 2010).

P. racemosa itself is native to the Caribbean Basin, although the exact limits are not agreed. USDA-ARS (2013) only includes the Caribbean islands as its native range (Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Martin and other islands of the former Netherlands Antilles) with some exceptions. However, occurrences in mainland Central America (GBIF, 2013) are also likely to be native or naturalized in pre-history, and Missouri Botanical Garden (2013) includes specimens from northern South America which could also be part of the native range. Honeychurch (1996) also reports the native range as the Caribbean and northern South America. Mainland Central America has been included in a broad native range accepted in this datasheet.

P. racemosa has been introduced to a few African and Asian countries: Benin, Ghana, Tanzania, Mayotte, India and Sri Lanka, and to Pacific islands. It has probably been introduced for cultivation for its essential oil to other tropical countries. It is known to be cultivated on Pacific islands, and on some of these it has escaped and become invasive.  

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013

Africa

BeninPresentIntroducedAlitonou et al., 2012
EgyptPresentIntroduced Not invasive Yousif et al., 2007
GhanaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013
MayottePresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedAllen, 1971

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentKent Kirk, 2009
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
Antigua and BarbudaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
BahamasPresentNative Invasive BEST Commission, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2013
British Virgin IslandsPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
Costa RicaPresentNativeGBIF, 2013
CubaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
DominicaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
Dominican RepublicPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
GrenadaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
GuadeloupePresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
HaitiPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
HondurasPresentNativeGBIF, 2013
JamaicaPresentNativeGBIF, 2013
MartiniquePresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
MontserratPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
PanamaPresentNativeGBIF, 2013
Puerto RicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013
SabaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
Saint LuciaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
Sint EustatiusPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
Sint MaartenPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
United States Virgin IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013

South America

BrazilPresentNativeGBIF, 2013
ColombiaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
French GuianaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
GuyanaPresentNativeGBIF, 2013
SurinamePresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
VenezuelaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013

Oceania

Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2013
GuamPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2013
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2013
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013

History of Introduction and Spread

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In its native range, P. racemosa is recommended for control in the Bahamas (BEST Commission, 2003), though Kairo et al. (2003) do not note it as invasive anywhere in the Caribbean.

P. racemosa is reported as existing in the wild in Benin and is therefore considered to have naturalized there (Alitonou et al., 2012).

Little information is available regarding the introduction of P. racemosa although it is widely cultivated on many Pacific islands (PIER, 2013). Whereas the date of introduction to Hawaii is not known, it is now reported to have naturalized in parts of the Moanalua Valley on Oahu island in Hawaii, where it is thought to have escaped from cultivation in the area (Frohlich and Lau, 2012). It has been reported to have become naturalized on most of the southern group of the Cook Islands except Aitutaki and is especially prevalent on Mauke (Space and Flynn, 2002).

Noting its naturalization in Benin and some Pacific islands, there appears to be a high risk of escape and naturalization in other countries where it is currently cultivated or otherwise present.

Risk of Introduction

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The species has a specific value in being exploited for its essential oil so there is an increased risk of intentional introduction, especially considering that it has not been widely introduced to date. Therefore there are many countries where it could grow but where it has not yet been recorded. It has also been recommended as an ornamental tree in Florida (Kent Kirk, 2009).

An invasive risk assessment for the Pacific region resulted in a ‘high risk’ score of 7 for P. racemosa (PIER, 2013). 

Habitat

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Not tolerant of shade and preferring full sun, P. racemosa tends to be found in open areas or forest edges. In Fiji, it is cultivated and sometimes naturalized near sea level, and in Hawaii, P. racemosa has been found naturalized up to 900 m elevation and in dry and moist forests and open areas (PIER, 2013). In Hawaii, it is found in lowland mesic, predominantly non-native secondary forest along the valley floor (Frohlich and Lau, 2012).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Physiology and Phenology

Trees in the Caribbean flower from April to August and fruit is produced well into the autumn (Kent Kirk, 2009). Flowers are bisexual. Although P. racemosa is evergreen, individual trees shed their leaves every 2-3 years. Fruits are eaten by birds, which are the main dispersal agents for the seed. The life of plantations is indeterminate, as trees regenerate from stumps, and the effect of regular harvesting on the life expectancy is not known. Individual trees 50 years old are known (PROSEA, 2012).

Environmental Requirements

P. racemosa is a tree of the humid and sub-humid tropics and sub-tropics and is not tolerant of frosts. It does not tolerate full shade, preferring full sun or only partial shade, and is moderately tolerant of drought, salt and wind (Kent Kirk, 2009). It also prefers sheltered sites and free-draining soils. PIER (2013) states that trees prefer full sun and moist conditions. P. racemosa prefers an annual rainfall of 2500 mm, evenly distributed over the year with few months with less than 200 mm rainfall. However, natural stands occur in areas with only 750 mm annual rainfall. It grows best at temperatures of 15-35°C. Frost is not tolerated. Trees are found up to 750 m altitude (Proseanet, 2017).  

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 5
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 25
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 30
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 10

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration04number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall10003000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline
  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A rust disease was reported to attack young parts of P. racemosa trees by Allen (1971) and thought possibly to be a species of Hemileia. This causes circular (occasionally irregular) spots, reddish on the upper surface and yellowish, becoming greyish-brown on the lower surface. When many lesions develop on young leaves or emerging shoots, the tips wither, and when flowers are attacked, spots appear on the stalks and much blossom-fall can follow. Other diseases have also been observed in Tanzania (Allen, 1971).

From PROSEA (2012): 'The most serious disease of P. racemosa is a leaf rust caused by Puccinia psidii, which covers young leaves, shoots and inflorescences with a bright yellow mass of spores. Severe infection results in defoliation and successive attacks severely weaken trees and may kill young ones. A dieback or canker, known in the Caribbean as fireblight, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata affects older trees. The disease is widespread, but outbreaks can be very local. Leaf-eating caterpillars are the most damaging pests. Bag-worms (Oeceticus abboti) and related species are often recorded. Whiteflies, thrips and weevils also cause some damage. Black ants cause damage by transferring scale insects between trees and by making harvesting unpleasant.'

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Seeds are spread locally by birds that feed on the fruit (Space and Flynn, 2002; PIER, 2013). However, long distance introduction is likely to have been intentional, with the aim of cultivating the plant to produce valuable essential oil and using the species as an ornamental tree (Kent Kirk, 2009).

Pathway Causes

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Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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P. racemosa has a positive economic impact as a resource for the production of ‘bay rum’ which is commercialized. Production probably peaked in the 1800s in the Caribbean region, though it is still an important economic activity in rural areas of some islands, notably in Dominica.

Environmental Impact

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It was reported that P. racemosa can become naturalized and replace native species of other plants (PIER, 2013). In parts of Hawaii, individual P. racemosa plants were well scattered over areas of several hectares, occasionally forming small dense patches of about 10 square metres. No extensive dense stands were observed however, although no off-trail surveys were undertaken (Frohlich and Lau, 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Long lived
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic value

The main use of P. racemosa is the distilled leaf oil (or ‘bay rum’). A description of processing techniques for producing the essential oil of P. racemosa is provided by Ames et al. (1971), including the types of distilling equipment (‘stills’) used, the harvesting, distillation and storage methods, and results from gas chromatography of the oil. Traditionally in the Caribbean, crushed leaves are put into hot baths to refresh and relax for three consecutive days, and a small leaf can be added to tea to relieve chills (Honeychurch, 1986). The major producers of bay leaf oil are Dominica and Puerto Rico, but no statistics are available on production and trade (PROSEA, 2012). 

Botanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of species of Pimenta are reviewed by Paula et al. (2010), who noted that the pharmacological properties are mostly due to such essential oils, mainly consisting of phenylpropanoid, monoterpene, monoterpenic aldehyde and alcohol derivatives, with antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. High levels of antioxidant properties of the leaf oil were found by Jirovetz et al. (2007), with the major compounds including eugenol (45.60%), myrcene (24.97%) and chavicol (9.31%). This is confirmed by Alitonou et al. (2012) who found that of the 24 compounds identified, the most common were eugenol (45.2%-52.7%), myrcene (25.1%-29.4%), chavicol (7.1%-9.3%), limonene (3.0%-4.0%) and 1,8-cineole (2.1%-3.2%) as major compounds.

Essential oils were found to have low anti-inflammatory activity but high antiradical effects and were proven to have effective acaricidal impacts against Amblyomma variegatum and antimicrobial activities against both bacteria and fungi (Alitonou et al., 2012). P. racemosa essential oils may also be useful in the food industry where the antioxidants are used to delay the degradation of fatty substances. Strong antischistosomal effects were also identified (Yousif et al., 2007).

Essential oils of P. racemosa (and Ocimum gratissimum) were found to be effective for helping to preserve smoked mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in Benin (Degnon et al., 2013). The essential oils were effective against the strains of fungi identified with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 10 l/ml essential oil of P. racemosa. The addition of P. racemosa essential oil to the smoked mackerel kept them from spoilage for an average of five days compared to the control that was without microbial growth and showed no visible tainting of fish (Degnon et al., 2013).

P. racemosa has been recommended as an ornamental tree in Florida (Kent Kirk, 2009).

Uses List

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General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Essential oils

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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P. racemosa can be confused with other Pimenta species, especially the common 'allspice’ tree (Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr). In Hawaii, they can be differentiated by the fact that P. racemosa has more obtuse to subcircular leaves compared to the more oblong-elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate leaves of P. dioica; the apex is usually rounded rather than obtuse to acute in P. dioica; and flowers have five sepals and five petals compared with four sepals and four petals in P. dioica (Frohlich and Lau, 2012).

Prevention and Control

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There are no known management practices for this plant. However, pulling seedlings, cutting mature trees and applying herbicides may be effective in controlling this species. 

References

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Alitonou GA; Noudogbessi JP; Sessou P; Tonouhewa A; Avlessi F; Menut C; Sohounhloue DCK, 2012. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J. W. Moore. from Benin. International Journal of Biosciences (IJB), 2(9):1-12. http://www.innspub.net/wp-content/uploads/file/IJB-V2No9-p1-12.pdf

Allen DJ, 1971. Some newly recorded diseases of minor horticultural crops in Tanzania. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 37(1):22-25.

Ames GR; Barrow N; Borton C; Casey TE; Matthews WS; Nabney J, 1971. Bay oil distillation in Dominica. Tropical Science, 13(1):13-25.

BEST Commission, 2003. The National Invasive Species Strategy for The Bahamas. Nassau, Bahamas: The Bahamas Environment, Science and Technology Commission, 34 pp.

Degnon RG; Faton AN; Adjou ES; Tchobo FP; Dahouenon-Ahoussi E; Soumanou MM; Sohounhloue DCK, 2013. Comparative effectiveness of essential oils of two aromatic plants in the conservation of post-smoking mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). (Efficacité comparée des huiles essentielles de deux plantes aromatiques dans la conservation post-fumage du Chinchard (Trachurus trachurus).) Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences (JAPS), 19(1):2831-2839. http://www.m.elewa.org/JAPS/2013/19.1/2.pdf

Frohlich D; Lau A, 2012. New plant records for the Hawaiian Islands 2010-2011. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2011. Part II: Plants, 113:27-54.

GBIF, 2013. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). http://data.gbif.org/species/

Honeychurch PN, 1996. Caribbean wild plants and their uses. London, UK: MacMillan Press, Ltd.

Jirovetz L; Buchbauer G; Stoilova I; Krastanov A; Stoyanova A; Schmidt E, 2007. Spice plants: chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Pimenta Lindl. essential oils, part 2: Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J.W. Moore leaf oil from Jamaica. Ernährung, 31(7/8):293-300.

Kairo M; Ali B; Cheesman O; Haysom K; Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Kent Kirk T, 2009. Tropical trees of Florida and the Virgin Islands. Florida, USA: Pineapple Press.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Paula JAM; Reis JB; Ferreira LHM; Menezes ACS; Paula JR, 2010. Pimenta genus: botanical aspects, chemical composition and pharmacological potential. (Gênero Pimenta: aspectos botânicos, composição química e potencial farmacológico.) Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, 12(3):363-379.

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROSEA, 2012. Plant Resources of South East Asia. http://www.prosea.nl/

Smith FEV, 1934. Report on Pimento disease in the parish of Manchester. Journal of the Jamaica Agricultural Society, 38(5):276-279 pp.

Space JC; Flynn T, 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, 79 pp.

Space JC; Flynn T, 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service.

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2013. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Yousif F; Hifnawy MS; Soliman G; Boulos L; Labib T; Mahmoud S; Ramzy F; Yousif M; Hassan I; Mahmoud K; El-Hallouty SM; El-Gendy M; Gohar L; El-Manawaty M; Fayyad W; El-Menshawi BS, 2007. Large-scale in vitro screening of Egyptian native and cultivated plants for schistosomicidal activity. Pharmaceutical Biology, 45(6):501-510.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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15/07/15 Original text by:

Nick Pasiecznik, Consultant, UK

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