Plum pox virus (sharka)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Seedborne Aspects
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Vectors and Intermediate Hosts
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Detection and Inspection
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Plum pox virus
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Annulus pruni
- plum pox potyvirus
- Prunus virus 7
- Sharka virus
International Common Names
- English: peach sharka; pox disease of plum; sharka disease of plum
- French: variole du prunier
Local Common Names
- Germany: Aprikose; Aprikose, Pfirsich Scharka-Virus: Pflaume; Pfirsich Scharka-Virus; Scharka-Krankheit; scharkakrankheit der pflaume
- Italy: Vaiolatura delle drupacee; Vaiolatura delle drupacee
- PPV000 (Plum pox potyvirus)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Plum pox virus disease (Sharka) is one of the most destructive diseases of stone fruits. The causal agent, Plum pox virus (PPV) is easily transmitted by many aphid species in a non-persistent manner, by manmade grafting (nursery trade), and has a very wide host range among Prunus species. Infected plants may not show symptoms for several months and symptoms are often transient in appearance. The disease symptoms are often mistaken for other maladies and the virus can become established before the first recognition of the disease. Although spread is difficult to control within a local area because of aphid vectors, the long distance spread can be controlled by strict quarantine regulations and use of virus-free certified nursery stock.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
- Group: "RNA viruses"
- Family: Potyviridae
- Genus: Potyvirus
- Species: Plum pox virus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Strains of Plum pox virus (PPV) were originally distinguished (necrotic, intermediate, yellow) on the basis of symptoms induced in herbaceous indicator plants. Kerlan and Dunez (1979) then serologically differentiated D (Dideron) and M (Markus) types, the former on apricot (Prunus armeniaca) in France and the latter originally on peach (Prunus persica) in Greece. Bousalem et al. (1994) have examined 28 PPV isolates from 11 countries and found that they could be consistently grouped into two major types (D and M) using three techniques: electrophoretic mobility of coat protein; antigenic properties of the N and C regions of coat protein; and the presence of a specific restriction site in the C-terminal region of the coat protein.
The El Amar strain from Egypt is distinct from the other two strains on the basis of divergences in RNA sequence (Wetzel et al., 1991a). The cherry strain, termed PPV-C (Cherry), has been found to infect sweet (Prunus avium) and sour cherry trees (Prunus cerasus) in Italy, Moldova, Bulgaria and Hungary (Crescenzi et al., 1994, 1995, 1997; Kalashyan et al., 1994; Kölber et al., 1998; Nemchinov and Hadidi, 1996; Nemchinov et al., 1995, 1996, 1998a, c; Topchiiska, 1991, 1996). This strain is significantly different from other strains of PPV in biological, serological and molecular properties.
A fifth strain of PPV, termed PPV-W (W3174 - Winona), was identified in Canada (James et al., 2003; James and Varga, 2005). The plant containing this strain was destroyed. A sixth strain of PPV termed PPV-Rec, is a stable recombinant consisting of D and M strain recombinants with a common phylogenetic link (Glasa et al., 2002, 2004). It has been reported from several European countries, many times having been incorrectly identified as PPV-M. Within these strains, individual isolates can vary in the severity of symptoms they induce. For example, a strain of the M type was reported from France in the 1980s, which is very aggressive and necrogenic on peach (Candresse et al., 1993). The necrogenic strain involved has been referred to as PPV-SP and was further characterized by Adamolle et al. (1994). Currently, PPV is divided into six subgroups or serotypes or strains: PPV-D, PPV-M, PPV-El Amar, PPV-C, PPV-W, and PPV-Rec (Candresse and Cambra, 2006; James and Glasa, 2006).
A virus that infects Prunus spp. in eastern Asia and named Asian prunus latent virus (APLV) has been reported to cross react with PPV antiserum (Hadidi and Levy, 1994; Hari et al., 1995; James et al., 1996). This virus was detected in North America in quarantined peach and Prunus mume (Japanese apricot) germplasm imported from eastern Asia. It can be distinguished from PPV using certain specific DNA primers, but cross-reacts in other tests.
Similarly, another virus in Moldova that infects stone fruits, Apricot latent virus (ALV), has recently been reported to cross-react with PPV antiserum, but can be distinguished from PPV in PCR and other assays (Nemchinov and Hadidi, 1998b). The exact taxonomy of APLV and ALV is presently undetermined.
DescriptionTop of page
PPV has filamentous virus particles 750 nm long and 15 nm in diameter. It has a single-stranded RNA genome with a MW of 3.5 x 106 Da. Protein inclusions, of the pinwheel type, are present in the cytoplasm of infected cells (Salvador et al., 2006).
Different RNAs from PPV have been cloned (Ravelonandro et al., 1988a) and the complete or partial nucleotide sequences of several virus isolates have been determined (Maiss et al., 1989; Teycheney et al., 1989; Wetzel et al., 1991a; Cervera et al., 1993; Garcia et al., 1994; Nemchinov et al., 1996, 1998b). Recently several additional sequences have been submitted to Genbank (National Center for Biotechnology Information: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). Sequence differences among PPV strains have been detected and seem to be spread in a uniform manner on the genome (Palkovics et al., 1995). Genome function in PPV is now increasingly understood, and this virus is now a model for studies on the molecular biology of potyviruses (García et al., 1994).
DistributionTop of page
PPV was first detected in eastern Europe (Bulgaria) (Atanassov, 1932) from where it has spread to most countries of the continent (OEPP/EPPO, 2006). Until 1992, no occurrence had been reported from outside the Euro-Mediterranean area. A report on finding PPV in India (Thakur et al., 1994) has not yet been confirmed. PPV was detected in Chile in 1992 (Herrera, 1994; Rosales et al., 1998), the USA in 1999 (Levy et al., 2000; ProMED, 2006; Snover-Clift et al., 2007), Canada in 2000 (Thompson et al., 2001), China in 2004 (Navratil et al., 2005) and Argentina in 2005 (Dal Zotto et al., 2006). NAPPO (2020) have declared PPV eradicated in the USA.
PPV is present or has occurred in almost all European countries to varying degrees. Roy and Smith (1994) distinguished three zones: the central and eastern countries in which PPV spread relatively early and infection levels are generally high (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine); the Mediterranean countries in which spread is more recent and there is a high risk of further spread (Albania, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Turkey); and the northern and western countries in which levels of PPV are very uneven (fairly widespread in Austria, Germany and the UK (England)), very localized in Belgium and Luxembourg, localized in France, transient and under eradication in Denmark, and few occurrences in Netherlands and Switzerland. PPV has been found in several areas of Russia although mainly in botanical gardens, research institutions and a few farms. (See CABI/EPPO Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases: 1998, 1999, 2007.)
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Tunisia||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||First reported: 2000s|
|Azerbaijan||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)|
|China||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||2005|
|-Hunan||Present, Few occurrences|
|Georgia||Absent, Formerly present|
|Israel||Present, Few occurrences|
|Japan||Present, Few occurrences|
|-Honshu||Present, Few occurrences|
|Jordan||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||2000|
|Lebanon||Absent, Confirmed absent by survey|
|South Korea||Present||Strain D isolate in peach.|
|Syria||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||1988|
|Uzbekistan||Present, Few occurrences|
|Belgium||Present, Few occurrences|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Present||Introduced||First reported: 1960s|
|Croatia||Present, Widespread||Introduced||First reported: 1960s|
|Czechia||Present, Widespread||Introduced||First reported: 1940s|
|Denmark||Present, Transient under eradication||Introduced||1986|
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Present|
|Germany||Present, Widespread||Introduced||First reported: 1960s|
|Latvia||Present, Few occurrences|
|Lithuania||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||1995|
|Moldova||Present, Localized||Introduced||First reported: 1960s|
|Netherlands||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||1965|
|North Macedonia||Present, Widespread|
|-Southern Russia||Present, Localized||Introduced|
|Switzerland||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||1967|
|United Kingdom||Present, Localized||Introduced||1965|
|-Nova Scotia||Absent, Eradicated|
|United States||Absent, Eradicated|
|-New York||Absent, Eradicated||2006|
|New Zealand||Absent, Confirmed absent by survey|
|Argentina||Present, Few occurrences||2004|
|Brazil||Absent, Intercepted only|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Principal habitat|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
The main woody hosts are the fruit-producing species of Prunus, including apricots (Prunus armeniaca), peaches (Prunus persica) and plums (Prunusdomestica, Prunussalicina and Prunuscerasifera). Almonds (Prunusdulcis) can be infected with PPV, but show few, if any, natural symptoms (Festic, 1978; Llácer and Cambra, 2006). Almond trees in Chile were naturally infected with PPV (Herrera et al., 1998), but similar surveys in France failed to demonstrate natural infection by PPV in almond. Isolates of the D and M serotypes were transmitted experimentally to different cherry species, but infection remained localized and the virus was not shown to be translocated (Dosba et al., 1987). However, a Pennsylvanian isolate of PPV was transmitted to several ornamental flowering cherries and sweet cherry (Prunus avium) by aphids and grafting, with symptom development and subsequent back-transfer to peach (Damsteegt et al., 2007).
Natural infections of Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) and P. avium with PPV-C in four European countries have been reported (Crescenzi et al., 1994, 1995, 1997; Nemchinov and Hadidi, 1996; Nemchinov et al., 1996, 1998a, c). PPV-C has been transmitted by grafting or vectors to other stone fruit species (Kalashyan et al., 1994; Nemchinov et al., 1996, 1998c; Crescenzi et al., 1997).
Most wild or ornamental species of Prunus can be experimentally infected by PPV-D through aphid feeding and grafting (Damsteegt et al., 2007).
Natural secondary hosts
Prunus spinosa (blackthorn) was long considered to be a natural host of PPV. Results obtained in the former Yugoslavia did not confirm this (Rankovic and Dulic-Markovic, 1992); however, it has been shown to be a systemic host in France (Labonne et al., 2004) and the Czech Republic (Polak, 2004). In addition, Polak (2001) reported natural infection in Ligustrum vulgare (European privet) and Euonymus europaea (European spindletree). Other reported natural hosts are P. avium, Prunus besseyi (bessey cherry), P. cerasifera (myrobalan plum), Prunus tomentosa (Nanking cherry tree), Prunus glandulosa (flowering almond), Prunus japonica (Japanese bush cherry tree), Prunus serotina (black cherry) and Prunus x blireiana (prunier double) (James and Thompson, 2006).
Susceptible Prunus spp. are widely grown for fruit production (varieties and rootstocks) worldwide and throughout all European parts of the EPPO region. Wild woody and herbaceous hosts are widespread and are potential reservoirs of the pathogen, although a direct contribution of these hosts to the epidemiology of PPV has never been clearly demonstrated. Numerous cultivated or weedy annual plants have been shown to be experimental and natural hosts of PPV (Nemeth, 1986; Milusheva and Rankova, 2002; Viršcek et al., 2004; Llácer, 2006).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
Symptoms may appear on leaves or fruits. They are particularly conspicuous on leaves in spring: chlorotic spots, bands or rings, vein clearing, or even leaf deformation in peaches. Some peach cultivars may also show flower breaking symptoms. Infected fruits show chlorotic spots or rings.
Diseased plums and apricots are deformed and show internal browning of the flesh; apricot stones show pale rings or spots (Dunez, 1987). Symptoms of sharka depend very much on the locality, the season, Prunus species and cultivar, and plant tissue (leaf or fruit) (Dosba et al., 1986; Kegler and Hartmann, 1998; Nemchinov et al., 1998a).
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / abnormal shape|
|Fruit / lesions: black or brown|
|Fruit / premature drop|
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Leaves / abnormal forms|
|Leaves / abnormal patterns|
|Seeds / discolorations|
|Stems / dieback|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Infected Prunus trees are the major source of inoculum. The virus is transmitted from infected trees either by grafting or, non-persistently, by aphid vectors such as Aphisspiraecola and Myzus persicae. Other aphid species have been shown to transmit at a lower frequency than the two main vectors: Aphis craccivora, Aphis fabae, Brachycauduscardui, Brachycaudus helychrysi, Brachycaudus persicae, Hyalopterus pruni,Myzus varians and Phorodonhumuli (Kunze and Krczal, 1971; Leclant, 1973). Avinent et al. (1994) have recently added Aphis gossypii to the list of minor PPV vectors in Spain, whilst in France, Labonne et al. (1994) have shown that this species as well as Aphis hederae and Rhopalosiphumpadi transmitted PPV to an herbaceous host. Gildow et al. (2004) added Metopolophium dirhodum (rose-grain aphid) and Toxoptera citricida (brown citrus aphid) as vectors of PPV under experimental conditions.
The number of trees becoming infected in an orchard is directly related, in a given season, to numbers of winged aphids. These aphids probe or feed on infected leaves, then fly to other trees where they again probe or feed. Gottwald et al. (1995), after analyzing the spatial distribution of aphid-borne spread in eastern Spain, concluded that aphids spread the disease to trees several spaces away rather than to immediately adjacent trees.
In summer, the aphids may also migrate to various herbaceous species present in orchards and return to the fruit trees to lay their winter eggs (Kunze and Krczal, 1971). Phorodon humuli, after fasting, has been shown to be capable of spreading PPV over long distances, 2-3 h after acquisition (Krczal and Kunze, 1972). The capacity for vector transmission varies considerably between strains (Massonié and Maison, 1976). After inoculation, the incubation period may last several months and systemic spread within woody hosts may take several years (OEPP/EPPO, 1983). Accordingly, the virus may be distributed very irregularly in the tree.
Németh and Kölber (1983) reported seed transmission in Prunus, but this has not been confirmed by other workers during the last 15 years, and is unknown in practice. Other researchers have failed to find evidence of seed transmission of PPV in Prunus (Pasquini and Barba, 2006).
Labonne and Quiot (2001) were the first to describe transmission of PPV-M and PPV-D by M. persicae from infected apricot (Prunus armeniaca) and peach (Prunus persica) fruit. Gildow et al. (2004) found M. persicae and Aphis spiraecola could transmit PPV-D from symptomatic and asymptomatic peach fruit.
ClimateTop of page
|C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate||Preferred||Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Tolerated||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||30||40|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||-25||0|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||1||2||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||0||900||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
There are no known means of natural dispersal. Dispersal is either via human transport of infected plant parts or via aphid vectors.
This is by several species of aphids in a non-persistent manner. Aphids can acquire the virus from infected leaves, flowers, or fruits in very short time periods (seconds to minutes) and can transmit it to new plants within a few minutes. There is no latent period in the insect.
The disease appears randomly in orchards. After 2-3 years (possibly sooner in peach orchards), infection begins to spread from the first infected trees (Llácer et al., 1986). Graft transmission can contribute significantly to spread in infected areas if certified virus-free material is not used. Dissemination of the virus between areas or countries is most often in uncertified planting material (Diekmann and Putter, 1996).
PPV is occasionally intercepted in fruit-tree material imported into the USA from eastern Europe (Waterworth, 1994). PPV contaminated anthers could potentially play a role in PPV dissemination at the national and international levels (Levy et al., 1995) because the virus is present in these organs. However, this possibility has never been documented in practice.
Seedborne AspectsTop of page
PPV has been detected in seed coats and cotyledons, but embryonic tissue and seedlings obtained from germinated seeds never showed symptoms, and gave negative results for PPV with both ELISA and PCR assays. No PPV isolate is currently recognized to be seed transmitted, so vertical transmission of PPV from infected mother plants to their progeny does not occur (Paquini and Barba, 2006).
Pathway CausesTop of page
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||arthropods/adults||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Leaves||arthropods/adults; arthropods/nymphs||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Roots||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||arthropods/adults; arthropods/nymphs||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||arthropods/adults; arthropods/nymphs||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Vectors and Intermediate HostsTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Human health||Positive and negative|
Economic ImpactTop of page
PPV is an EPPO A2 quarantine pest (OEPP/EPPO, 1983, 1990, 2004). It is also considered to be a quarantine pest by IAPSC and NAPPO (Foster and Hadidi, 1998; Thompson, 1998). In the EPPO region, it presents a major risk to apricots (Prunus armeniaca), plums and peaches (Prunus persica) in many countries where it is still absent or very localized (Diekmann and Putter, 1996). In addition, its presence in a country creates difficulties for the export of certified planting material. An EPPO quarantine procedure for PPV has been prepared (OEPP/EPPO, 1992).
Németh (1994), Kegler and Hartmann (1998) and Nemchinov et al. (1998a) have reviewed the importance of plum pox on European stone-fruit production. Sharka disease is particularly serious in the fruit-producing areas of central and eastern Europe. During the past decade, it has progressively spread to some Mediterranean countries such as Egypt (Wetzel et al., 1991a; Mazyad et al., 1992), Spain (Llácer et al., 1985) and Portugal (Louro and Monte Corvo, 1986). It has also been reported from Chile (Herrera et al., 1998). Virus infection can lead to considerable yield losses, reaching 83-100% in highly susceptible varieties (Kegler and Hartmann, 1998; Nemchinov et al., 1998a; Waterworth and Hadidi, 1998). European plums (Prunus domestica) may show premature fruit drop, while Japanese plums (Prunus salicina) and peaches show ring spotting on fruit, and apricots show serious fruit deformation. The disease impact is, however, modulated to a large extent by the variability in susceptibility/tolerance shown by individual cultivars of its Prunus host species. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruits undergo premature fruit dropping and leaves develop chlorotic and necrotic ring spots or notches (Nemchinov et al., 1998a). An evaluation of the global cost associated with plum pox management worldwide, excluding indirect trade costs, has been estimated at 10,000 million euros (Cambra et al., 2006).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Because of a loss of value of the trees, orchards are removed much earlier than normal. Often areas are taken out of production of either certain varieties or fruit species that may change the agricultural pattern for a given area.
Social ImpactTop of page
The greatest impact caused by PPV is economic. It does not actually kill trees by itself, but renders the fruit unpalatable. The fruit do not pose a health problem for humans or animals.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Invasive in its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Tolerant of shade
- Highly mobile locally
- Host damage
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts livelihoods
- Pest and disease transmission
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
- Difficult/costly to control
DiagnosisTop of page
See Cambra et al. (2006) and Olmos et al. (2006) for reviews of serological and molecular methods developed for the detection and characterization of PPV. OEPP (2004) provide a diagnostic protocol standard for PPV.
Vicchi et al. (2005) diagnosed PPV on peach flowers in the field using an immunochromatographic lateral flow (LF) method, which shows similar effectiveness to ELISA.
Detection and InspectionTop of page
In spite of the irregular distribution of the virus in the tree, visual inspection does allow detection by symptoms, especially during the period of active growth, although this method is unreliable with many D strain isolates. Testing on susceptible indicators (peaches (Prunus persica) or downy cherry (Prunus tomentosa)) by chip-budding can produce symptoms in 6-8 weeks (ISHS, 1983, 1992, 1998; OEPP/EPPO, 1983; Damsteegt et al., 1997). Mechanical inoculation to Chenopodium foetidum [Chenopodium schraderianum] or peas (Pisum spp.) results in symptoms in 6-8 days.
Dunez et al. (1994) have reviewed the progress that has been made in detection techniques for PPV. ELISA, which was first applied in plant virology for the detection of PPV, is widely used to confirm the presence of the virus in roots, bark, flowers, leaves, fruits or seeds (Adams, 1978). The method has been applied quantitatively (Himmler et al., 1987).
Methods based on electron microscopy, viz. immuno-electron microscopy (Kerlan et al., 1981) and with colloidal gold staining (Himmler et al., 1988) can also be used. Monoclonal antibodies can be used very effectively, and will distinguish between different strains (M and D types) (Cambra et al., 1994, 2006; Boscia et al., 1997; Candresse et al., 1998). Polyclonal antibodies produced against a peptide, which consists of 14 amino acids of the N-terminal region of PPV-C recognize PPV-C, but not other strains of PPV (Crescenzi et al., 1998).
Molecular hybridization tests based on nucleic acid sequences specifically complementary to virus RNA have been developed. A dot-blot molecular hybridization test using radioactive DNA or RNA probes has been developed by Varveri et al. (1987, 1988). Non-radioactive DIG-labeled PPV cRNA probes have also been developed, some probes differentiate between PPV-C and other strains of PPV (Nemchinov et al., 1996).
Enzymatic amplification of the DNA sequence (by PCR) has increased the sensitivity level of the test to 10 fg of purified viral RNA (Wetzel et al., 1991b). Immunocapture-PCR has been developed as a highly sensitive assay for PPV (Wetzel et al., 1992; Candresse et al., 1994, 1998).
Alternatives to IC-PCR include 'print capture' PCR, which allows viral detection without grinding the sample and with the use of a number of proteins that replace PPV-specific immunoglobins in the capture phase (Olmos et al., 1996, 1998; Cambra et al., 1998; Candresse et al., 1998); and RT-PCR assay specific for the conserved 3' non coding region of PPV, which may utilize GeneReleaser(tm) extraction/purification of nucleic acids (Levy and Hadidi, 1994; Levy et al., 1994). PCR assays specific for PPV strain differentiation have been developed. Candresse et al. (1998) designed two primer pairs that allow the amplification and differentiation of the two major subgroups, D and M, of PPV. In addition, Nemchinov and Hadidi (1998a) have designed primers specific for the amplification of PPV-C. Multiple PCR-based assays have been developed for the detection of PPV in single, quantitative and multiplex formats (James et al., 2003; Mavrodieva and Levy, 2004; Olmos et al., 2004, 2006; Schneider et al., 2004).
Martínez-Gómez et al. (2003) reported that, for the identification of plum pox virus, IC-PCR showed higher sensitivity than ELISA-DASI but was more time-consuming and expensive. Sánchez-Navarro et al. (2005) found multiplex RT-PCR to be more sensitive than ELISA or molecular hybridisation assays at detecting PPV and differentiating it from other viruses that affect stone fruit trees.
Olmos et al. (2007) developed a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification method coupled with rapid flow-through hybridization (NASBA-FH) for the detection of PPV, which the authors claimed is 1000 times more sensitive than RT-PCR.
Direct real-time PCR (drtPCR) was used by Kim et al. (2008) to detect PPV in samples from large-scale field tests.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
There is no anti-virus treatment available to control sharka disease in orchards. However, there are considerable differences in susceptibility between the cultivars available for use in countries where infection is widespread (Hamdorf, 1986; Kegler et al., 1989; Mainou and Syrgianidis, 1992). Biological control by inoculation of trees with hypo-aggressive strains has not been as successful in the field as under controlled conditions (Kerlan et al., 1980).
Other effective control methods are to produce healthy plants for planting within a certification system, to control aphid vectors by regular treatment with aphicides, and to destroy diseased trees in orchards. Such methods are being used to contain PPV in several countries (for example, France and Italy) (Barba, 1998; Kegler and Hartmann, 1998).
EPPO recommends a certification scheme for fruit trees, which takes account of PPV (OEPP/EPPO, 1991/1992). Resistance to PPV has been reviewed by Dosba et al. (1994) and Kegler and Hartmann (1998) and this approach shows some promise, whether by traditional breeding or selection by transgenic methods (Câmara Machado et al., 1992b; Escalettes et al., 1994; Ravelonandro et al., 1998b; Scorza et al., 1998). New PPV-resistant plum, apricot, peach, and nectarine cultivars were bred or selected with different types or mechanisms of PPV-resistance (Hartmann, 1998; Kegler and Hartmann, 1998; Lahmatova et al., 1998; Paprtsein et al., 1998; Polák, 1998; Rankovi and Paunovi , 1989; Toma et al., 1998; Scorza et al., 2007). Studies of resistance to PPV in apricots showed that resistance appeared to be under simple genetic control involving one gene locus (Karayiannis, 2006).
EPPO recommends that all imported host material (except seeds) should come from a field subject to growing-season inspection. If the virus is present in the exporting country, this inspection should also concern the immediate vicinity of the field, and the material should derive from tested mother plants (OEPP/EPPO, 1990).
ReferencesTop of page
Aboul-Ela, A., Aboul-Ata, A. E., Mazyad, H. M., 1999. Plum pox potyvirus situation in Egyptian stone fruit trees. In: Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the XIth International Symposium on Apricot Culture, Veria-Makedonia, Greece, 25-30 May, 1997, Volume 2], (No. 488) [ed. by Karayiannis, I.]. 745-751.
Akbas B, Degirmenci K, Çiftçi O, Kaya A, Yurtmen M, Uzunogullari N, Çelik N, Türkölmez S, 2011. Update on Plum pox virus distribution in Turkey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 50(1):75-83. http://www.fupress.com/pm/
APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA)
Barba M, 1998. Virus certification of fruit tree propagative material in western Europe. In: Hadidi A, Khetarpal RK, Koganezawa H, eds. Plant Virus Disease Control. St Paul, USA: APS Press, 288-293
Blystad, D. R., Knudsen, R., Spetz, C., Haugslien, S., Ørstad, K., Cambra, M., Munthe, T., 2010. Survey on Plum pox virus in Norway. In: Julius-Kühn-Archiv,(No.427) . Quedlinburg, Germany: Julius Kühn Institut, Bundesforschungsinstitut für Kulturpflanzen. 351-352. http://pub.jki.bund.de/index.php/JKA/issue/archive
Boscia D, Zeramdini H, Cambra M, Potere O, Gorris MT, Myrta A, Terlizzi Bdi, Savino V, 1997. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody specific to the M serotype of plum pox potyvirus. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 103(5):477-480; 21 ref
Caglayan K, Serce CU, Gazel M, Kaya K, Cengiz FC, Vidal E, Cambra M, 2013. Evaluation of the susceptibility of different Prunus rootstocks to natural infection of Plum pox virus-T. Journal of Plant Pathology, 95(3):579-586. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/2953
Camara Machado ML da, Camara Machado A da, Hanzer V, Weiss H, Regner F, Steinkellner H, Mattanovich D, Plail R, Knapp E, Kalthoff B, 1992. Regeneration of transgenic plants of Prunus armeniaca containing the coat protein gene of plum pox virus. Plant Cell Reports, 11(1):25-29
Câmara Machado ML da, Camara Machado A da, Mattanovich D, Regner F, Steinkellner H, Hanzer V, Weiss H, Knapp E, Katinger H, 1992. Transformation and regeneration of plants of Prunus armeniaca with the coat protein gene of plum pox virus. Acta Horticulturae, 309:183-189
Cambra M, Asensio M, Gorris MT, Perez E, Camarasa E, Garcia JA, Moya JJ, Lopez-Abella D, Vela C, Sanz A, 1994. Detection of plum pox potyvirus using monoclonal antibodies to structural and non-structural proteins. Bulletin OEPP, 24(3):569-577
Cambra M, Boscia D, Myrta A, Palkovics L, Navrátil M, Barba M, Gorris MT, Capote N, 2006. Detection and characterization of Plum pox virus: serological methods. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 36: 254-261
Cambra M, Capote N, Myrta A, Llácer G, 2006. Plum pox virus and the estimated costs associated with sharka disease. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 36(2):202-204. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=epp
Cambra M, Olmos A, Asensio M, Esteban O, Candresse T, Gorris MT, Boscia D, 1998. Detection and typing of Prunus viruses in plant tissues and in vectors by print and spot-capture PCR, heminested-PCR and PCR-ELISA. Acta Horticulturae, No. 472:257-263; 14 ref
Cambra, M., Gorris, M. T., Capote, N., Asensio, M., Martínez, M. C., Bertolini, E., Collado, C., Hermoso de Mendoza, A., Mataix, E., López, A., 2004. Epidemiology of Plum pox virus in Japanese plums in Spain. Acta Horticulturae, (No.657), 195-200. http://www.actahort.org
Candresse T, Cambra M, 2006. Causal agent of sharka disease: historical perspective and current status of Plum pox virus strains. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 36(2):239-246. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=epp
Candresse T, Cambra M, Dallot S, Lanneau M, Asensio M, Gorris MT, Revers F, Macquaire G, Olmos A, Boscia D, Quiot JB, Dunez J, 1998. Comparison of monoclonal antibodies and polymerase chain reaction assays for the typing of isolates belonging to the D and M serotypes of plum pox potyvirus. Phytopathology, 88(3):198-204; 28 ref
Candresse T, Macquaire G, Lanneau M, Bousalem M, Wetzel T, Quiot-Douine L, Quiot JB, Dunez J, 1994. Detection of plum pox potyvirus and analysis of its molecular variability using immunocapture-PCR. Bulletin OEPP, 24(3):585-594
Candresse, T., Svanella-Dumas, L., Gentit, P., Caglayan, K., Çevİk, B., 2007. First report of the presence of Plum pox virus Rec strain in Turkey. Plant Disease, 91(3), 331. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-91-3-0331B
Cervera MT, Riechmann JL, Martian MT, Garcia JA, 1993. 3
Damsteegt VD, Scorza R, Stone AL, Schneider WL, Webb K, Demuth M, Gildow FE, 2007. Prunus host range of Plum pox virus (PPV) in the United States by aphid and graft inoculation. Plant Disease, 91(1):18-23. HTTP://www.apsnet.org
Damsteegt, V. D., Stone, A. L., Luster, D. G., Gildow, F. E., Levy, L., Welliver, R., 2001. Preliminary characterization of a North American isolate of plum pox virus from naturally infected peach and plum orchards in Pennsylvania, USA. Acta Horticulturae, (No.550 (Vol. 1)), 145-152.
Diekmann M, Putter CAJ, 1996. FAO/IPGRI technical guidelines for the safe movement of germplasm No. 15: Musa spp. FAO/IPGRI technical guidelines for the safe movement of germplasm No. 15: ^italic~Musa^roman~ spp., 26 pp.; many ref
Dosba F, Lansac M, POcheur G, Teyssier B, Piquemal JP, Michel M, 1986. Plum pox virus detection by ELISA technique in peach and apricot infected trees at different growing stage. Acta Horticulturae, 193:187-19l
Dunez J, 1987. Plum Pox Disease of Stone Fruit Trees. Rome, Italy: FAO
EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization
EPPO, 2011. EPPO Reporting Service. EPPO Reporting Service. Paris, France: EPPO. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm
EPPO, 2014. First report of Plum pox virus in Israel. EPPO Reporting Service, No. 2014/032. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO)
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Escalettes V, Dahuron F, Ravelonandro M, Dosba F, 1994. Use of transgenic techniques to obtain plum and apricot clones expressing the coat-protein gene of plum pox potyvirus. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 24(3):705-711
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 1992. Quarantine procedure No. 39. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Test methods for tomato seeds. Bulletin OEPP, 22(2):219-224
Foster JA, Hadidi A, 1998. Exclusion of plant viruses. In: Hadidi A, Khetarpal RK, Koganezawa H, eds. Plant Virus Disease Control. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 208-229
Gildow F, Damsteegt V, Stone A, Schneider W, Luster D, Levy L, 2004. Plum pox in North America: identification of aphid vectors and a potential role for fruit in virus spread. Phytopathology, 94(8):868-874. http://www.apsnet.org/phyto/
Gildow, F. E., Damsteegt, V. D., Stone, A. L., Luster, D. G., 2002. Aphid vector competence and transmission of Pennsylvania isolates of plum pox virus from infected peach fruit [Abstract]. [Abstracts of the 2002 Annual Meeting of the American Phytopathological Society], https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=138952
Glasa M, Candresse T, 2005. Plum pox virus. AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses, No. 410., UK: Association of Applied Biologists. http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php?dpvno=410
Glasa M, Marie-Jeanne V, Labonne G, Šubr Z, Kúdela O, Quiot JB, 2002. A natural population of recombinant Plum pox virus is viable and competitive under field conditions. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 108(9):843-853
Glasa M, Palkovics L, Komínek P, Labonne G, Pittnerová S, Kúdela O, Candresse T, Šubr Z, 2004. Geographically and temporally distant natural recombinant isolates of Plum pox virus (PPV) are genetically very similar and form a unique PPV subgroup. Journal of General Virology, 85(9):2671-2681
Glasa, M., Paunovic, S., Jevremovic, D., Myrta, A., Pittnerová, S., Candresse, T., 2005. Analysis of recombinant Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from Serbia confirms genetic homogeneity and supports a regional origin for the PPV-Rec subgroup. Archives of Virology, 150(10), 2051-2060. doi: 10.1007/s00705-005-0548-3
Glasa, M., Prikhodko, Y., Predajňa, L., Nagyová, A., Shneyder, Y., Zhivaeva, T., Šubr, Z., Cambra, M., Candresse, T., 2013. Characterization of sour cherry isolates of Plum pox virus from the Volga basin in Russia reveals a new cherry strain of the virus. Phytopathology, 103(9), 972-979. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-11-12-0285-R
Gürcan, K., Teber, S., Candresse, T., 2020. Genetic analysis suggests a long and largely isolated evolutionary history of plum pox virus strain D in Turkey. Plant Pathology, 69(2), 370-378. https://bsppjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ppa.13115
Himmler G, Laimer M, Stemkellner H, Mattanovich D, Griessler B, Katinger H, 1987. Production of monoclonal antibodies against plum pox virus for the diagnosis of sharka disease of stone fruit (in German). Mitteilungen Klosterneuburg, 37:251-253
IPPC, 2011. Plum pox virus finding in Denmark. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. DNK-04/1, No. DNK-04/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/
ISHS, 1983. Detection of virus and virus-like diseases of fruit trees. Acta Horticulturae, 130:319-330
ISHS, 1992. Detection of virus and virus-like diseases of fruit trees. Acta Horticulturae, 309:407-420
ISHS, 1998. Detection of virus and virus-like diseases of fruit trees - laboratory assays, bioassays and indicators. Acta Horticulturae, 472:761-783
James D, Glasa M, 2006. Causal agent of sharka disease: new and emerging events associated with Plum pox virus characterization. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 36(2):247-250. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=epp
James D, Godkin SE, Eastwell KC, MacKenzie DJ, 1996. Identification and differentiation of Prunus virus isolates that cross-react with plum pox virus and apple stem pitting virus antisera. Plant Disease, 80(5):536-543; 40 ref
James D, Thompson D, 2006. Hosts and symptoms of Plum pox virus: ornamental and wild Prunus species. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 36(2):222-224. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=epp
Karayiannis I, 2006. Breeding for resistance: conventional breeding for Plum pox virus-resistant apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) in Greece. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 36(2):319-322. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=epp
Kegler H, Hartmann W, 1998. Present status of controlling conventional strains of plum pox virus. In: Hadidi A, Khetarpal RK, Koganezawa H, eds. Plant Virus Disease Control. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 616-628
Kegler H, Kleinhempel H, Meyer U, Berka K, Gruntzig M, 1989. Measurement of the characteristics of quantitative resistance in plum to plum pox virus and determination of their interrelations. Journal of Phytopathology, 125(1):25-32
Kim WS, Stobbs LW, Lehman SM, James D, Svircev AM, 2008. Direct real-time PCR detection of Plum pox virus in field surveys in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 30(2):308-317. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/tcjpp/plant.html
Kunze L, Krczal H, 1971. Transmission of sharka virus by aphids. In: Proceedings of the 8th European Symposium on Fruit Tree Virus Diseases. Paris, France: INRA, 255-260
Kölber M, Nemeth M, TSkés G, Krizbai L, SzSnyegi S, Imber I, Bereczki Zs, Papp E, Kiss E, Imre P, Pocsai E, Hangyál R, Vollent ¦, Pete A, Takács M, Bencze E, Hajnóczy GY, MerS F, 1997. Five-year study to determine of eventual occurrence of plum pox virus in cherry cultivars in Hungary. Acta Horticulturae, 472:495-502
Levy L, Hadidi A, 1994. A simple and rapid method for processing tissue infected with plum pox potyvirus for use with specific 3' non-coding region RT-PCR assays. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 24(3):595-604
Levy L, Hadidi A, K÷lber M, Tokes G, Nemeth M, 1995. 3
Levy L, Lee IM, Hadidi A, 1994. Simple and rapid preparation of infected plant tissue extracts for PCR amplification of virus, viroid, and MLO nucleic acids. Journal of Virological Methods, 49(3):295-304
Llácer G, Cambra M, 2006. Hosts and symptoms of Plum pox virus: fruiting Prunus species. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 36(2):219-221. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=epp
Llacer G, Cambra M, Lavina M, Arambura J, 1986. Investigation on plum pox (sharka) virus in Spain. Acta Horticulturae, 193:155-158
López-Moya JJ, Fernández-Fernández MR, Cambra M, García JA, 2000. Biotechnological aspects of plum pox virus. Journal of Biotecnology, 76: 121–136
Louro D, Monte Corvo L, 1986. Occurrence of sharka in Portugal. Acta Horticulturae, 193:183-187
Marn MV, Mavric I, Zemljic-Urbancic M, Skerlavaj V, 2005. Detection of PPV in non-Prunus hosts by serological and molecular methods [Conference poster]. (Ugotavljanje virusa sarke v rastlinah zunaj rodu Prunus s seroloskimi in molekulsko bioloskimi metodami.) In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov. 7. Slovensko posvetovanje o varstvu rastlin, 8.-10 marec, 2005, Zrece, Slovenija [ed. by Vajs, S.\Lesnik, M.]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Drustvo za Varstvo Rastlin Slovenije, 504-507
Marn MV, Plesko IM, Zindovic J, 2008. Discovery and characterization of Plum pox virus isolates in Montenegro. Plant Pathology, 57(2):393. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01749.x
Martínez-Gómez P, Rubio M, Dicenta F, Aparicio F, Pallás V, 2003. Comparative analysis of three diagnostic methods for the evaluation of plum pox virus (PPV) resistance in apricot breeding programs. Acta Horticulturae [Genetics and breeding of tree fruits and nuts. Symposium proceedings of the XXVI International Horticultural Congress, Toronto, Canada, 11-17 August 2002.], No.622:353-357
Mazyad HM, Nakhla MK, Abo Elela A, El Hammady MH, 1992. Occurrence of plum pox (sharka) virus on stone fruit trees in Egypt. Acta Horticulturae, 309:119-124
Mitrofanova, I., Mitrofanova, O., Chirkov, S., Lesnikova-Sedoshenko, N., Chelombit, S., 2015. Detection and identification of Plum pox virus on Prunus species in Crimea. Agriculture and Forestry, 61(4), 197-204. http://www.agricultforest.ac.me/data/20151213-22%20Mitrofanova%20et%20al.pdf
Myrta, A., Terlizzi, B. di, Boscia, D., Çağlayan, K., Gavriel, I., Ghanem, G., Varveri, C., Savino, V., 1998. Detection and serotyping of Mediterranean plum pox virus isolates by means of strain-specific monoclonal antibodies. In: Acta Virologica [Proceedings of the Middle European Meeting on Plum Pox 1998, held in Smolenice, Slovakia, from June 29 to July 3], 42(4) . 251-253.
NAPPO, 2009. Phytosanitary Alert System: Pennsylvania declared free of Plum pox virus (PPV) – Removal of Federal quarantine, Phytosanitary Alert System: Pennsylvania declared free of Plum pox NAPPO. https://pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=404&keyword=plum%20pox
NAPPO, 2013. Phytosanitary Alert System: Plum pox virus regulated areas removed in Orleans and Wayne Counties, New York. Phytosanitary Alert System: Plum pox virus regulated areas removed in Orleans and Wayne Counties, New York. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=557
NAPPO, 2016. Phytosanitary Alert System: APHIS Establishes a Plum Pox Virus Quarantine in the Hudson Valley Area in Portions of Orange and Ulster Counties, New York, NAPPO. https://pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=690&keyword=plum%20pox
NAPPO, 2020. Phytosanitary Alert System: Plum Pox Virus: APHIS Removes Regulated Areas in Orange and Ulster Counties, New York. NAPPO.https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/plum-pox-virus-aphis-removes-regulated-areas-orange-and-ulster-counties-new
Nemchinov L, Crescenzi A, Hadidi A, Piazzolla P, Verderevskaya T, 1998. Present status of the new cherry subgroup of plum pox virus (PPV-C). In: Hadidi A, Khetarpal RK, Koganezawa H, eds. Plant Virus Disease Control. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 629-638
Nemchinov L, Hadidi A, Maiss E, Cambra M, Candresse T, Damsteegt V, 1996. Sour cherry strain of plum pox potyvirus (PPV): molecular and serological evidence for a new subgroup of PPV strains. Phytopathology, 86:1215-1221
Nemeth M, Kolber M, 1983. Additional evidence on seed transmission of plum pox virus in apricot, peach and plum, proved by ELISA. Acta Horticulturae, 130:293-300
Neumüller, M., Hartmann, W., Petruschke, M., Treutter, D., 2010. The hypersensitivity resistance of European plum to the Plum pox virus and its potential impact on the epidemiology of the virus. In: Julius-Kühn-Archiv,(No.427) . Quedlinburg, Germany: Julius Kühn Institut, Bundesforschungsinstitut für Kulturpflanzen. 147-150. http://pub.jki.bund.de/index.php/JKA/issue/archive
OEPP/EPPO, 1974. ProgrFs réalisés dans la connaissance de la sharka. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 4:1-126
OEPP/EPPO, 1991/1992. Certification schemes. Virus-free or virus-tested fruit trees and rootstocks. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 21:267-278; 22:253-284
OEPP/EPPO, 2004. Standard PM 7/32 Plum pox potyvirus. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 34: 247-256
Oh JH, Park CY, Lee HK, Yeom YA, Lim SM, Moon JS, Lee SH, 2017. First report of Plum pox virus strain D isolate in peach (Prunus persica) in Korea. Plant Disease, 101(1):265. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis
Oishi, M., Inoue, Y., Kagatsume, R., Shukuya, T., Kasukabe, R., Oya, H., Hoshino, S., Ushiku, S., Fujiwara, Y., Motokura, Y., Maeda, Y., 2018. First report of Plum pox virus strain M in Japan. Plant Disease, 102(4), 829. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1327-PDN
Olmos A, Bertolini E, Cambra M, 2007. Isothermal amplification coupled with rapid flow-through hybridization for sensitive diagnosis of Plum pox virus. Journal of Virological Methods, 139(1):111-115. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal01660934
Olmos A, Cambra M, Dasi MA, Candresse T, Esteban O, Gorris MT, Asensio M, 1997. Simultaneous detection and typing of plum pox potyvirus (PPV) isolates by Heminested-PCR and PCR-ELISA. Journal of Virological Methods, 68(2):127-137; 31 ref
Olmos A, Capote N, Candresse T, 2006. Detection and characterization of Plum pox virus: molecular methods. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 36(2):262-266. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=epp
Olmos A, Dasf MA, Candresse T, Cambra M, 1996. Print-capture PCR: a simple and highly sensitive method for the detection of plum pox virus (PPV) in plant tissues. Nucleic Acids Research, 24(11):2192-2193; 11 ref
Palkovics L, Wittner A, Balßzs E, 1995. Pathogen-derived resistance induced by integrating the plum pox virus coat protein gene into plants of Nicotiana benthamiana. Acta Horticulturae, No. 386:311-317; 15 ref
Palmisano F, Minafra A, Myrta A, Boscia D, 2015. First report of Plum pox virus strain PPV-T in Albania. Journal of Plant Pathology, 97(2):403. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3329/2000
Pasquini G, Barba M, 2006. The question of seed transmissibility of Plum pox virus. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 36(2):287-292. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=epp
ProMED-mail, 2006. Plum pox virus, plum - USA (Michigan): First report. ProMED-mail 2006; 20060814.2277. http://www.promedmail.org. Accessed 14 August 2006
ProMED-mail, 2006. Plum pox virus, plum - USA (New York): 1st report. ProMED-mail 2006; 20060806.2181. http://www.promedmail.org. Accessed 6 August 2006
Rancovic M, Dulic-Markovic I, 1992. Evaluation of Prunus spinosa L. as host of sharka and other viruses. Acta Horticulturae, 309:151-156
Salvador B, García JA, Simón-Mateo C, 2006. Causal agent of sharka disease: Plum pox virus genome and function of gene products. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 36(2):229-238. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=epp
Samara, R., Lowery, D. T., Stobbs, L. W., Vickers, P. M., Bittner, L. A., 2016. Horticultural mineral oil influences Plum pox virus transmission by Myzus persicae. Journal of Applied Entomology, 140(9), 688-696. doi: 10.1111/jen.12296
Sánchez-Navarro JA, Aparicio F, Herranz MC, Minafra A, Myrta A, Pallás V, 2005. Simultaneous detection and identification of eight stone fruit viruses by one-step RT-PCR. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 111(1):77-84. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265
Schneider WL, Sherman DJ, Stone AL, Damsteegt VD, Frederick RD, 2004. Specific detection and quantification of Plum pox virus by real-time fluorescent reverse transcription-PCR. Journal of Virological Methods, 120(1):97-105
Scorza R, Callahan AM, Levy L, Damsteegt V, Ravelonandro M, 1998. Transferring potyvirus coat protein genes through hybridization of transgenic plants to produce plum pox virus resistant plums (Prunus domestica L.). Acta Horticulturae, No. 472:421-427; 15 ref
Scorza R, Hily JM, Callahan A, Malinowski T, Cambra M, Capote N, Zagrai I, Damsteegt V, Briard P, Ravelonandro M, 2007. Deregulation of Plum pox resistant transgenic plum 'HoneySweet'. Acta Horticulturae, No.738:669-673. http://www.actahort.org
Sebestyen, D., Nemeth, M., Hangyal, R., Krizbai, L., Ember, I., Nyerges, K., Kolber, M., Kiss, E., Bese, G., 2008. Ornamental Prunus species as new natural hosts of Plum pox virus and their importance in the spread of the virus in Hungary. Journal of Plant Pathology, 90(1), S1.57-S1.61 . doi: 10.4454/jpp.v90i1sup.617
Sheveleva, A., Ivanov, P., Gasanova, T., Osipov, G., Chirkov, S., 2018. Sequence analysis of Plum pox virus strain C isolates from Russia revealed prevalence of the D96E mutation in the universal epitope and interstrain recombination events. Viruses, 10(9), 450. doi: 10.3390/v10090450
Spiegel S, Kovalenko E, Varga A, James D, 2004. Detection and partial molecular characterization of two Plum pox virus isolates from plum and wild apricot in southeast Kazakhstan. Plant Disease, 88: 973-979
Spiegel S, Kovalenko EM, Varga A, James D, 2004. Detection and partial molecular characterization of two Plum pox virus isolates from plum and wild apricot in Southeast Kazakhstan. Plant Disease, 88(9):973-979. http://www.apsnet.org
Staniulis, J., Stankiene, J., Sasnauskas, K., Dargeviciute, A., 1998. First report of sharka disease caused by plum pox virus in Lithuania. Plant Disease, 82(12), 1405. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1922.214.171.1245C
Subr Z, Glasa M, 2013. Unfolding the secrets of plum pox virus: from epidemiology to genomics. Acta Virologica, 57(2):217-228. http://www.elis.sk/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage.tpl&product_id=3426&category_id=107&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=6
Svanella-Dumas L, Candresse T, Maurice I, Blin V, Quaren R, Birgaentzle C, 2015. First report of the presence of Plum pox virus Rec strain in France. Plant Disease, 99(3):421. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis
Szathmáry, E., Palkovics, L., 2010. Natural deletion is not unique in the coat protein (CP) of recombinant Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates in Hungary. In: Julius-Kühn-Archiv,(No.427) . Quedlinburg, Germany: Julius Kühn Institut, Bundesforschungsinstitut für Kulturpflanzen. 151-155. http://pub.jki.bund.de/index.php/JKA/issue/archive
Thompson, D., Varga, A., Costa, H. de, Birch, C., Glasa, M., James, D., 2009. First report of Plum pox virus recombinant strain on Prunus spp. in Canada. Plant Disease, 93(6), 674. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-93-6-0674A
Topchiiska M, 1991. Detection of plum pox virus by ELISA in Prunus spp. at the different stages of their development. In: XVth International Symposium on Virus and Virus Diseases of Temperate Fruit Crops. Vienna, Austria: ISHS
Topchiiska M, 1996. Plum pox virus in some Prunus spp. in Bulgaria. In: Middle European Meeting '96 on Plum Pox, Budapest, Hungary: 27 pp
Verhoeven, J. T. J., Haas, A. M. de, Roenhorst, J. W., 1998. Outbreak and eradication of plum pox potyvirus in the Netherlands. In: Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the 17th international symposium on virus and virus-like diseases of temperate fruit crops, fruit tree diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA, 23-27 June, 1997, volume 2], (No. 472) [ed. by Hadidi, A.]. 407-411.
Vicchi V, Fini P, Grillini P, D'Anniballe A, 2005. The diagnosis of PPV on peach flowers by using a new "on-site and field" method. (Diagnosi di PPV in fiori di pesco mediante test rapidi da campo.) Informatore Fitopatologico, 55(10):53-55
Waterworth HE, Hadidi A, 1998. Economic losses due to plant viruses. In: Hadidi A, Khetarpal RK, Koganezawa H, eds. Plant Virus Disease Control. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1-13
Wetzel T, Candresse T, Macquaire G, Ravelonandro M, Dunez J, 1992. A highly sensitive immunocapture polymerase chain reaction method for plum pox potyvirus detection. Journal of Virological Methods, 39(1/2):27-37
Wetzel T, Candresse T, Ravelonandro M, Delbos RP, Mazyad H, Aboul-Ata AE, Dunez J, 1991. Nucleotide sequence of the 3'-terminal region of the RNA of the E1 Amar strain of plum pox potyvirus. Journal of General Virology, 72(7):1741-1746
Zagrai, L., Zagrai, I., Ferencz, B., Gaboreanu, I., Kovacs, K., Petricele, I., Popescu, O., Pamfil, D., Capote, N., 2008. Serological and Molecular Typing of Plum Pox Virus Isolates in the North of Romania. Journal of Plant Pathology, 90(1), 41-46. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41998440?seq=1
Zotto, A. dal, Balzarini, M., Raigón, J. M., Rossini, M. N., Ducasse, D. A., 2014. Plum pox virus in Japanese plum from Argentina: serological detection and molecular characterization of an isolate from cv. Red Beauty. Journal of Phytopathology, 162(1), 55-60. doi: 10.1111/jph.12160
Aboul-Ela A, Aboul-Ata A E, Mazyad H M, 1999. Plum pox potyvirus situation in Egyptian stone fruit trees. In: Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the XIth International Symposium on Apricot Culture, Veria-Makedonia, Greece, 25-30 May, 1997, Volume 2.], [ed. by Karayiannis I]. 745-751.
Akbaș B, Değİrmencİ K, Çİftçİ O, Kaya A, Yurtmen M, Uzunoğulları N, Çelİk N, Türkölmez Ș, 2011. Update on Plum pox virus distribution in Turkey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 50 (1), 75-83. http://www.fupress.com/pm/
Baráth D, Jaksa-Czotter N, Molnár J, Varga T, Balássy J, Szabó L K, Kirilla Z, Tusnády G E, Preininger É, Várallyay É, 2018. Small RNA NGS revealed the presence of cherry virus A and little cherry virus 1 on apricots in Hungary. Viruses. 10 (6), 318. DOI:10.3390/v10060318
Blystad D R, Knudsen R, Spetz C, Haugslien S, Ørstad K, Cambra M, Munthe T, 2010. Survey on Plum pox virus in Norway. In: Julius-Kühn-Archiv. Quedlinburg, Germany: Julius Kühn Institut, Bundesforschungsinstitut für Kulturpflanzen. 351-352. http://pub.jki.bund.de/index.php/JKA/issue/archive
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Cambra M, Gorris M T, Capote N, Asensio M, Martínez M C, Bertolini E, Collado C, Hermoso de Mendoza A, Mataix E, López A, 2004. Epidemiology of Plum pox virus in Japanese plums in Spain. Acta Horticulturae. 195-200. http://www.actahort.org
Dallot S, Gottwald T, Labonne G, Quiot J B, 2003. Spatial pattern analysis of Sharka disease (Plum pox virus strain M) in peach orchards of Southern France. Phytopathology. 93 (12), 1543-1552. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO.2003.93.12.1543
Dallot S, Gottwald T, Labonne G, Quiot J B, 2004. Factors affecting the spread of Plum pox virus strain M in peach orchards subjected to roguing in France. Phytopathology. 94 (12), 1390-1398. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO.2004.94.12.1390
Dallot S, Kamenova I, Glasa M, Pittnerova S, Kominek P, Paunović S, Jevremović D, Virscek-Marn M, Plesko I M, Milusheva S, 2008. Prevalence and genetic structure of PPV-M in six European countries. Acta Horticulturae. 227-234. http://www.actahort.org
Dallot S, Kuzmanovska B, Brevet M, Rusevski R, Thébaud G, 2020. First report of plum pox virus strains M, D, and Rec infecting Prunus spp. in the Republic of North Macedonia. Plant Disease. 104 (1), 296-296. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-19-0475-PDN
Drkenda P, Jerkovic-Mujkic A, Jevremovic D, Haseljic S, Kanlic K, Music O, 2013. Distribution of Plum pox virus in the leaves of Autochthonous plum cultivar 'Pozegaca' in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In: Proceedings of the 24th International Scientific-Expert-Conference of Agriculture and Food Industry, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 25-28 September 2013 [Proceedings of the 24th International Scientific-Expert-Conference of Agriculture and Food Industry, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 25-28 September 2013.], [ed. by Blesic M]. Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina: Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Sarajevo. 423-427.
Fedotovas S, 2019. Information on Pest Status in the Republic of Lithuania in 2018. [The State Plant Service Under the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Lithuania], France: OEPP/EPPO. 1-7. https://www.ippc.int/static/media/files/pestreport/2019/04/08/Information_on_pest_status_in_the_Republic_of_Lithuania_in_2018.pdf
Fiore N, Araya C, Zamorano A, González F, Mora R, Sánchez-Navarro J, Pallás V, Rosales I M, 2010. Tracking Plum pox virus in Chile throughout the year by three different methods and molecular characterization of Chilean isolates. In: Julius-Kühn-Archiv. Quedlinburg, Germany: Julius Kühn Institut, Bundesforschungsinstitut für Kulturpflanzen. 156-161. http://pub.jki.bund.de/index.php/JKA/issue/archive
García-Ibarra A, Sánchez-Navarro J A, Soler A, Muñoz R M, Dicenta F, Martínez-Gómez P, Rubio M, 2012. Virus and viroids identification in traditional apricot orchards showing "viruela" disease in Spain. Acta Horticulturae. 23-25. http://www.actahort.org/books/966/966_2.htm
Glasa M, Marie-Jeanne V, Labonne G, Šubr Z, Kúdela O, Quiot J B, 2002. A natural population of recombinant Plum pox virus is viable and competitive under field conditions. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 108 (9), 843-853. DOI:10.1023/A:1021294221878
Glasa M, Paunovic S, Jevremovic D, Myrta A, Pittnerová S, Candresse T, 2005. Analysis of recombinant Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from Serbia confirms genetic homogeneity and supports a regional origin for the PPV-Rec subgroup. Archives of Virology. 150 (10), 2051-2060. DOI:10.1007/s00705-005-0548-3
Glasa M, Prikhodko Y, Predajňa L, Nagyová A, Shneyder Y, Zhivaeva T, Šubr Z, Cambra M, Candresse T, 2013. Characterization of sour cherry isolates of Plum pox virus from the Volga basin in Russia reveals a new cherry strain of the virus. Phytopathology. 103 (9), 972-979. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO-11-12-0285-R
Głowacka A, Rozpara E, 2017. Evaluation of several dessert cultivars of plum, new under climatic conditions of Poland. Horticultural Science. 44 (3), 126-132. http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/224612.pdf
Gürcan K, Teber S, Candresse T, 2020. Genetic analysis suggests a long and largely isolated evolutionary history of plum pox virus strain D in Turkey. Plant Pathology. 69 (2), 370-378. https://bsppjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ppa.13115
Herrera G, Sepúlveda P, Madariaga M, 1998. Survey of sharka disease (plum pox virus) on stone fruit trees in Chile. In: Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the 17th international symposium on virus and virus-like diseases of temperate fruit crops, fruit tree diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA, 23-27 June, 1997, volume 2.], [ed. by Hadidi A]. 393-399.
Hughes G, Gottwald T R, Levy L, 2002. The use of hierarchical sampling in the surveillance program for Plum pox virus incidence in the United States. Plant Disease. 86 (3), 259-263. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.3.259
IPPC, 2011. Plum pox virus finding in Denmark. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, No. DNK-04/1, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/
IPPC, 2020. Plum Pox Virus: APHIS Removes Regulated Areas in Orange and Ulster Counties, New York. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/
Kamenova I, Dallot S, Bozkova V, Milusheva S, 2011. First report of the Plum pox virus recombinant strain on peach in Bulgaria. Plant Disease. 95 (10), 1320. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-11-0405
Maejima K, Hoshi H, Hashimoto M, Himeno M, Kawanishi T, Komatsu K, Yamaji Y, Hamamoto H, Namba S, 2010. First report of plum pox virus infecting Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) in Japan. Journal of General Plant Pathology. 76 (3), 229-231. DOI:10.1007/s10327-010-0233-6
Marn M V, Mavrič I, Benko-Beloglavec A, Knapič V, Weilguny H, 2004. Results of the systematic survey and control of Plum pox potyvirus in Slovenia. Bulletin OEPP. 34 (1), 127-131. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2004.00708.x
Marn M V, Pleško I M, Zindović J, 2008. Discovery and characterization of Plum pox virus isolates in Montenegro. Plant Pathology. 57 (2), 393. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01749.x DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01749.x
Matic S, Elmaghraby I, Law V, Varga A, Reed C, Myrta A, James D, 2011. Serological and molecular characterization of isolates of Plum pox virus strain El Amar to better understand its diversity, evolution, and unique geographical distribution. Journal of Plant Pathology. 93 (2), 303-310. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/issue/view/93
Mazyad HM, Nakhla MK, Abo Elela A, El Hammady MH, 1992. Occurrence of plum pox (sharka) virus on stone fruit trees in Egypt. In: Acta Horticulturae, 309 119-124.
Mitrofanova I, Mitrofanova O, Chirkov S, Lesnikova-Sedoshenko N, Chelombit S, 2015. Detection and identification of Plum pox virus on Prunus species in Crimea. Agriculture and Forestry. 61 (4), 197-204. http://www.agricultforest.ac.me/data/20151213-22%20Mitrofanova%20et%20al.pdf
Myrta A, Palmisano F, Pulaj B, Susuri L R, Boscia D, 2011. Incidence of Plum pox virus and its strains in Kosovo. Journal of Plant Pathology. 93 (3), 725-728. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/1242
Myrta A, Terlizzi B di, Boscia D, Çağlayan K, Gavriel I, Ghanem G, Varveri C, Savino V, 1998. Detection and serotyping of Mediterranean plum pox virus isolates by means of strain-specific monoclonal antibodies. In: Acta Virologica [Proceedings of the Middle European Meeting on Plum Pox 1998, held in Smolenice, Slovakia, from June 29 to July 3.], 42 (4) 251-253.
NAPPO, 2009. Phytosanitary Alert System: Pennsylvania declared free of Plum pox virus (PPV) - Removal of Federal quarantine. In: Phytosanitary Alert System: Pennsylvania declared free of Plum pox NAPPO, https://pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=404&keyword=plum%20pox
NAPPO, 2013. Phytosanitary Alert System: Plum pox virus regulated areas removed in Orleans and Wayne Counties, New York. In: Phytosanitary Alert System: Plum pox virus regulated areas removed in Orleans and Wayne, New York, NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=557
NAPPO, 2016. Phytosanitary Alert System: APHIS Establishes a Plum Pox Virus Quarantine in the Hudson Valley Area in Portions of Orange and Ulster Counties, New York., NAPPO. https://pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=690&keyword=plum%20pox
NAPPO, 2020. Phytosanitary Alert System: Plum Pox Virus: APHIS Removes Regulated Areas in Orange and Ulster Counties, New York., NAPPO. https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/plum-pox-virus-aphis-removes-regulated-areas-orange-and-ulster-counties-new
Navrátil M, Šafářová D, Crescenzi A, Fanigliulo A, Comes S, Petrzik K, Karešová R, 2004. The occurrence of PPV in cherry trees in the Czech Republic. Acta Horticulturae. 237-244. http://www.actahort.org
Neumüller M, Hartmann W, Petruschke M, Treutter D, 2010. The hypersensitivity resistance of European plum to the Plum pox virus and its potential impact on the epidemiology of the virus. In: Julius-Kühn-Archiv. Quedlinburg, Germany: Julius Kühn Institut, Bundesforschungsinstitut für Kulturpflanzen. 147-150. http://pub.jki.bund.de/index.php/JKA/issue/archive
NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:
Oh J H, Park C Y, Lee H K, Yeom Y A, Lim S M, Moon J S, Lee S H, 2017. First report of Plum pox virus strain D isolate in peach (Prunus persica) in Korea. Plant Disease. 101 (1), 265. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-16-0979-PDN
Oishi M, Inoue Y, Kagatsume R, Shukuya T, Kasukabe R, Oya H, Hoshino S, Ushiku S, Fujiwara Y, Motokura Y, Maeda Y, 2018. First report of Plum pox virus strain M in Japan. Plant Disease. 102 (4), 829. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1327-PDN
Palmisano F, Minafra A, Myrta A, Boscia D, 2015. First report of Plum pox virus strain PPV-T in Albania. Journal of Plant Pathology. 97 (2), 403. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3329/2000
Papayiannis L C, Kyriakou A, Kapari-Isaia T, 2007. Typing of Plum pox virus (PPV) strains in Cyprus. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 2 (1), 29-30. http://www.publish.csiro.au/view/journals/dsp_journal_fulltext.cfm?nid=208&f=DN07013
Pleško I M, Marn M V, Miladinovič Z, Zindovič J, 2012. First report of Peach latent mosaic viroid in peach trees in Montenegro. Plant Disease. 96 (1), 150. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-11-0487
Rimbaud L, Dallot S, Delaunay A, Borron S, Soubeyrand S, Thébaud G, Jacquot E, 2015. Assessing the mismatch between incubation and latent periods for vector-borne diseases: the case of sharka. Phytopathology. 105 (11), 1408-1416. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO-01-15-0014-R
Rizza S, Conti F, Pasquini G, Tessitori M, 2014. First report of Plum pox virus strain M isolates in apricot in Sicily, Italy. Plant Disease. 98 (11), 1591-1592. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-14-0458-PDN
Rosales M, Hinrichsen P, Herrera G, 1998. Molecular characterization of plum pox virus isolated from apricots, plums and peaches in Chile. In: Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the 17th international symposium on virus and virus-like diseases of temperate fruit crops, fruit tree diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA, 23-27 June, 1997, volume 2.], [ed. by Hadidi A]. 401-405.
Samara R, Lowery D T, Stobbs L W, Vickers P M, Bittner L A, 2016. Horticultural mineral oil influences Plum pox virus transmission by Myzus persicae. Journal of Applied Entomology. 140 (9), 688-696. DOI:10.1111/jen.12296
Santala J, Soukainen M, 2015. First report of Plum pox virus on plum in Finland. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 45 (2), 193-194. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338 DOI:10.1111/epp.12199
Sheveleva A, Ivanov P, Gasanova T, Osipov G, Chirkov S, 2018. Sequence analysis of Plum pox virus strain C isolates from Russia revealed prevalence of the D96E mutation in the universal epitope and interstrain recombination events. Viruses. 10 (9), 450. DOI:10.3390/v10090450
Shirazi M, Safarnejad M R, Rakhshandehroo R, Zamanizadeh H R, 2015. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Coat Protein Gene of Three Iranian Plum pox virus Isolates. (ردیابی و تعیین خصوصیات مولکولی ژن پروتئین پوششی سه جدایه ایرانی ویروس آبله آلو (PLUM POX VIRUS)). Applied Entomology and Phytopathology. 51-62. DOI:10.22092/jaep.2015.101694
Snover-Clift K L, Clement P A, Jablonski R, Mungari R J, Mavrodieva V A, Negi S, Levy L, 2007a. First report of Plum pox virus on plum in New York State. Plant Disease. 91 (11), 1512. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-11-1512C
Spiegel S, Kovalenko E M, Varga A, James D, 2004. Detection and partial molecular characterization of two Plum pox virus isolates from plum and wild apricot in Southeast Kazakhstan. Plant Disease. 88 (9), 973-979. http://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.9.973
Svanella-Dumas L, Candresse T, Maurice I, Blin V, Quaren R, Birgaentzle C, 2015. First report of the presence of Plum pox virus Rec strain in France. Plant Disease. 99 (3), 421. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-14-0763-PDN
Szathmáry E, Palkovics L, 2010. Natural deletion is not unique in the coat protein (CP) of recombinant Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates in Hungary. In: Julius-Kühn-Archiv. Quedlinburg, Germany: Julius Kühn Institut, Bundesforschungsinstitut für Kulturpflanzen. 151-155. http://pub.jki.bund.de/index.php/JKA/issue/archive
Wetzel T, Candresse T, Ravelonandro M, Delbos R P, Mazyad H, Aboul-Ata A E, Dunez J, 1991. Nucleotide sequence of the 3'-terminal region of the RNA of the E1 Amar strain of plum pox potyvirus. Journal of General Virology. 72 (7), 1741-1746. DOI:10.1099/0022-1317-72-7-1741
Zagrai I, Zagrai L, Preda S, Isac M, Cardei E, 2010a. Incidence of Plum pox virus in Romanian plum orchards. Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Horticulture. 67 (1), 488. http://journals.usamvcj.ro/horticulture
Zagrai I, Zagrai L, Preda S, Kelemen B, Petricele I, Popescu O, Pamfil D, Isac M, 2010. Genetic diversity of Plum pox virus isolates in Muntenia, Romania. Romanian Biotechnological Letters. 15 (3), 5303-5309. http://www.rombio.eu/rbl3vol15/15%20%20Zagrai.pdf
Zagrai L, Zagrai I, Ferencz B, Gaboreanu I, Kovacs K, Petricele I, Popescu O, Pamfil D, Capote N, 2008. Serological and Molecular Typing of Plum Pox Virus Isolates in the North of Romania. Journal of Plant Pathology. 90 (1), 41-46. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41998440?seq=1
Zindović J, Lanzoni C, Autonell C R, Ratti C, 2013. First report of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus on peach in Montenegro. Plant Disease. 97 (9), 1259. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-12-1147-PDN
Zotto A dal, Balzarini M, Raigón J M, Rossini M N, Ducasse D A, 2014. Plum pox virus in Japanese plum from Argentina: serological detection and molecular characterization of an isolate from cv. Red Beauty. Journal of Phytopathology. 162 (1), 55-60. DOI:10.1111/jph.12160
Zotto A dal, Ortego J M, Raigón J M, Caloggero S, Rossini M, Ducasse D A, 2006. First report in Argentina of Plum pox virus causing sharka disease in Prunus. Plant Disease. 90 (4), 523. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-0523C
ContributorsTop of page
26/02/2008 Updated by:
Vern Damsteegt, USDA-ARS, Foreign Disease-Weed Science Res Unit, Ft. Detrick, MD 21702, USA
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/