Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Stemphylium vesicarium
(onion leaf blight)

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Datasheet

Stemphylium vesicarium (onion leaf blight)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Stemphylium vesicarium
  • Preferred Common Name
  • onion leaf blight
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Brown spot of pear on young fruits caused by S. vesicarium. Lesions are often localized at the calyx region of the fruit. Note that the necrotic spots are sometimes surrounded by a reddish halo.
TitleFruit symptoms
CaptionBrown spot of pear on young fruits caused by S. vesicarium. Lesions are often localized at the calyx region of the fruit. Note that the necrotic spots are sometimes surrounded by a reddish halo.
CopyrightIsidre Llorente
Brown spot of pear on young fruits caused by S. vesicarium. Lesions are often localized at the calyx region of the fruit. Note that the necrotic spots are sometimes surrounded by a reddish halo.
Fruit symptomsBrown spot of pear on young fruits caused by S. vesicarium. Lesions are often localized at the calyx region of the fruit. Note that the necrotic spots are sometimes surrounded by a reddish halo.Isidre Llorente
Mature pear fruits cv. Passe Crassane heavily affected by pear brown spot caused by S. vesicarium. Old infections are often colonized by other saprophytic fungi.
TitleFruit symptoms
CaptionMature pear fruits cv. Passe Crassane heavily affected by pear brown spot caused by S. vesicarium. Old infections are often colonized by other saprophytic fungi.
CopyrightIsidre Llorente
Mature pear fruits cv. Passe Crassane heavily affected by pear brown spot caused by S. vesicarium. Old infections are often colonized by other saprophytic fungi.
Fruit symptomsMature pear fruits cv. Passe Crassane heavily affected by pear brown spot caused by S. vesicarium. Old infections are often colonized by other saprophytic fungi.Isidre Llorente
Lesions on a pear fruit cv. Conference infected with S. vesicarium.
TitleFruit symptoms
CaptionLesions on a pear fruit cv. Conference infected with S. vesicarium.
CopyrightIsidre Llorente
Lesions on a pear fruit cv. Conference infected with S. vesicarium.
Fruit symptomsLesions on a pear fruit cv. Conference infected with S. vesicarium.Isidre Llorente
Pear leaves expressing symptoms (necrotic spots) of pear brown spot, caused by S. vesicarium.
TitleLeaf symptoms
CaptionPear leaves expressing symptoms (necrotic spots) of pear brown spot, caused by S. vesicarium.
CopyrightIsidre Llorente
Pear leaves expressing symptoms (necrotic spots) of pear brown spot, caused by S. vesicarium.
Leaf symptomsPear leaves expressing symptoms (necrotic spots) of pear brown spot, caused by S. vesicarium.Isidre Llorente
Black pseudothecia (arrowed) of Pleospora allii on pear leaves.
TitlePseudothecia
CaptionBlack pseudothecia (arrowed) of Pleospora allii on pear leaves.
CopyrightA. Vilardell
Black pseudothecia (arrowed) of Pleospora allii on pear leaves.
PseudotheciaBlack pseudothecia (arrowed) of Pleospora allii on pear leaves.A. Vilardell
Microscopic view of asci with eight ascospores of Pleospora allii.
TitleAsci
CaptionMicroscopic view of asci with eight ascospores of Pleospora allii.
CopyrightIsidre Llorente
Microscopic view of asci with eight ascospores of Pleospora allii.
AsciMicroscopic view of asci with eight ascospores of Pleospora allii.Isidre Llorente
Germinating conidia of S. vesicarium on pear leaves. Germination tubes are stained with lactophenol-cotton blue.
TitleConidia
CaptionGerminating conidia of S. vesicarium on pear leaves. Germination tubes are stained with lactophenol-cotton blue.
CopyrightIsidre Llorente
Germinating conidia of S. vesicarium on pear leaves. Germination tubes are stained with lactophenol-cotton blue.
ConidiaGerminating conidia of S. vesicarium on pear leaves. Germination tubes are stained with lactophenol-cotton blue.Isidre Llorente
Scanning electron micrograph of S. vesicarium conidia.
TitleSEM of conidia
CaptionScanning electron micrograph of S. vesicarium conidia.
CopyrightIsidre Llorente
Scanning electron micrograph of S. vesicarium conidia.
SEM of conidiaScanning electron micrograph of S. vesicarium conidia.Isidre Llorente
Conidia of S. vesicarium from V8 agar cultures.
TitleConidia
CaptionConidia of S. vesicarium from V8 agar cultures.
CopyrightIsidre Llorente
Conidia of S. vesicarium from V8 agar cultures.
ConidiaConidia of S. vesicarium from V8 agar cultures.Isidre Llorente
Close-up of pear leaf surface with Pleospora allii pseudothecia (arrowed) below the leaf surface.
TitlePseudothecia
CaptionClose-up of pear leaf surface with Pleospora allii pseudothecia (arrowed) below the leaf surface.
CopyrightA. Vilardell
Close-up of pear leaf surface with Pleospora allii pseudothecia (arrowed) below the leaf surface.
PseudotheciaClose-up of pear leaf surface with Pleospora allii pseudothecia (arrowed) below the leaf surface.A. Vilardell

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Stemphylium vesicarium (Wallr.) E.G. Simmons

Preferred Common Name

  • onion leaf blight

Other Scientific Names

  • Pleospora allii (Rabenh.) Ces. & De Not.

International Common Names

  • English: asparagus leaf spot; brown spot of pear; garlic leaf blight; garlic leaf spot; leaf blight: onion; onion leaf spot; purple spot of asparagus; purple spot: Asparagus spp.; Stemphylium blight of onion

Local Common Names

  • Egypt: Stemphylium leaf spot of soybean
  • Italy: maculatura bruna del pero
  • Netherlands: black leaf spot of pear
  • Spain: mancha marrón del peral; mancha negra del peral; taca bruna de la perera

EPPO code

  • PLEOAL (Pleospora allii)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Pleosporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Stemphylium
  •                                     Species: Stemphylium vesicarium

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 16 Jun 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentAbdel-Rahim et al. (2017); El-Samra and Mehiar (1974); Darrag et al. (1982); EPPO (2020)
LibyaPresentHerb IMI (1958)IMI 147614
SenegalPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Herb IMI (1976); EPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresentAveling and Naude (1992); Thompson and Uys (1992); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
TunisiaPresentMoumni et al. (2020)
ZambiaPresentHerb IMI (1965)IMI 119632

Asia

ChinaPresentZhang XiuGuo and Zhang TianYu (2002); EPPO (2020)
-HainanPresentDu GongFu et al. (2016)
-YunnanPresentEPPO (2020)
IndiaPresentRao and Pavgi (1975); Srivastava (1979); Gupta and Pandey (1986); Sinha et al. (1995); Srivastava et al. (1995); Bhavya Mishra and Singh (2017); EPPO (2020)
-BiharPresentSinha et al. (1995); Sinha et al. (1998); EPPO (2020)
-HaryanaPresentGupta and Pandey (1986); Srivastava et al. (1995); Jakhar et al. (1996); EPPO (2020)
-Himachal PradeshPresentSugha and Suman Kumar (2005)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentShubana Bhat et al. (2008)
-KarnatakaPresentHerb IMI (1968)IMI 137752
-MaharashtraPresentPatil and Patil (1992); Harde et al. (2014); EPPO (2020)
-PunjabPresentPooja Salaria et al. (2020)
-RajasthanPresentHerb IMI (1965)IMI 113506. Jaipur.
IranPresentEPPO (2020); Arzanlou et al. (2012); Ahmadpour and Poursafar (2018)
IraqPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Herb IMI (Undated)
IsraelPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Herb IMI (1958); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentIchikawa and Sato (1994); Cho HyeSun and Yu SeungHun (1998); EPPO (2020)
-HokkaidoPresentMisawa (2009); Misawa et al. (2014)
MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Herb IMI (1989); EPPO (2020)
MyanmarPresentMaung Mya Thaung (2008)
NepalPresentHerb IMI (1965)IMI 114144
PakistanPresentHerb IMI (1968)IMI 134712
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Herb IMI (1979); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentCho HyeSun and Yu SeungHun (1998); EPPO (2020)
Sri LankaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Herb IMI (1986); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Wu et al. (2001); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentEPPO (2020); Polat et al. (2012); CABI (Undated)
United Arab EmiratesPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Herb IMI (1967); EPPO (2020)

Europe

BelgiumPresentDeckers and Schoofs (2005); CABI and EPPO (2006); EPPO (2020)
BulgariaPresentBobev (2009)
CyprusPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Herb IMI (1969); EPPO (2020)
DenmarkPresentEPPO (2020); Woudenberg et al. (2017)
FrancePresentBlancard et al. (1984); Blancard et al. (1989); Cugier and Humbert (1991); EPPO (2020)
GermanyPresentBohlen-Janssen et al. (2018); CABI (Undated)
GreecePresentEPPO (2020); Herb IMI (1961); Holevas et al. (2000)
ItalyPresentPorta-Puglia (1981); Ponti et al. (1988); Brunelli and Ponti (1989); Porta-Puglia et al. (2001); Alvisi et al. (2018); EPPO (2020)
NetherlandsPresentDeckers and Schoofs (2005); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
PolandPresentMulenko et al. (2008)
PortugalPresentWoudenberg et al. (2017); Tomaz and Lima (1986); EPPO (2020)
SlovakiaPresentHudec and Muchová (2008)
SpainPresentVilardell (1988); Basallote et al. (1993); Baroja Hernández (1999); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
SwedenPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Herb IMI (1984); EPPO (2020)
SwitzerlandPresentHeijne (2009)
UkrainePresentDudka et al. (2004)
United KingdomPresentEPPO (2020)
-EnglandPresentHerb IMI (1967)IMI 130781

North America

CanadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); EPPO (2020)
-Nova ScotiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Gourley (1983); EPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentFoster and McDonald (2018); Foster et al. (2019)
CubaPresentUrtiaga (1986)Source: US National Fungus Collections, ARS, USDA. Retrieved June 16, 2020, from https://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/
JamaicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Herb IMI (1976); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentZapata-Sarmiento et al. (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedMiller et al. (1978); Falloon et al. (1987); Johnson (1987); Shishkoff and Lorbeer (1989); EPPO (2020)
-ArizonaPresentAnon (2018)
-CaliforniaPresentFalloon et al. (1987); Anon (2018); EPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Herb IMI (1958); Miller (1998); EPPO (2020)
-MichiganPresentMeyer et al. (2000)
-New MexicoPresentAnon (2018)
-New YorkPresentSharma et al. (2020); Shishkoff and Lorbeer (1989); EPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentMiller et al. (1978); Shishkoff and Lorbeer (1989); EPPO (2020)
-WashingtonPresentJohnson (1987); Shishkoff and Lorbeer (1989); EPPO (2020)
-WisconsinPresentAnon (2018)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentSuheri and Price (2000); Suheri and Price (2001); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentSuheri and Price (2000); EPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Herb IMI (1968); Lowe and Langdon (1987); EPPO (2020)
-South AustraliaPresentSuheri and Price (2000); EPPO (2020)
-VictoriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Suheri and Price (2001a); Cunnington and Irvine (2005); EPPO (2020)
-Western AustraliaPresentHerb IMI (1965)IMI 114255
New ZealandPresentMenzies et al. (1992); Wright et al. (2019); EPPO (2020)
TongaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Dingley et al. (1981); EPPO (2020)
VanuatuPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); McKenzie (1989); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Frayssinet (2002); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresentBoiteux et al. (1994); EPPO (2020)
-GoiasPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Boiteux et al. (1994); EPPO (2020)
ChilePresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Herb IMI (1975); EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Herb IMI (1958); Cedeño et al. (2003); Cova and Rodríguez (2003); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / necrosis

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

References

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?u?ek A, 2008. Lime nitrogen to control apple scab and pear brown spot. (Apneni du?ik za zatiranje jablanovega ?krlupa in hru?eve rjave pegavosti.) SAD, Revija za Sadjarstvo, Vinogradni?tvo in Vinarstvo, 19(2):3-5. http://www.sad.si

Adam D; Stengel B, 1999. Asparagus. L'asperge., 304 pp.; 7 pp. of ref.

Arzanlou M; Khodaei S; Babai-Ahari A, 2012. Helianthus annuus as a natural host for Stemphylium vesicarium in Iran. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1):167-170. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-012-0076-4/fulltext.html

Aveling TAS; Naude SP, 1992. First report of Stemphylium vesicarium on garlic in South Africa. Plant Disease, 76(4):426

Basallote MJ; Centeno E; Melero JM; Perez de Algaba A; Prados AM, 1996. Manchas foliares ocasionadas por Stemphylium vesicarium en el cultivo del ajo. Phytoma España, 76:26-29.

Basallote MJ; Prados AM; Melero JM, 1998. Effectiveness of tebuconazole and procymidone in the control of Stemphylium leaf spots in garlic. Crop Protection, 17:491-495.

Basallote MJ; Prados AM; Perez de Algaba A; Melero-Vara JM, 1993. First report in Spain of two leaf spots of garlic caused by Stemphylium vesicarium. Plant Disease, 77(9):952

Basallote-Ureba MJ; Prados-Ligero AM; Melero-Vara JM, 1999. Aetiology of leaf spot of garlic and onion caused by Stemphylium vesicarium in Spain. Plant Pathology, 48(1):139-145; 25 ref.

Blancard D; Allard; E; Brest P, 1989. La stemphyliose du poirier ou 'macules brunes'. Phytoma, 406:35-37.

Blancard D; Piquemal J-P; Gindrat D, 1984. Stemphylium disease of asparagus. Revue Horticole, No.248:27-30

Boiteux LS; Lima MF; Menezes Sobrinho JA; Lopes CA, 1994. A garlic (Allium sativum) leaf blight caused by Stemphylium vesicarium in Brazil. Plant Pathology, 43(2):412-414

Bray RA; Irwin JAG, 1992. Medicago sativa L. (lucerne) cv. Quadrella. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 32(2):263

Broadhurst PG, 1996. Stemphylium disease tolerance in Asparagus officinalis L. Acta Horticulturae, No. 415:387-391; 10 ref.

Brunelli A, 1995. Asparagus: protection against rust. Informatore Agrario, 51(17):43-45.

Brunelli A; Gherardi I; Adani N, 1997. Reduced sensitivity of Stemphylium vesicarium, causal agent of pear brown spot, to dicarboximide fungicides. Informatore Fitopatologico, 47(9):44-48; 14 ref.

Brunelli R; Ponti I, 1989. A new disease of pear in Italy caused by Stemphylium vesicarium. FRUT - Revista de Fruticultura, 4(2):112-114

Brunelli R; Rovesti R; Di Marco S; Ponti I, 1986. Attivita di diversi fungicide contro la maculatura bruna del pero. Rivisita di Frutticoltura e Ortofloricoltura, 1:51-54.

Bugiani R; Gherardi I, 1998. New directions for the rationalization of defence of pear from brown spot. Informatore Fitopatologico, 48(6):65-70; 9 ref.

CABI/EPPO, 2006. Stemphyllium vesicarium. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 979. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Casulli F, 2001. The principal fungal diseases of asparagus. Informatore Agrario, 57(50):33-35.

Cavanni P; Ponti I, 1994. Brown rot of pear: a mycopathogen always topical. Rivista di Frutticoltura e di Ortofloricoltura, 56(12):37-42; 19 ref.

Chary SJ; Kumar BP; Reddy SM, 1980. Hitherto unrecorded post-harvest diseases of tomato. Indian Phytopathology, 33(4):624-625

Chiusa G; Stancanelli G; Rossi V; Falavigna A, 1993. Evaluation of resistance to Stemphylium vesicarium in asparagus hybrids and varieties. Agricoltura Ricerca, 15(141):49-54

Cho HyeSun; Yu SeungHun, 1998. Stemphylium vesicarium on garlic and other Allium spp. in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 14(6):567-570; 18 ref.

Cugier JP; Humbert W, 1991. Stemphyliose du poirier. Etude de la biologie du parasite et recherches des fongicides actifs. Phytoma La Défense des végétaux, 431:47-50.

Daljeet Singh; Dhiman JS; Sidhu AS; Hari Singh, 1992. Current status of onions in India: strategies for disease resistance breeding for sustained production. Onion Newsletter for the Tropics, No. 4:43-44

Darrag IE; Zayed MA; El-Mosallamy HM; El-Gantiry SM, 1982. Studies on Stemphylium leaf spot of soybean in Egypt. Agricultural Research Review, 60(2):93-103

Dhingra OD; Sinclair JB, 1985. Basic plant pathology methods. Boca Raton, Florida, USA; CRC Press, Inc., 341 pp.

Du GongFu; Qi ZhiQiang; Li BaoJu; Guo YingLan; Yang Yan, 2016. The diversity of anamorph fungi in reverse season vegetable areas of Hainan. Journal of Fungal Research, 14(3):142-148.

El-Samra LA; Mehiar FF, 1974. Stemphylium stripe disease on barley leaves. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology, 6:35-38

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Falloon PG; Falloon LM; Grogan RG, 1987. Etiology and epidemiology of Stemphylium leaf spot and purple spot of asparagus in California. Phytopathology, 77(3):407-413

Gupta RP; Pandey UB, 1986. Stemphylium blight of onion. A menace in north India. Indian Horticulture, 31(3):13

Hanlin RT, 1990. Illustrated genera of Ascomycetes. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, viii + 263 pp.

Hausbeck MK, 2003. Purple spot of Asparagus. Michigan State University Extension Bulletin 312.

Hausbeck MK; Hartwell J; Byrne JM, 1999. Epidemiology of Stemphylium leaf spot and purple spot in no-till asparagus. Acta Horticulturae, No. 479:205-210; 11 ref.

Heijne B, 2009. Inventory of the use of integrated measures. (Toepassing geïntegreerde maatregelen geïnventariseerd.) Fruitteelt (Den Haag), 99(3):10-11. http://www.nfofruit.nl

Heijne B; Mourik Jvan, 2001. Increases in black leaf spot in pears. Fruitteelt (Den Haag), 91(8):18-19.

Hudec K; Muchová D, 2008. Correlation between black point symptoms and fungal infestation and seedling viability of wheat kernels. Plant Protection Science, 44(4):138-146. http://www.cazv.cz

Ichikawa K; Sato T, 1994. Leaf and stem spot of aster caused by Stemphylium vesicarium. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 60(4):523-526; 20 ref.

Irwin JAG; Bray RA, 1991. Variation in virulence within the cool temperature biotype of Stemphylium vesicarium (Wallr.) Simmons, a lucerne leaf spot pathogen. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 31(6):793-795

Isidoro N; Azevedo J, 2003. Avaliaçao dos riscos de infecçao e reduçao de fungicidas contra a estenfiliose (Stemphylium vesicarium) em Pereira cv. Rocha, através do modelo BSPcast, na regiao do Oeste. World Wide Web page at www.agr.bayer.com.pt/download/estenfiliose.pdf.

Jakhar SS; Duhan JC; Suhag LS, 1996. Studies on the epidemiology and survival of Stemphylium vesicarium (Wallr.) Simmons in debris and seeds of onion. Seed Research, 24(2):135-140; 7 ref.

Jakhar SS; Suhag LS; Duhan JC, 1994. Prevalence and incidence of Stemphylium blight of onion (Allium cepa L.) and its management through cultural practices. Crop Research (Hisar), 8(3):562-564

Johnson DA, 1987. First report in Washington State of the teleomorph of Stemphylium vesicarium, the causal agent of purple spot of asparagus. Plant Disease, 71(2):192

Johnson DA; Lunden JD, 1986. Effects of wounding and wetting duration on infection of asparagus by Stemphylium vesicarium. Plant Disease, 70(5):419-420

Johnson GI; Sangchote S; Cooke AW, 1990. Control of stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) and other postharvest diseases of mangoes ( cv. Kensington Pride) during short- and long-term storage. Tropical Agriculture, 67(2):183-187

Kelly JF; Bai Y, 1999. Pre-senescence removal of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) fern. Acta Horticulturae, No. 479:427-430; 3 ref.

Lacy ML, 1982. Purple spot: a new disease of young asparagus spears caused by Stemphylium vesicarium. Plant Disease, 66(12):1198-1200

Lamprecht SC; Baxter A; Thompson AH, 1984. Stemphylium vesicarium on Medicago spp. in South Africa. Phytophylactica, 16(1):73-75

Lamprecht SC; Knox-Davies PS, 1984. Stemphylium vesicarium on lucerne (Medicago sativa) seeds in South Africa. Phytophylactica, 16(3):189-193

Llorente I; Montesinos E, 2002. Effect of relative humidity and interrupted wetness periods on brown spot severity of pear caused by Stemphylium vesicarium. Phytopathology, 92(1):99-104; 31 ref.

Llorente I; Moragrega C; Vilardell P; Montesinos E, 2000. STREP: a brown-spot disease predictor for scheduling fungicide sprays against Stemphylium vesicarium on pear. Bulletin OEPP, 30(1):143-148; 5 ref.

Llorente I; Vilardell P; Bugiani R; Gherardi I; Montesinos E, 2000. Evaluation of BSPcast disease warning system in reduced fungicide use programs for management of brown spot of pear. Plant Disease, 84(6):631-637; 37 ref.

Lowe KF; Langdon PW, 1987. Lucerne leaf spot diseases. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 113(2):69-70, 72

Marco S, 1984. Beet western yellows virus in Israel. Plant Disease, 68(2):162-163

Menzies SA; Broadhurst PG; Triggs CM, 1992. Stemphylium disease of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 20(4):427-433

Meyer MP; Hausbeck MK; Podolsky R, 2000. Optimal fungicide management of purple spot of asparagus and impact on yield. Plant Disease, 84(5):525-530; 17 ref.

Miller ME; Taber RA; Amador JM, 1978. Stemphylium blight of onion in South Texas. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(10):851-853

Misawa T, 2009. Species composition of causal agent of leaf bright of welsh onion in Hokkaido. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No.60:55-57. http://njp.ac.affrc.go.jp/index.html

Misawa T; Tomizawa Y; Ueno R; Sugawara A, 2014. Leaf blight of leek caused by Stemphylium vesicarium. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No.65:72-75. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/browse/kitanihon1966

Montesinos E; Moragrega C; Llorente I; Vilardell P, 1995. Susceptibility of selected European pear cultivars to infection by Stemphylium vesicarium and influence of leaf and fruit age. Plant Disease, 79(5):471-473

Montesinos E; Moragrega C; Llorente I; Vilardell P; Bonaterra A; Ponti I; Bugiani R; Cavanni P; Brunelli A, 1995. Development and evaluation of an infection model for Stemphylium vesicarium on pear based on temperature and wetness duration. Phytopathology, 85(5):586-592

Montesinos E; Vilardell P, 1992. Evaluation of FAST as a forecasting system for scheduling fungicide sprays for control of Stemphylium vesicarium on pear. Plant Disease, 76(12):1221-1226

Pathak CS; Black LL; Cherng SJ; Wang TC; Ko SS, 2001. Breeding onions for stemphylium leaf blight resistance. Acta Horticulturae, No.555:77-81; 13 ref.

Patil AO; Patil BC, 1992. Stemphylium leaf blight of onion. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 17(1):165-166

Pitblado RE, 1992. Development and implementation of Tom-Cast. Notario Ministry of Agriculture and Food Publications.

Ponti I; Brunelli A; Tosi C; Basaglia M; Bevilacqua T; Emiliani G; Cont C; Viccinelli R, 1993. Field tests on the activity of several preparations against pear brown spot. Informatore Fitopatologico, 43(5):45-52

Ponti I; Brunelli A; Tosi C; Cavallini G; Mazzini F, 1996. Aggiornamenti sull’attivita’ dei fungicide contro la maculatura bruna del pero. ATTI Giornate Fitopatologiche, 2:165-172.

Ponti I; Cavani P; Brunelli A, 1982. 'Maculatura bruna' delle pere: eziologia e difesa. Informatore Fitopatologico, 32:35-40.

Ponti I; Cavani P; Bugiani R, 1988. Maculatura bruna del pero. Informatore Agrario 28:55-59.

Porta-Puglia A, 1981. Stemphylium vesicarium (Wallr.) Simmons on tomato in the Marches. Annali dell'Istituto Sperimentale per la Patologia Vegetale Roma, 7:39-46

Porta-Puglia A; Conca G; Ortu P, 2001. Stemphylium vesicarium, a little known pathogen of tomatoes. Informatore Agrario, 57(40):73-74.

Prados-Ligero AM; Gonzßlez-And·jar JL; Melero-Vara JM; Basallote-Ureba MJ, 1998. Development of Pleospora allii on garlic debris infected by Stemphylium vesicarium. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 104(9):861-870; 22 ref.

Rao NNR; Pavgi MS, 1975. Stemphylium leaf blight of onion. Mycopathologia, 56(2):113-118

Shishkoff N; Lorbeer JW, 1989. Etiology of Stemphylium leaf blight of onion. Phytopathology, 79(3):301-304

Shubana Bhat; Beig MA; Vinay Sagar; Khan NA, 2008. First record of stemphylium blight of onion (Stemphylium vesicarium (Wallr.) E. Simmons) from Jammu & Kashmir. Applied Biological Research, 10(1/2):63-65. http://www.indianjournals.com

Simmons EG, 1969. Perfect stages of Stemphylium. Mycologia, 61:1-26.

Sinha RKP; Singh AP; Sinha BBP; Asghar SMA, 1995. Stemphylium blight: a new fungal disease of garlic (Allium sativum). Journal of Applied Biology, 5(1/2):93; 2 ref.

Srivastava PK; Sharma RC; Gupta RP, 1995. Effect of different fungicides on the control of purple blotch and Stemphylium blight diseases in onion seed crop. News Letter - National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation, 15(3):6-9; 6 ref.

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Suheri H; Price TV, 2000. Infection of onion leaves by Alternaria porri and Stemphylium vesicarium and disease development in controlled environments. Plant Pathology, 49(3):375-382; 25 ref.

Suheri H; Price TV, 2000. Stemphylium leaf blight of garlic (Allium sativum) in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 29(3):192-199; 25 ref.

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Vilardell P, 1988. Stemphylium vesicarium en plantaciones de peral. Fruticultura Profesional, 18:51-55.

Zhang XG; Zhang TY, 2002. Two new records of the genus Stemphylium in China. Mycosystema, 21:288-289.

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Distribution References

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