Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Megaplatypus mutatus

Toolbox

Datasheet

Megaplatypus mutatus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 March 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Megaplatypus mutatus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • M. mutatus is native to South America and in 2000 it was reported from Italy where it was damaging poplars and several fruit tree species. Consequently OEPP/EPPO (2009) i...

  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapius, 1865)

Other Scientific Names

  • Platypus mutatus Chapuis, 1865
  • Platypus plicatus Brèthes
  • Platypus sulcatus Chapuis

International Common Names

  • English: ambrosia beetles
  • Spanish: barreno de los forestales y frutales; taladrillo grande de los forestales

EPPO code

  • PLTPMU (Platypus mutatus)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

M. mutatus is native to South America and in 2000 it was reported from Italy where it was damaging poplars and several fruit tree species. Consequently OEPP/EPPO (2009) included it on their A2 list of pests recommended for regulation as quarantine pests/A2 action list in March 2007. Countries in the EPPO region considered to be at risk are recommended to regulate M. mutatus as a quarantine pest (OEPP/EPPO, 2009). Alfaro et al. (2007) state that due to its continuing damage to hybrid poplar plantations in Argentina, its wide distribution in South America and its recent introduction into Italy (Tremblay et al., 2000), concerns have been raised about its potential as a globally invasive pest of Populus species. Certainly countries of the Mediterranean temperate belt (Spain, France, Greece, Turkey, etc), where poplar plantations and fruit crops are widely spread, are at risk (Alfaro et al., 2007).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Platypodidae
  •                             Genus: Megaplatypus
  •                                 Species: Megaplatypus mutatus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Megaplatypus mutatus is often referred to as Platypus sulcatus or Platypus mutatus in the literature (Alfaro et al., 2007). The first revision of the genera of Platypodidae was provided by Wood (1993), who designated nine new genera and Platypus mutatus was assigned the genus Megaplatypus. Bright and Skidmore (2002) adopted this generic transfer in their world catalogue of Scolytidae and Platypodidae, second supplement.

This species was originally described by Chapuis as Platypus mutatus from a specimen collected in Brazil. Platypus sulcatus and Platypus plicatus have been synonymized with M. mutatus. P. sulcatus was synonymized with P. mutatus by Strohmeyer in 1865, confirmed by Schedl in 1960. P. plicatus was synonymized by Bosq in 1934 (Wood and Bright, 1992).

Description

Top of page

Eggs

Toscani (1990) described the eggs as elliptical, whitish and translucent. They are 1 mm long and 0.6 mm wide.

Larvae

First instar larvae are bright white and elliptical. Fifth instars are cylindrical. Mature larvae measure approximately 7.2 mm long and become yellowish (Santoro, 1965).

Pupae

Pupae are 8 to 9 mm long and whitish (Santoro, 1965).

Adults

The adults are cylindrical with sulcate elytral striae. The head is as long as the pronotum. The male is dark-brown above and clearer below, measuring approximately 7.5 mm long. The female is brown above and reddish-yellow below, measuring approximately 8-9 mm long. The tarsi and antennae are reddish. The male elytrae have truncate tips, with characteristic spiniform processes on the declivity. The female elytrae have round tips, without processes. The anterior tibiae of both males and females are rasp-like, which assist in the movement of the adults through the galleries (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).

Also refer to Allegro and Griffo (2008) for adult and larval morphology, and development. Liguori et al. (2007) describe a multi-chamber trap that can be used to collect adults for behavioural studies. Traps used to capture adults of M. mutatus previously have resulted in injury because adults are trapped in the same chamber and are antagonistic, resulting in injured adults incapable of reproduction. The trap developed by Liguori et al. traps the adults in separate chambers, ensuring isolation until collection.

Distribution

Top of page

M. mutatus is native to tropical and subtropical areas of South America, but has extended its range to temperate regions, as far south as Neuquén in Argentinean Patagonia (Alfaro et al., 2007). According to Alfaro et al. (2007), actions have been taken to prevent its introduction into Canada. The CABI/EPPO (2006) map states that there are old NHM specimens from Colombia (pre-1847) and Costa Rica (1893).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

M. mutatus is native to South America and was first recorded in the Caserta province of Italy in 2000 (Tremblay et al., 2000) and is thought to have been introduced with a single consignment of roundwood of poplar with bark imported from Argentina (OEPP/EPPO, 2009). It was found in five communities in 2000 and is now present in 14 communities; however, still confined to the Caserta province (Allegro and Griffo, 2008). In 2003 in Campania, monitoring of the pest was established and by 2007 spread of the infestation was confirmed. From 2000 to 2007, the area of distribution of M. mutatus increased from 130 km2 to 587 km2, respectively (Allegro and Griffo, 2008).

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Italy Argentina 2000 Timber trade (pathway cause)Tremblay et al. (2000)

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

Pathways for introduction include wood and wood packaging. It is suggested that M. mutatus was introduced into Italy in untreated wood packaging produced from infested wood in its native range (Alfaro et al., 2007). It is particularly likely to be carried on recently felled wood, but debarking of wood does not eliminate the possibility of harbouring the beetle. This pest could also be carried on plants for planting trees (provided they were large enough - more than 15 cm), round wood of host plants of more than 15 cm in diameter, and sawn wood (OEPP/EPPO, 2009). It is recommended that plants used for planting should come from pest-free areas or production places that are pest-free with a buffer zone of at least 200 m. This is the same for round wood or sawn wood, or it should be fumigated, heat treated, kiln dried or impregnated with chemicals (OEPP/EPPO, 2009). Wood packaging should comply with ISPM no. 15 (ISPM, 2003).

Due to the fact that M. mutatus has already established in Italy, and causes damage to poplar, fruit and nut trees, this pest poses a phytosanitary risk to the EPPO region where host plants are numerous (OEPP/EPPO, 2009). Alfaro et al. (2007) concluded that M. mutatus is a threat to fruit tree industries and forest resources in many areas of the world and of particular concern to California, Oregon, and Washington, in North America, and the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. Conclusions were based on favourable temperature regimes and the presence of suitable hosts.
 
The movement of poplar wood presents a significant risk of introduction (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).

Habitat

Top of page

This pest is polyphagous, attacking a wide range of woody species. Ambrosia beetles usually attack mostly felled or weakened trees; however, M. mutatus only attacks living standing trees (Alfaro et al., 2007).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

Populus spp. are regarded as the main hosts in both South America, where M. mutatus is native but poplars are not, and Italy, where M. mutatus is not native, but poplars are (OEPP/EPPO, 2009). It is a serious pest in commercial plantations of a number of broadleaf tree species, but particularly damaging to Populus deltoides in Argentina (Alfaro et al., 2007; and references therein). M. mutatus has been recorded on introduced timber, fruit and ornamental trees in South America, such as Acacia, Citrus, Magnolia and Quercus (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).

In the EPPO region there are many potential hosts and the climatic conditions in many regions are suitable for this pest (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).
 
Allegro and Griffo (2008) state that in 2002, M. mutatus was found attacking cherry, apple and pear, and was particularly damaging to hazel in Teano, Campania, Italy.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Acacia (wattles)FabaceaeUnknown
Acer (maples)AceraceaeUnknown
AilanthusSimaroubaceaeUnknown
BalfourodendronUnknown
Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood)FabaceaeUnknown
Calophyllum (beauty-leaf)ClusiaceaeUnknown
Castanea (chestnuts)FagaceaeUnknown
Casuarina (beefwood)CasuarinaceaeUnknown
CedrelaMeliaceaeUnknown
CitrusRutaceaeUnknown
CorylusBetulaceaeUnknown
Corylus avellana (hazel)BetulaceaeUnknown
ErythrinaFabaceaeUnknown
EucalyptusMyrtaceaeUnknown
Fraxinus (ashes)OleaceaeUnknown
GrevilleaProteaceaeUnknown
Juglans (walnuts)JuglandaceaeUnknown
Laurus nobilis (sweet bay)LauraceaeUnknown
Ligustrum (privet)OleaceaeUnknown
Liquidambar (amber tree)HamamelidaceaeUnknown
Magnolia grandiflora (Southern magnolia)MagnoliaceaeUnknown
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeUnknown
MeliaUnknown
Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeUnknown
Pinus (pines)PinaceaeUnknown
Platanus (planes)PlatanaceaeUnknown
Populus (poplars)SalicaceaeMain
Populus deltoides (poplar)SalicaceaeMain
Prunus cerasus (sour cherry)RosaceaeUnknown
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeUnknown
Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeUnknown
Quercus (oaks)FagaceaeUnknown
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)FabaceaeUnknown
Salix (willows)SalicaceaeUnknown
Taxodium (pondcypress)TaxodiaceaeUnknown
Tilia (limes)TiliaceaeUnknown
Ulmus (elms)UlmaceaeUnknown

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page

M. mutatus only attacks standing live trees and does not mass attack host trees (Alfaro et al., 2007). Attacks generally occur in late spring (September to November in the southern hemisphere), usually initiated by the males (Alfaro et al., 2007). Tree trunks over 15 cm in diameter are the preferred hosts and the main symptom of attack is the presence of 3 mm diameter holes in the early summer that exude frass and sap. Internal galleries bored by the adults are stained by mycelia of the associated symbiotic fungus (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).

Two types of sawdust are generated by the beetles boring into wood: one of long particles resulting from the digging activity of the adults; and a more granular sawdust from the feeding activity of the larvae, who scrape the fungal mycelium off the cell walls of the wood (Girardi et al., 2006).

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / internal feeding

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Reproductive Biology

M. mutatus is univoltine in South America and Italy. It overwinters mainly as mature larvae or immature adults (Alfaro, 2003). The males start to emerge first and the females emerge a few days later. The adults can be found in the field from November to December in South America and May to June in Italy (late spring to early summer) (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).

The males bore into tree trunks and release a pheromone to attract the females. The beetle pair bore more galleries into the tree trunk post copulation. Over the next 2-3 months, the females lay 100-200 eggs in these galleries. A symbiotic fungus is also introduced into the galleries by the adults. In Argentina, the fungus, which is specifically associated with this beetle, was identified as Raffaelea santoroi, an ascomycete (Guerrero, 1966).
 
The larvae develop in 5 months, prior to the cold season or in early spring. Pupation takes place in spring and the adults emerge in late spring or early summer (OEPP/EPPO, 2009). A few adults may emerge before the winter, but the second generation will be interrupted by the cold (Santoro, 1963).
 
Nutrition
 
Second and third instar larvae are mycetophagous, feeding on mycelium of the ascomycete, Raffaelea santoroi. Older larvae are xylophagous and feed on their woody hosts directly (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).
 
Associations
 
M. mutatus is associated with Raffaelea santoroi. This ascomycete is a symbiont, introduced into the beetle-formed galleries by the adult beetles. The fungus is not harmful to the tree host, but grows saprophytically causing staining of the gallery walls. Mycetophagous second and third instar larvae feed on the mycelium. The larvae become xylophagous and feed on the wood directly as they develop (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).
 
Environmental Requirements
 
This species is native to tropical and subtropical regions of South America, but has invaded temperate zones. It is considered to be a threat to EPPO regions with suitable hosts (OEPP/EPPO, 2009). Girardi et al. (2006) stated that it invaded an experimental plot of Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood) in southeastern Brazil, where larval and adult infestation was highest in the dry season (winter) compared to the rainy season (spring and summer). In autumn, between 2003 and 2004, differences in infestation rate were correlated with total rainfall, but not to mean temperature. This is contrast to data reported by Santoro (1963) for P. sulcatus, who found that heavy infestation was observed during rainy, warm periods in Argentina. Temperature range and rainfall distribution differ between Argentina and southeastern Brazil, and could account for the differences reported. The life cycle of M. mutatus could be affected (Santoro, 1963), as could the ambrosia growth and plant chemistry.
 
In southeastern Brazil, beetle infestation was found on trees with a diameter at breast height (dbh) greater than 0.15 m and one to six holes were found per trunk (Girardi et al., 2006). The authors reported a low (approximately 3%) level of infestation of the trees, which was said to be agreement with data reported for Populus deltoides in the delta of Rio Parana resulting in loss of wood quality (Gimenez and Etiennot, 2003).

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

No natural enemies of M. mutatus have been identified as yet (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

 Adults are dispersed locally via flight, generally 50-100 m from the emergence hole. The adults are not strong fliers and flight beyond 100 m is unlikely (OEPP/EPPO, 2009). A slow rate of natural dispersal is suggested for this species, based on the fact that it has not dispersed far from its area of introduction in Italy (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).
 
Accidental Introduction
 
Long distance dispersal is possible through the commercial trade of wood or via wood packaging of other traded items (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Forestry Yes Yes
Hitchhiker Yes Yes
Nursery trade Yes
Timber trade Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Containers and packaging - wood Yes Yes

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Wood adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Wood Packaging

Top of page
Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
Processed or treated wood Sawn wood Yes
Solid wood packing material with bark Untreated wood packaging Yes
Solid wood packing material without bark Untreated wood packaging Yes

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

Top of page

M. mutatus is an important pest of timber trees especially poplar and only attacks live standing trees (Allegro, 1990). Declining trees or cut wood are not attacked and if found are an indication of earlier attack (OEPP/EPPO, 2009). Trees that have been drilled and bored into by the pest, constructing internal galleries, can break in the wind. Highly stressed trees can die. Boring causes a reduction in wood volume, and the presence of larval galleries and the dark staining produced by the ambrosial mycelia growing on the tunnel walls reduces wood quality and prevents the wood from meeting the plywood industry standards (Alfaro et al., 2007; OEPP/EPPO, 2009).

Concerning fruit trees, Carella and Spigno (2002) reported a reduction in fruit production and weak trees, liable to breakage, caused by M. mutatus attack. The valuable apple cultivar, Annurca, is traditionally grown in Caserta Province, Italy and is likely to suffer significant economic losses due to attack by M. mutatus following its recent invasion into the area (Alfaro et al., 2007).
 
Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood) is used to make violin bows due to its unique vibrational properties and dimensional stability and durability. However, brazilwood is facing extinction due to exploitation and deforestation. It is restricted to 5% of its original range in northeastern Brazil. Although it is resistant to wood decay from termites and rot fungi, Girardi et al. (2006) reported the presence of M. mutatus, invading 3% of trees in an experimental plot of brazilwood in Mogi-Guaçu, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
 
It has been suggested that economic impact may be greater in areas where the beetles has been introduced compared with its area of origin because its natural enemies are not necessarily introduced with it (OEPP/EPPO, 2009). There are concerns about it becoming a globally invasive pest of Populus species (Alfaro et al., 2007).

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Apart from damage to trees planted as windbreaks, no environmental impacts have been reported (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).

Social Impact

Top of page

OEPP/EPPO (2009) state that some poplar producers in South America have been forced to diversify to maintain their income after their high quality wood market was lost; alternatively they sell reduced quality wood. It is thought that this could also happen in Italy, due to the high quality standards required by the wood industry.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Detection and Inspection

Top of page

Pest advisory notes for customs and other shipping inspectors are being prepared in Canada. In 2001, a cooperative project was launched to produce a work plan for Argentina, including recommendations for various measures to increase the understanding of the M. mutatus life cycle, its threat to other parts of the world and the potential damage it could cause in forests and agriculture (Alfaro et al., 2007).

The work plan recommended that efforts should be concentrated on developing a pheromone for M. mutatus to be used for surveying and controlling the pest (Alfaro et al., 2007).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

It is particularly likely that M. mutatus is carried by recently felled wood, but debarking of the trunks will not prevent carriage of the pest (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).
 
Early warning systems
 
CLIMEX modelling states that Mediterranean coasts, extending to Portugal, are likely to be at risk. Areas at risk could also include northern Italy, and coastal areas of Balkan and Black Sea countries, if M. mutatus has a lower degree-day per generation than expected (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).
 
Public awareness
 
Steps to increase awareness of this pest include production of pest advisory notes for customs officers. In addition, moves to increase awareness among the general public of the threat posed by M. mutatus, to help reduce the chance of accidental transportation of these insects, together with distinguishing damage symptoms of this pest are reportedly in operation (Alfaro et al., 2007).
 
Eradication
 
Eradication efforts in Italy are expected to be difficult due to the fact that M. mutatus has diverse feeding habits and attacks Malus (apple), Juglans regia (walnut), Corylus avellana (hazel) and Populus x canadensis (poplar) in the area (Alfaro et al., 2007).
 
Containment/zoning
 
M. mutatus was introduced into the Campania region of Italy in 2000. By 2006 it was still only found in the province of Caserta, Campania suggesting that containment is possible. The main cause of human-aided dispersal is via poplar wood (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).
 
Control
 
Due to the fact that most of the life cycle takes place within wood, M. mutatus is difficult to control. Also, although the adults could be controlled when exposed in flight, they are not very sensitive to insecticides (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).
 
Giménez et al. (2006) explored the possibility of using pulverized carbaryl against M. mutatus infesting poplars in Paraná Delta, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
 
Physical/mechanical control
 
Male sex pheromones identified by González Audino et al. (2005) could be used in mass trapping strategies for this pest (OEPP/EPPO, 2009). More recently, Liguori et al. (2008) discovered 3-pentanol in extracts of male M. mutatus volatile emissions and showed that in behavioural assays, female M. mutatus were attracted to the compound.
 
Movement control
 
The International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) adopted international guidelines in 2002, recommending treatment for all wood used to package commodities for international trade (FAO, 2002) in order to prevent introductions of invasive pests associated with wood packaging. This standard (ISPM 15) will serve to protect forests from invasive insects such as M. mutatus.
 
Canada and other countries are putting into place the proactive risk reduction model, to help reduce the likelihood of introduction of M. mutatus into Canada (Alfaro et al., 2007).
 
Chemical control
 
Insecticides can be injected into the galleries or sprayed on tree trunks (Santoro, 1962, 1965b, 1967), which is recommended during peak adult emergence in spring in Argentina (Santoro, 1963). Carbaryl, cypermethrin (Bascialli et al., 1996), chlorpyrifos and lambdacyalothrin (Giménez et al., 1995; Giménez and Etiennot, 2003) have proved to be highly effective. Treatments such as these are only recommended for high value agricultural crops and in restricted areas, not woodlands, because they are costly and potentially damaging to the environment (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).
 
Monitoring and Surveillance
 
González Audino et al. (2005) identified the male M. mutatus sex pheromones, which are being tested with various traps to examine their efficacy at attracting females in the field. These would be useful in monitoring population peaks (OEPP/EPPO, 2009).
 
In Argentina, early detection and destruction of infested trees is reported (Santoro, 1967; Toscani, 1990).
 
 

References

Top of page

Alfaro RI, 2003. The 'grand forest borer' Platypus mutatus (=sulcatus): an important pest of poplar culture in Argentina. A plan of action. (El "taladrillo grande de los forestales", Platypus mutatus (=sulcatus): importante plaga de la populicultura Argentina. Un plan de acción.) SAGPyA Forestal, No.28:11-18.

Alfaro RI; Humble LM; Gonzalez P; Villaverde R; Allegro G, 2007. The threat of the ambrosia beetle Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis) (=Platypus mutatus Chapuis) to world poplar resources. Forestry (Oxford), 80(4):471-479. http://forestry.oxfordjournals.org/

Allegro G, 1990. [Animal pests of poplar and willow in Argentina]. Cellulosa e Carta, 4:18-22.

Allegro G; Griffo R, 2008. Risks of the spread of Megaplatypus mutatus. (I rischi di diffusione di Megaplatypus mutatus.) Informatore Agrario, 64(13):73-76. http://www.informatoreagrario.it

Bascialli ME; Giménez RA; Etiennot AE; Toscani H, 1996. [Management of Platypus sulcatus populations over a three-year period in the Paraná Delta region by chemical control.]. Investigaciones Agrarias: Sistemas y Recursos Forestales, 5:129-140.

Bright DE; Skidmore RE, 2002. A Catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) Supplement 1 (1990-1994). Ottawa, Canada: National Research Council Press, 523 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2006. Megaplatypus mutatus. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 682. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Carella D; Spigno P, 2002. [Platypus mutatus passes from poplar to fruit trees.]. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria, Filippo Silvestri, 58:139-141.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

FAO, 2002. International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures. Guidelines for regulating Wood Packaging Material in International Trade, No. 15. Rome, Italy: Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 15 pp, 15 pp.

Giménez RA; Etiennot AE; Bascialli ME; Toscani H, 1995. [Efficacy of various insecticides in the control of Platypus sulcatus en the Paraná Delta.]. IX Jornadas Fitosanitarias Argentinas, Mendoza.

Giménez RA; Etiennot RE, 2003. Host range of Platypus mutatus (Chapois, 1865) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae). Entomotropica, 18(2):89-94.

Giménez RA; Moya MC; Michetti M, 2003. Control of Megaplatypus mutatus (Coleoptera, Platypodidae) in poplars; pulverization of carbaril on the bark of the trees of perimetrales rows. (Control de Megaplatypus mutatus (Coleoptera, Platypodidae) en álamos: pulverización de carbaril sobre la corteza de los árboles de filas perimetrales.) IDESIA, 21(2):97-102.

Girardi GS; Giménez RA; Braga MR, 2006. Occurrence of Platypus mutatus Chapuis (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) in a brazilwood experimental plantation in Southeastern Brazil. Neotropical Entomology, 35(6):864-867. http://www.scielo.br/ne

Gonzalez Audino P; Villaverde R; Alfaro R; Zerba E, 2005. Identification of volatile emissions from Platypus mutatus (=sulcatus) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) and their behavioral activity. Journal of Economic Entomology, 98(5):1506-1509. HTTP://www.esa.catchword.org

Guerrero RT, 1966. [English title not available]. (Una nueva especie de hongo imperfecto asociado con el coleoptero Platypus sulcatus Chapuis.) Rev. Invest. Agropecu, 5(3):97-103.

ISPM, 2003. International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.

Liguori PG; Zerba E; Alzogaray RA; Audino PG, 2008. 3-Pentanol: a new attractant present in volatile emissions from the ambrosia beetle, Megaplatypus mutatus. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 34(11):1446-1451. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=104273

Liguori PG; Zerba E; Audino PG, 2007. New trap for emergent Megaplatypus mutatus. Canadian Entomologist, 139(6):894-896. http://pubservices.nrc-cnrc.ca/rp-ps/absres.jsp?jcode=ent&ftl=n07-010&lang=eng

OEPP /EPPO, 2009. Megaplatypus mutatus. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 39(1):55-58. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/epp

Santoro FH, 1962. [Basis for the control of Platypus sulcatus.]. Revista de Investigaciones Forestales, 3:17-23.

Santoro FH, 1963. Biology and ecology of Platypus sulcatus. Revista de Investigaciones Forestales, 4(1):47-79.

Santoro FH, 1965. Description of five larval instars and of the pupa of Platypus sulcatus. Idia, Suppl. No. 16:49-58.

Santoro FH, 1965. Three trials in preventive chemical control of Platypus sulcatus. Idia, Suppl. No. 16:59-64.

Santoro FH, 1967. [New results on the control of Platypus sulcatus]. IDIA Suplemento Forestal, 4:70-74.

Toscani HA, 1990. Manual for protection of forest plantations in the Paraná Delta area. In: 13th Session FAO/IPC Working Party on Insects and other Animal Pests, Buenos Aires, March 1990.

Tremblay E; Espinosa B; Mancini D; Caprio G, 2000. [A beetle from South America is threatening poplars.]. (Un coleottero proveniente dal Sudamerica minaccia I pioppi.) L'Informatore Agrario, 56(48):89-90.

Wood SL, 1993. Revision of the genera of Platypodidae (Coleoptera). Great Basin Naturalist, 53(3):259-281.

Wood SL; Bright DE, 1992. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) part 2: taxonomic index. Great Basin Nat. Mem, 13:1-1553.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Datasheets on pests recommended for regulation: Megaplatypus mutatushttp://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/122250253/PDFSTART
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

Top of page

15/12/09 Original text by:

Claire Beverley, CABI, Nosworthy Way, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map