Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Phyllostachys aurea Carrière ex. Rivière & C. Rivière
Preferred Common Name
- golden bamboo
Other Scientific Names
- Phyllostachys bambusoides var. aurea (Carrière ex. Rivière & C.Rivière) Makino
- Phyllostachys meyeri var. aurea (Carrière ex. Rivière & C.Rivière) Pilipenko
- Phyllostachys reticulata var. aurea (Carrière ex. Rivière & C.Rivière) Makino
International Common Names
- English: fish-pole bamboo
- Spanish: bamboo amarillo; bambú amarillo
Local Common Names
- Brazil: bambú japonsê; bambu-amarelo; bambu-brasileiro; bambu-mirim
- China: ren mian zhu
- Cuba: bambucito
- France: bamboo jaune
- Indonesia: pring uncue
- Japan: hotei-chiku
- Vietnam: trus vafng
- PLLAR (Phyllostachys aurea)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
P.aurea is a highly invasive running bamboo native to Southeast China but is now widespread globally and especially problematic in Australia and North America. This woody, rhizomatous perennial grass rapidly forms a dense monoculture, suffocating other native plants and altering the entire ecosystem. As well as having detrimental effects on the environment this bamboo may also damage property and pose as a potential health threat from its harbouring of a fungus responsible for the Histoplasmosis disease. Invasive bamboos are among the fastest growing plants on Earth and one infestation of P. aurea can spread as far as 9.3 miles. The spread is rapid in all directions, increasing each successive year (Gucker, 2009; Rickel, 2012).
It is listed invasive in Australia and Hawaii, and has naturalized or is listed invasive in 273 counties in the USA, including the mid-Atlantic region of the USA, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and Georgia. It is reported to be fully naturalized in New Zealand, with infestations forming dense stands, and some invading national parks (Edgar and Connor, 2000; USDA-APHIS, 2012). It has been recorded as High Risk in several Weed Risk Assessments (USDA-APHIS, 2012; NYPRISM, 2013; PIER, 2016) and following New York State Department of Environmental Conservation listing of the species as invasive it has banned all future sales of P. aurea (New York State DEC, 2014).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Monocotyledonae
- Order: Cyperales
- Family: Poaceae
- Genus: Phyllostachys
- Species: Phyllostachys aurea
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Phyllostachys aurea is an accepted species of the Poaceae family, a member of the grass family (The Plant List, 2013). There are approximately 76 species within the genus Phyllostachys (Ohrnberger, 1999). The Plant List (2013) suggests there are 20 recorded synonyms for P.aurea.
The Poaceae family consists of 7 to 10 subfamilies, among them the subfamily Bambusoideae which includes both woody and herbaceaous bamboos with approximately 1575 species (Ohrnberger, 1999).
P. aurea is commonly referred to as golden bamboo. The specific epithet aurea, refers to the golden colour of old culms and was used by Carrière and later used by A.& C. Rivière to name this species (Ohrnberger, 1999).
DescriptionTop of page
P. aurea is a woody, rhizomatous perennial grass, which grows to form a dense bamboo forest. The main stem is called a culm. The culm is made up of jointed segments. The rings are called nodes. The sections between the nodes or rings are called internodes.
Golden bamboo has distinct swollen internodes, bunched up together at the bottom of some random canes. This unique trait is useful for certainty in the ID of golden bamboo (McClure, 1957). Most canes will have uniformly spaced sections (internodes) as the compressed internode trait only occurs on some canes. Golden bamboo has a slight cupped flare where the sections meet at the nodes (rings). In Japan, the compressed swollen internodes are referred to as deformed stems, and thought to be a reason for the cultivation of the species P. aurea, due to the curiosity of the deformed swollen internodes.
A pure planting of P. aurea can be identified with ease and certainty by the culms. Stems and branches are green when plants are young but turn golden yellow with age. Branches occur in uneven pairs with a groove called a sulcus (Arnold Arboretum, 1946; Gucker, 2009). They can grow to a maximum height of 11.8 m tall and are tolerant of colder temperatures (reportedly up to -20°C) (Arnold Arboretum, 1946; Young and Haun, 1961; Gucker, 2009; EDDMapS, 2016). The diameter of the culms can reach 15 cm but are usually 9 cm or less depending on the age of the stand. Each year the culms will emerge thicker (Gucker, 2009). The length of the rhizomes increases each successive year. In a mature stand the rhizomes may spread 4-7.6 m underground each year (Young and Haun, 1961). Spread is rapid in all directions by the interconnected dense underground rhizome system. A single golden bamboo clump can produce rhizomes spreading 9.3 miles in its lifetime (Gucker, 2009).
P. aurea is an evergreen, even though leaves change each year later in the spring. The old leaves fall off and are gradually replaced with new leaves (McClure, 1957).
Flowers and seeds are rarely produced. Although spreading by seed is unlikely, it cannot be ruled out completely (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
DistributionTop of page
Native to Southeast China P. aurea has been in cultivation for some time in Japan, Europe and South America (McClure, 1957). It is now widely distributed, especially in North America, with reports as far north as Vancouver and British Columbia in Canada. It has escaped cultivation in Hawaii and Oahu (Gucker, 2009) and is documented as established in Taiwan, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, Ecuador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Spain, the UK and Madagascar (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
P. aurea is listed invasive in Australia, Hawaii, and has naturalized or is listed invasive in 273 counties in the USA, including the mid-Atlantic region of the USA, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and Georgia. It is reported to be fully naturalizing in New Zealand, with infestations forming dense stands, and some invading national parks (USDA APHIS, 2012).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Planted||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Fujian||Present||Native||Not invasive||Natural||Ohrnberger, 1999|
|-Hong Kong||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||PIER, 2016|
|-Zhejiang||Present||Native||Not invasive||Natural||Ohrnberger, 1999|
|Japan||Present||Native||Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012|
|-Bonin Island||Present||Introduced||PIER, 2016|
|Taiwan||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Planted||Ohrnberger, 1999|
|Canada||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-British Columbia||Present||Introduced||Gucker, 2009|
|USA||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-California||Present||Introduced||Invasive||EDDMapS, 2016; PIER, 2016|
|-New Mexico||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-APHIS, 2012|
|-New York||Present||Introduced||Invasive||NYPRISM, 2013|
|-North Carolina||Present||Introduced||Invasive||EDDMapS, 2016|
|-South Carolina||Present||Introduced||Invasive||EDDMapS, 2016|
|-West Virginia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-APHIS, 2012|
Central America and Caribbean
|Costa Rica||Present||Introduced||USDA-APHIS, 2012|
|Cuba||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; USDA-APHIS, 2012|
|-Galapagos Islands||Present||Introduced||PIER, 2016||Santa Cruz Island|
|France||Present||Introduced||Invasive||PIER, 2016||La Reunion Island|
|Australia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-New South Wales||Widespread||Introduced||1962||Invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-Queensland||Present||Introduced||1984||Invasive||AVH, 2016; PIER, 2016|
|-Western Australia||Present||Introduced||2003||AVH, 2016||Perth, edge of lake by drain|
|New Zealand||Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||PIER, 2016||Raoul Island|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
P. aurea, commonly known as golden bamboo, is a giant temperate timber bamboo native to Southeast China. It was the first species of Phyllostachys to be successfully introduced into the USA by George H. Todd, a grower at Montgomery in 1882. Mature culms were used for fishing poles and walking sticks (Young and Haun, 1961).
Additional introductions into the USA occurred in 1914 by the United States Department of Agriculture with plants from the Centro Agricola at Bahia, Brazil obtained through V.A.Argolla Ferrao. These were under Plant Introduction No. 38919.
Some introductions into the USA were obtained from seeds from L'Hermitage, Mons, Belgium. These were from Jean Houzeau de Lehaie and were under Plant Introduction No. 55975. Plants were also obtained from the Royal Botanic Garden Kew, England, Plant Introduction No. 75153.
Earlier introductions of this species were made by private individuals, like George H. Todd in Montgomery, Alabama, who planted a 10 acre plot (McClure, 1957).
In many areas extensive infestations have been documented with rapid spread and reported as highly detrimental (EDDMapS, 2016).
A clone covering one acre was documented as naturalizing on a steep hillside in Kailua, Oahu, Hawaii. The infestation originally planted as a single ornamental planting has now spread to invade an entire hillside (Gucker, 2009). The footprint of P. aurea is astonishing as the speed of invasion increases each successive year, with the stage of invasion increasing dramatically over time (Rickel, 2012).
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|Australia||pre 1962||Horticulture (pathway cause)||Yes||AVH (2016); USDA-NRCS (2016); Weeds of Australia (2016)||Documented as extremely invasive, posing substantial threat to the environment|
|Hawaii||China||1882||Horticulture (pathway cause)||Yes||PIER (2016)|
|USA||China||1882||Horticulture (pathway cause)||Yes||USDA-APHIS (2012)||Naturalized – infestations escaping and invasive|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
P. aurea is a high risk alien invader and recorded as High Risk in the USDA-APHIS Weed Risk Assessment of July 2012 (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
Running bamboos are of great concern due to their rapid spread by an underground rhizome system, and the possibility of naturalization (Smith and Mack, 2012).
There is also a high risk potential for naturalization through improper rhizome disposal, and rhizome dispersal by water. Documentation shows infestations are spreading offsite without the aid of human cultivation by water (USDA-APHIS, 2012; Bugwood Presentations, 2014).
Also of great concern is the high volume of online sales, with rhizomes being shipped all over the Internet to the unsuspecting public. In many cases, online shipping is without a plant name shown, and easily bypasses all international plant regulation laws (Rickel, 2012).
HabitatTop of page
Infestations occur in undisturbed habitats including along stream edges and riparian corridors (Smith and Mack, 2012). It thrives in full sun, but also tolerates shade, spreading into forests.
P. aurea spreads more rapidly in moist soils (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Natural grasslands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Wetlands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Wetlands||Present, no further details||Natural|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Continual thick leaf litter within the stand of bamboo along with the dense shade in the bamboo stand prohibits the growth of other species of plants. It is also possible that P. aurea has allelopathic effects (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
Biology and EcologyTop of page
P. aurea reproduces vegetatively by rhizomes. It is capable of producing seeds but at very long intervals and the rarity of flowering makes reproduction by seed unlikely (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
Bamboo flowers are wind pollinated. There are contradictory reports that bamboo dies after flowering. Some reports suggest the rhizomes are capable of resprouting (Gucker, 2009).
Physiology and Phenology
P. aurea spreads rapidly by underground rhizomes each year followed by new culms (stems) each spring from the previous years rhizome spread. Spread is rapid in all directions (Gucker, 2009).
New culms emerge in the spring and reach their mature height in a few short weeks. Each successive year the culms emerge thicker, with underground rhizomes that rapidly spread faster each successive year.
P. aurea is long lived. Documentation and field work have shown the infestation increases over time to cover acres (EDDMapS, 2016). A single clump of golden bamboo can produce up to 9.3 miles of stems in its lifetime, all interconnected as one organism (Gucker, 2009).
Population Size and Structure
Dense stands can potentially invade acres of land, forming a monoculture and suffocating native vegetation as the rhizomes spread underground further each year (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
In China, golden bamboo stands grow at elevations up to 1000 m in the southeast. In the southwest region of China, golden bamboo stands grow at elevations up to 2000 m (Gucker, 2009).
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-20|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||10||30|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||15||35|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||-15||20|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||0||4||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||1000||mm; lower/upper limits|
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Cases of spread by water have been documented in Connecticut (Bugwood Presentations, 2014) and there is the potential for rhizome fragments to be washed downstream along riparian corridors (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
Although spreading by seed is unlikely as flowers and seeds are rarely produced it cannot be ruled out completely (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
The spread of P. aurea along roadsides by plows moving rhizomes has been documented. Observation has shown loose rhizome fragments and rhizomes growing up along roadsides where plows could potentially transport the rhizome spreading the bamboo (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
Improper disposal of the rhizomes is common, causing new bamboo infestations to start. Spread can occur from improper dumping of yard waste into natural areas (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
P. aurea has been widely introduced as an ornamental in both temperate and tropical areas of the world (Gucker, 2009). P. aurea has also been introduced for making fishing poles, walking sticks, umbrella and fan handles and pipe stems (McClure, 1957).
Impact SummaryTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
P. aurea has a negative impact on property values. Numerous property appraisals have shown a reduced market value for a property that has the presence of Phyllostachys invasive running bamboo (Haussler, 2012; Brown, 2016).
Properties infested with Phyllostachys running bamboos often have a stigmatized market value and are very hard to sell (Sutton, 2016). Eradication is difficult and results in expensive bamboo abatement measures including the repeat use of pesticides.
A recent report of one bamboo eradication project at the historical Yorktown Battlefield is costing approximately $78,000 (Riddle, 2016).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Habitats
P. aurea is highly detrimental to the environment and can alter an entire native ecosystem through its rapid formation of dense stands. It poses a threat to many natural areas, including parks and conservation land (USDA-APHIS, 2012; EDDMapS, 2016).
Impact on Biodiversity
Continual thick leaf litter within the stand of bamboo along with the dense shade in the bamboo stand prohibits the growth of other species of plants. The formation of monocultures in forests and riparian corridors completely excludes other native vegetation and over time the bamboo will eventually form a dense forest (Young and Haun, 1961; USDA-APHIS, 2012; EDDMapS, 2016).It is also possible that P. aurea has allelopathic effects (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
P. aurea is listed as invasive in Australia and Hawaii, and has naturalized or is listed as invasive in 273 counties in the USA, including the mid-Atlantic region of the USA, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and Georgia. It is reported to be fully naturalizing in New Zealand, with infestations forming dense stands, and some invading national parks (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
Social ImpactTop of page
P. aurea can have negative impacts on property, including damage to driveways and sidewalks (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
Many laws and regulations have been passed to protect property and stop the continual nuisance. This list is growing as people are becoming more aware of the invasiveness of running bamboo (Rickel, 2014).
P. aurea infestations may pose a serious indirect risk to human health as blackbird and starling species often roost in Phyllostachys invasive bamboos and can serve as vectors for the human respiratory disease, Histoplasmosis (Glahn et al., 1994; Miller, 2013). The microscopic fungus, Histoplasmacapsulatum, is found where bird droppings accumulate within the bamboo infestation. This fungus produces airborne fungal spores which when inhaled can cause the disease Histoplasmosis. The disease produces very few symptoms, but can have serious health effects (Lenhardt, 2004; Cleveland Clinic, 2016; University of Maryland Medical Center, 2016).
When the blackbirds roost repeatedly for several years the bamboo may become an indirect threat to humans. The soil becomes contaminated with the spores of the fungus that cause histoplasmosis in humans. Workers removing bamboo should wear a respirator, or dust masks and take precautions to avoid inhaling the spores (Flynt and Glahn, 1993; Glahn et al., 1994).
Several cases have been reported recently, including two in Arkansas, USA. Such cases often involve burning of bamboo, which had been previously used as a blackbird roost. In 2011, a bamboo bonfire affected 18 people, where 7 individuals were confirmed to have contracted the disease and 11 others likely to have contracted the disease (Haselow et al., 2014). Another similar story saw two children infected and transferred to the Arkansas Children’s Hospital. It was later found that others who attended the same gathering were also ill with the same symptoms (Haselow et al., 2014). In 1980, another histoplasmosis case relating to bamboo was reported in Louisiana. Workers were clearing a large bamboo infestation that was heavily contaminated with blackbird faeces. All 6 workers became ill (Haselow et al., 2014).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerant of shade
- Has high reproductive potential
- Reproduces asexually
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Monoculture formation
- Negatively impacts forestry
- Negatively impacts human health
- Negatively impacts livelihoods
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
- Competition - shading
- Rapid growth
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
- Difficult/costly to control
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
P. aurea looks very similar in appearance to Phyllostachys aureosulcata. This confusion has led to many misidentifications, often with P. aureosulcata being incorrectly identified as P. aurea. However there are some differences which can be used to separate the two species. P. aureosulcata has a yellow groove (called a sulcus) on every other section (called an internode) of the young shoots. It also has a rough sand papery feel when rubbing a hand up and down the canes, and some random culms that occasionally have a crook or zigzag growth pattern. These traits are not found in P. aurea.
In contrast, P. aurea will have compressed internodes bunched together and distorted. This characteristic trait will appear on a few random lower canes and is unique to P. aurea. This trait has often been used to correctly identify the bamboo, for example, an infestation that naturalized in Illinios was originally reported as P. aurea, and later was found to be P. aureosulcata (Gucker, 2009).
P. aurea is slightly less cold tolerant than P. aureosulcata, otherwise they behave similarly as do all Phyllostachys invasive bamboos, which spread rapidly forming a dense monoculture choking off all native vegetation (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
The best prevention is to prohibit the planting of Phyllostachys invasive running bamboos (Connecticut General Assembly, 2014).
Rapid response is very important with P. aurea. The earlier a stand of bamboo is eradicated the easier it will be due to the size of the bamboo and spread of the rhizomes underground. Removing the bamboo before it escapes to surrounding properties is also advantageous. An established older stand will require a great deal more effort (Rickel, 2012; USDA-APHIS, 2012).
Educating the public not to plant Phyllostachys invasive running bamboo is one of the most important ways to prevent more infestations (Gucker, 2009). The public is now becoming very aware of the damage caused by Phyllostachys invasive running bamboo, at least in some places. Passing out fact sheets and spreading the word through education will help slow down the spread of this destructive invasive.
Diligence is required to eradicate an infestation of golden bamboo. The bamboo must be removed in its entirety to be successful. The area must be monitored closely for missed rhizome fragments as this is all that is needed to repeat the invasion (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
P. aurea easily bypasses containment eventually, and planting it anywhere, even in containers, should be avoided (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
Effective bamboo removal involves digging out the rhizomes deeply enough to avoid leaving any rhizomes behind. This has proven to be the most effective bamboo removal.
Repeated cutting to the ground will not yield control; bamboo is a grass and easily tolerates cuttings (Bugwood, 2016). It has been documented that rhizome growth also becomes more aggressive after a disturbance, so removing all of the rhizomes is the most effective way to stop further spread and damage (Gucker, 2009).
There are no known biological controls for P. aurea. No documentation exists referring to insects or pathogens as a way to control golden bamboo (Gucker, 2009).
P. aurea resists herbicide, and is difficult to eradicate. In most cases digging the rhizomes out proves to be faster and safer. Control with foliar application using glyphosate must be repeated over and over to be successful. The bamboo must be eradicated in its entirety to be successful. The area must be monitored closely for regrowth for several years (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
One of the reasons golden bamboo resists herbicide is that the rhizomes are chambered off inside, (segmented) and can be very dense making it very difficult to eradicate with herbicides (Mark Czarnota, University of Georgia, USA, personal communication, 2012).
ReferencesTop of page
Arnold Arboretum, 1946. Bamboos for Northern Gardens - Vol. A continuation of the Bulletin of Popular Information of the Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University. Massachusetts, USA: Harvard University. http://arnoldia.arboretum.harvard.edu/pdf/articles/1946-6--bamboos-for-northern-gardens.pdf
Asiatic Society of Japan, 1900. Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, 27. Hong Kong, Japan: Asiatic Society of Japan.
AVH, 2016. Australia's Virtual Herbarium. http://avh.ala.org.au/
Brown D, 2016. Coldwell Banker - Stigmatized Market Value due to Phyllostachys. https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxpbnZhc2l2ZWJhbWJvb3Jlc2VhcmNofGd4OjVlNzAzOWQ0OWNiZDNiNzE
Bugwood Presentations, 2014. Nine known escapes from cultivation of Phyllostachys aureosulcata in Connecticut. http://presents.bugwood.org/browse/view.cfm?pn=00000189
Bugwood, 2016. Invasive Grasses and Canes. Bugwood, 85. http://wiki.bugwood.org/uploads/Bamboos.pdf
Centre for Invasive Species Ecosystem Health, 2016. Invasive.org. Georgia, USA. http://www.invasive.org
Chu CD; Widjaja EA, 1995. Phyllostachys aurea. In: Dransfield S, Widjaja EA, eds. Plant Resources of South-East Asia, No. 7: Bamboos: 129-130.
Cleveland Clinic, 2016. Diseases and Conditions: Histoplasmosis. Cleveland, USA: Cleveland Clinic. http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_Histoplasmosis
Clifford P, 2011. PIER Weed Risk Assessment Phyllostachys aurea. Hawaii, USA: PIER. http://www.hear.org/pier/wra/pacific/Phyllostachys_aurea_PMC.pdf
Connecticut General Assembly, 2012. Testimony House Bill 5122 - Mary Haussler. Connecticut, USA: Connecticut General Assembly. https://www.cga.ct.gov/2012/ENVdata/Tmy/2012HB-05122-R000222-Mary%20E.%20Haussler-TMY.PDF
Connecticut General Assembly, 2014. Testimony Senate Bill 72 - An Act Concerning Liability for Growing of Running Bamboo - Rickel, C. Connecticut, USA: Connecticut General Assembly. https://www.cga.ct.gov/2014/ENVdata/Tmy/2014SB-00072-R000219-Ms.%20Caryn%20Rickel%20CPCU,%20Institute%20of%20Invasive%20Bamboo%20Research-TMY.PDF
Connecticut General Assembly, 2014. Testimony Senate Bill 72 - An Act Concerning Liability for Growing of Running Bamboo - Wagener, K. Council on Environmental Quality. Connecticut, USA: Connecticut General Assembly. https://www.cga.ct.gov/2014/ENVdata/Tmy/2014SB-00072-R000219-Karl%20Wagener,%20Council%20on%20Environmental%20Quality-TMY.PDF
EDDMapS, 2016. Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System. Georgia, USA: University of Georgia-Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. http://www.eddmaps.org/
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
Flora of China, 2016. Illustration - Phyllostachys aurea. http://www.efloras.org/object_page.aspx?object_id=95477&flora_id=2
Flynt R; Glahn J, 1993. Propagation of Bamboo as Blackbird Lure Roost Habitat. Nebraska, USA: University of Nebraska - Lincoln, 7 pp. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1014&context=ewdcc6
Gucker C, 2009. Phyllostachys aurea. Fire Effects Information System. Washington DC, USA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/phyaur/all.html
Haselow D; Safi H; Holcomb D; Smith N; Wagner K; Bolden B; Harik N, 2014. Histoplasmosis associated with a bamboo bonfire. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Georgia, USA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6308a1.htm?s_cid=mm6308a1_w
HEAR, 2012. Alien species in Hawaii. Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/AlienSpeciesInHawaii/index.html
Huang LC; Huang BL, 1994. Tissue culture alternatives in bamboo improvement. FORSPA Publication, No. 6:174-179; [in ^italic~Proceedings of the 4th International Bamboo Workshop on Bamboo in Asia and the Pacific, Chiangmai, Thailand, 27-30 November 1991^roman~]; 9 ref.
ITIS, 2016. Integrated Taxonomic Information System online database. http://www.itis.gov
Lenhardt S; Schafer M; Singal M; Hajjeh R, 2004. Histoplasmosis - protecting workers at risk. Georgia, USA: CDC, US Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2005-109/pdfs/2005-109.pdf
McClure F, 1957. Bamboos of the Genus Phyllostachys. Agriculture Handbook No. 114. Washington DC, USA: USDA. http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/CAT86859447/PDF
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28/06/16 Original text by:
Caryn Rickel, Institute of Invasive Bamboo Research, Connecticut, USA
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