Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Planococcus lilacinus
(cacao mealybug)

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Datasheet

Planococcus lilacinus (cacao mealybug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Planococcus lilacinus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cacao mealybug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
P. lilacinus - slide mounted adult female.
TitleAdult female - line drawing
CaptionP. lilacinus - slide mounted adult female.
CopyrightBeatrice Padi (modified from Cox, 1989)
P. lilacinus - slide mounted adult female.
Adult female - line drawingP. lilacinus - slide mounted adult female.Beatrice Padi (modified from Cox, 1989)
P. lilacinus (2.7mm) on cocoa pod.
TitleP. lilacinus on cocoa
CaptionP. lilacinus (2.7mm) on cocoa pod.
CopyrightPeter A.C. Ooi/Tropical Press Sdn Bnd
P. lilacinus (2.7mm) on cocoa pod.
P. lilacinus on cocoaP. lilacinus (2.7mm) on cocoa pod.Peter A.C. Ooi/Tropical Press Sdn Bnd

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Planococcus lilacinus Cock

Preferred Common Name

  • cacao mealybug

Other Scientific Names

  • Dactylopius coffeae Newstead
  • Dactylopius crotonis Green
  • Planococcus crotonis (Green)
  • Planococcus deceptor
  • Planococcus tayabanus (Cockerell)
  • Pseudococcus coffeae (Newstead)
  • Pseudococcus crotonis (Green)
  • Pseudococcus deceptor Betrem
  • Pseudococcus lilacinus Cockerell
  • Pseudococcus tayabanus Cockerell
  • Tylococcus mauritiensis Mamet

International Common Names

  • English: coffee mealybug

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Asiatische Kaffee-Schmierlaus; Kaffeewurzel-Schmierlaus

EPPO code

  • PLANLI (Planococcus lilacinus)
  • PSECDE (Pseudococcus deceptor)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Pseudococcidae
  •                                     Genus: Planococcus
  •                                         Species: Planococcus lilacinus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

ComorosPresent
KenyaPresent, Few occurrences
MadagascarPresent
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresent
RéunionPresent
SeychellesPresent

Asia

BangladeshPresent
BhutanPresent
BruneiPresent
CambodiaPresent
Cocos IslandsPresent
IndiaPresent, Localized
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-OdishaPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-Irian JayaPresent
-JavaPresent
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresent
-SulawesiPresent
JapanPresent, Localized
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresent, Localized
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent, Localized
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MaldivesPresent
MyanmarPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresent
YemenPresent

North America

Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresent
HaitiPresent

Oceania

Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
GuamPresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent

South America

GuyanaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / premature drop
Growing point / dieback
Inflorescence / wilt
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / necrosis
Whole plant / wilt

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aenasius lepelleyi Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Aenasius subbaraoi Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Anagyrus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Anagyrus pseudococci Parasite
Brumoides suturalis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccodiplosis smithi Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs India
Eublemma scitula Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Mallada boninensis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Miletus boisduvali Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Promuscidea unfasciativentris Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pseudaphycus orientalis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pseudoscymnus pallidicollis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Scymnus apiciflavus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Scymnus roepkei Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Spalgis epeus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Tetracnemoidea indica Parasite
Triommata coccidivora Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs

References

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1978. Thirtyfirst annual report 1977-78. Report, Coffee Board Research Department, India, [2+] 53 pp.

Ananda, N., Kotikal, Y. K., Balikai, R. A., 2009. Management practices for major sucking pests of pomegranate. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 22(4), 790-795.

Ananda, N., Kotikal, Y. K., Balikai, R. A., 2009. Sucking insect and mite pests of pomegranate and their natural enemies. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 22(4), 781-783.

Avasti RK; Saafe SA, 1987. Indian Pseudococcidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Indian Journal of Systematic Entomology, 4:1-54.

BEARDSLEY jr., J. W. , 1966. Insects of Micronesia. Homoptera: Coccoidea. Insects of Micronesia, 6(7), 3+] 377-562 pp.

Beardsley JW, 1966. Insects of Micronesia, 6(7):434-435.

Beevi, S. P., Mahapatro, G. K., 2008. Species-spectrum and inter-relationship between ant and spider fauna in cashew agro-ecosystem. Journal of Plantation Crops, 36(3), 375-381.

Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK; Intercept Limited, 686 pp.

Bhat PK; Shamanna HV, 1972. Some new collateral hosts of Planococcus lilacinus from South India. Journal of Coffee Research, 2(2):27

Brough EJ, 1980. Citrus entomology in Papua New Guinea. News Bulletin, Entomological Society of Queensland, 14:43-47.

Butani DK, 1976. Insect pests of fruit crops and their control - custard apple. Pesticides, 10(5):27-28

Butani DK, 1978. Insect pests of tamarind and their control. Pesticides, 12(11):34-41

Cayabyab, B. F., Villavicencio, E. B., Limosinero, R. L., Villancio, V. T., Garcia, J. N. M., 2017. Survey of insect pests and diseases of Gabing San Fernando, Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott and Melet in selected areas of Luzon and Zamboanga City, Philippines. Journal of ISSAAS (International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences), 23(2), 94-102. http://www.issaas.org/journal/v23/02/journal-issaas-v23n2-08-cayabyab-et-al.pdf

Chacko MJ; Bhat PK; Rao LVAnanda; Deepak Singh MB; Ramanarayan EP; Sreedharan K, 1978. The use of the ladybird beetle, Cryptolpmus montrouzieri for the control of coffee mealybugs. Journal of Coffee Research, 8(1):14-19

Chacko MJ; Bhat PKrishnamoorthy; Ramanarayan EP, 1977. New records of Coccoidea with notes on natural enemies of Planococcus spp. on coffee in India. Journal of Coffee Research, 7(3):69-71

Chacko MJ; Sreedharan K, 1981. Predation of Mallada boninensis on Ferrisia virgata, Planococcus citri and P. lilacinus. Journal of Biological Control, 4(2):122-123.

Chacko, M. J., Krishnamoorthy Bhat, P., Ramanarayan, E. P., 1977. New records of Coccoidea with notes on natural enemies of Planococcus spp. on coffee in India. Journal of Coffee Research, 7(3), 69-71.

Chacko, M. J., Sreedharan, K., 1981. Control of Planococcus lilacinus and Diacanthodes sp. associated with coffee roots. Journal of Coffee Research, 11(3), 76-80.

Cox JM, 1989. The mealybug genus Planococcus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology, 58(1):1-78

Dayan MP; Baltazar EM, 1990. Survey, identification and pathogenicity of pests and diseases of bamboo in the Philippines. Proceedings of the first National Bamboo Symposium-Workshop, February 27-March 01, 1989. Sylvatrop, 13(1-2):61-77.

Devasahayam, S., Koya, K. M. A., Anandaraj, M., Thomas, T., Preethi, N., 2009. Distribution and ecology of root mealybugs associated with black pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) in Karnataka and Kerala, India. Entomon, 34(3), 147-154.

Dhandapani N; Gopalan M; Sundarababu PC, 1992. Evaluation of insecticides for the control of mealy bugs, (Planococcus lilacinus, Ckll.) in jasmine. Madras Agricultural Journal, 79(1):54-55

Entwistle PF, 1972. Pests of cocoa. London, UK: Longman, 779 pp.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fernando LCP; Kanagaratnam P, 1987. New records of some pests of the coconut inflorescence and developing fruit and their natural enemies in Sri Lanka. COCOS, 5:39-42.

Fernando, L. C. P., Kanagaratnam, P., 1987. New records of some pests of the coconut inflorescence and developing fruit and their natural enemies in Sri Lanka. COCOS, 5, 39-42.

Ferris GF, 1950. Atlas of the Scale Insects of North America. Series V. The Pseudococeidae (Part I). Stanford Univ. Pr., California; London, G. Cumberlege, Oxford Univ. Pr., vii+ 278 pp.

Graham MK, 1991. Biological control of Helopeltis spp. in mature cocoa by the black ant (Dolichoderus bituberculatus) and the cocoa mealybug (Planococcus lilacinus). Planter, 67(788):543-546

Green, E. E., 1922. Dulau & Co., Ltd.1-472. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/8551#/summary

IIE, 1995. Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A, No. 101. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Kotikal, Y. K., Ananda, N., Balikai, R. A., 2011. Seasonal incidence of major sucking pests of pomegranate and their relation with weather parameters in India. Acta Horticulturae, (No.890), 589-596. http://www.actahort.org/books/890/890_83.htm

Krishnamoorthy, A., Mani, M., 1998. Biological control of oriental mealybug, Planococcus lilacinus (Ckll.) on chow-chow. In: Advances in IPM for horticultural crops. Proceedings of the First National Symposium on Pest Management in Horticultural Crops: environmental implications and thrusts, Bangalore, India, 15-17 October 1997 [Advances in IPM for horticultural crops. Proceedings of the First National Symposium on Pest Management in Horticultural Crops: environmental implications and thrusts, Bangalore, India, 15-17 October 1997], [ed. by Reddy, P. P., Kumar, N. K. K., Verghese, A.]. Bangalore, India: Association for Advancement of Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research. 207-209.

Kumar MG; Bhat PK; Ramaiah PK, 1989. Potential role of kerosene and neem derivatives in integrated management of mealybugs on coffee. Journal of Coffee Research, 19(1):17-29

Kumar PKV; Prakasan CB, 1992. Soil application of systemic insecticides for mealybug control. Journal of Coffee Research, 22(1):65-68

Le Pelley RH, 1943. An Oriental mealybug (Pseudococcus lilacinus Ckll.) (Hemiptera) and its insect enemies. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 93(1):73-93.

Loganathan, M., Suresh, S., 2001. A record of mealybug, Planococcus lilacinus (Cockrell) (Pseudococcidae : Hemiptera) on cauliflower. Insect Environment, 7(1), 11-12.

Mani M, 1995. Comparative development, progeny production and sex ratio of the exotic parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hym., Encyrtidae) on Planococcus lilacinus and P. citri (Homop., Pseudococcidae). Entomon, 20(1):23-26

Mani M, 1995. Studies on the natural enemies of oriental mealybug, Planococcus lilacinus (Ckll.) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in India. Journal of Entomological Research, 19(1):61-70

Mani M; Krishnamoorthy A, 1990. Predation of Mallada boninensis on Ferrisia virgata, Planococcus citri and P. lilacinus. Journal of Biological Control, 4(2):122-123

Mani, M., 1995. Studies on the natural enemies of oriental mealybug, Planococcus lilacinus (Ckll.) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in India. Journal of Entomological Research, 19(1), 61-70.

Mani, M., Krishnamoorthy, A., 2000. Biological suppression of mealybugs Planococcus citri (Risso) and Planococcus lilacinus (Ckll.) on pomegranate in India. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 28(2), 187-189.

McKenzie HL, 1967. Mealybugs of California, with taxonomy, biology, and control of North American species (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). viii+526 pp.

Mele, P. van, Cuc, N. T. T., 2001. Farmer's perceptions and practices in use of Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for biological control of pests of sapodilla. Biological Control, 20(1), 23-29. doi: 10.1006/bcon.2000.0878

Misra, C. S., 1923. A list Coccidae in the Pusa collection. In: Rep Proc Vth Ent Meet Pusa Calcutta . 345-351. https://www.passeidireto.com/arquivo/79506816/industrial-entomology-2017/50

Nagarkatti S; Singh SP; Jayanth KP; Bhummannavar BS, 1992. Introduction and establishment of Leptomastix dactylopii How. against Planococcus spp. in India. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 20(1):102-104

Nguyen, T. K., Vo, T. K. L., Nguyen, T. L., Tran, T. T. A., Nguyen, H. H. T., 2016. Phytosanitary irradiation of the mealybugs, Dysmicoccus neobrevipes, Planococcus lilacinus, and Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), infesting dragon fruit in Viet Nam. Florida Entomologist, 99. https://journals.flvc.org/flaent/article/view/88693

Noyes JS; Hayat M, 1994. Oriental mealybug parasitoids of the Anagyrini (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Wallingford, UK; CAB International, viii + 554 pp.

Pelley RH le, 1968. Pests of Coffee. London and Harlow, UK: Longmans, Green and Co Ltd.

Pillai GB, 1987. Integrated pest management in plantation crops. Journal of Coffee Research, 17(1):150-153

Prakasan CB, 1987. Biological control of coffee pests. Journal of Coffee Research, 17(1):114-117

Rahiman, P. A., Naik, P. R., 2009. Distribution of coffee mealy bug species in Wayanad district of Kerala. Journal of Coffee Research, 37(1/2), 82-86.

Reddy KB; Prakasan CB; Bhat PK; Kumar AC, 1992. Establishment of Leptomastix dactylopii How. (Hym.: Encyrtidae) in Karnataka for control of Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hom.: Pseudococcidae) of coffee. Journal of Coffee Research, 22(1):37-44

Reyne, A., 1961. Scale insects from Dutch New Guinea. Beaufortia, 8, 121 - 167. https://archive.org/details/beaufortia-8-121-167/mode/2up

Sartiami, D., Watson, G. W., Mohamad Roff, M. N., Idris, A. B., 2016. New Indonesian country records and species information for mealybugs (Hemiptera Pseudococcidae) in Wirjati's historic collection. Redia, 99, 155-161. http://www.redia.it/images/stories/pdf2016/21%20Dewi-Sartiani%20corr%201__.pdf

Sekhar PS, 1964. Pests of coffee. In: Entomology in India. Indian Journal of Entomology, 99-109.

Shukla RP; Tandon PL, 1984. Indiainsect pests on custard apple. Plant Protection Bulletin, FAO, 32(1):31

Sirisena, U. G. A. I., Watson, G. W., Hemachandra, K. S., Wijayagunasekara, H. N. P., 2013. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) species on economically important fruit crops in Sri Lanka. Tropical Agricultural Research, 25(1), 69-82. http://www.pgia.ac.lk/sites/default/files/congress/journel/v25/Journal-No%201/Papers/7%20U.G.A.I.%20Sirisena_final_final_edited.pdf

Suresh, S., Mohanasundaram, M., 1996. Coccoid (Coccoidea: Homoptera) fauna of Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Entomological Research, 20(3), 233-274.

Szent-Ivany JJH; Catley A, 1960. Host plant and distribution records of some insects in New Guinea and adjacent islands. Pacific Insects, 2:255-261.

Takahashi R, 1942. Report Government Agricultural Research Institute, Taiwan, 81:10.

Tandon PL; Verghese A, 1987. New insect pests of certain fruit crops. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 44(1-2):121-122

van der Goot P, 1917. De zwarte cacao-mier (Dolichoderus bituberculatus, Mayr.) en haar Beteekenis voor de cacaocultuur op Java, Meded. Proefst. Midden-Java, Salatiga, 25:142pp.

Veenakumari, K., Mohanraj, P., Bandyopadhyay, A. K., 1997. Insect herbivores and their natural enemies in the mangals of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Journal of Natural History, 31(7), 1105-1126. doi: 10.1080/00222939700770581

Watson GW; Cox JM, 1990. Identity of the African coffee root mealybug, with descriptions of two new species of Planococcus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 80(1):99-105

Wen HungChich, Lu FengMing, Hao HsiouHwa, Liou TsungDao, 2002. Insects pests and their injuries and control on longan in Southern Taiwan. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 51(3), 56-64.

Williams DJ, 1982. The distribution of the mealybug genus Planococcus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Melanesia, Polynesia and Kiribati. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 72(3):441-455

Williams DJ; Granara de Willink MC, 1992. Mealybugs of Central and South America. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Williams DJ; Matile-Ferrero D; Martin JH, 2001. The mealybug Planococcus lilacinus (Cockerell) in Africa (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 106(3):259-260.

Williams DJ; Watson GW, 1988. Scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 2. Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae). Wallingford, Oxon, UK; CAB International, 260 pp.

Williams, D. J., 1981. New records of some important mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 71(2), 385-387. doi: 10.1007/s12600-011-0178-0

Williams, D. J., 2004. Mealybugs of Southern Asia. Malaysia: Natural History Museum/Southdene Sdn Bhd .1-896. https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201300113934

Williams, D. J., Miller, D. R., 2010. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of the Krakatau Islands including species from adjacent Java. Zootaxa, 2451, 43-52. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/

Distribution References

Ananda N, Kotikal Y K, Balikai R A, 2009. Sucking insect and mite pests of pomegranate and their natural enemies. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 22 (4), 781-783.

BEARDSLEY jr J W, 1966. Insects of Micronesia. Homoptera: Coccoidea. Insects of Micronesia. 6 (7), 3+] 377-562 pp.

Beevi S P, Mahapatro G K, 2008. Species-spectrum and inter-relationship between ant and spider fauna in cashew agro-ecosystem. Journal of Plantation Crops. 36 (3), 375-381.

Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. In: A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK: Intercept Limited. 686 pp.

Butani D K, 1978. Insect pests of tamarind and their control. Pesticides. 12 (11), 34-41.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cayabyab B F, Villavicencio E B, Limosinero R L, Villancio V T, Garcia J N M, 2017. Survey of insect pests and diseases of Gabing San Fernando, Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott and Melet in selected areas of Luzon and Zamboanga City, Philippines. Journal of ISSAAS (International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences). 23 (2), 94-102. http://www.issaas.org/journal/v23/02/journal-issaas-v23n2-08-cayabyab-et-al.pdf

Chacko M J, Sreedharan K, 1981. Control of Planococcus lilacinus and Diacanthodes sp. associated with coffee roots. Journal of Coffee Research. 11 (3), 76-80.

Cox J M, 1989. The mealybug genus Planococcus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology. 58 (1), 1-78.

Dhandapani N, Gopalan M, Sundarababu P C, 1992. Evaluation of insecticides for the control of mealy bugs, (Planococcus lilacinus, Ckll.) in jasmine. Madras Agricultural Journal. 79 (1), 54-55.

EPPO, 2014. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Fernando L C P, Kanagaratnam P, 1987. New records of some pests of the coconut inflorescence and developing fruit and their natural enemies in Sri Lanka. COCOS. 39-42.

Gavrilov-Zimin I A, 2013. New scale insects (Homoptera: Coccinea) from Sulawesi and New Guinea, with some other additions to the Indonesian fauna. Tropical Zoology. 26 (2), 64-86. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/ttzo20/current

Germain J-F, Attie M, Barbet A, Franck A, Quilici S, 2008. New scale insects recorded for the Comoros and Seychelles Islands. [Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies], USA: ISA Press. 129-135. http://agritrop.cirad.fr/550988/1/document_550988.pdf

Green E E, 1922. Dulau & Co., Ltd. 1-472. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/8551#/summary

Kotikal Y K, Ananda N, Balikai R A, 2011. Seasonal incidence of major sucking pests of pomegranate and their relation with weather parameters in India. Acta Horticulturae. 589-596. http://www.actahort.org/books/890/890_83.htm

Kumar P K V, Prakasan C B, 1992. Soil application of systemic insecticides for mealybug control. Journal of Coffee Research. 22 (1), 65-68.

Le Pelley R H, 1943. An Oriental Mealybug (Pseudococcus lilacinus Ckll.) (Hemiptera) and its Insect Enemies. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London. 93 (pt. 1), 73-93 pp.

Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A, 1990. Predation of Mallada boninensis on Ferrisia virgata, Planococcus citri and P. lilacinus. Journal of Biological Control. 4 (2), 122-123.

Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A, 2000. Biological suppression of mealybugs Planococcus citri (Risso) and Planococcus lilacinus (Ckll.) on pomegranate in India. Indian Journal of Plant Protection. 28 (2), 187-189.

Mele P van, Cuc N T T, 2001. Farmer's perceptions and practices in use of Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for biological control of pests of sapodilla. Biological Control. 20 (1), 23-29. DOI:10.1006/bcon.2000.0878

Misra C S, 1923. A list Coccidae in the Pusa collection. In: Rep Proc Vth Ent Meet Pusa Calcutta, 345-351. https://www.passeidireto.com/arquivo/79506816/industrial-entomology-2017/50

Mitra B, Ghosh J, Chakraborti U, Biswas O, Roy S, Roy A B, 2015. Entomofaunal Diversity of Bhibhuti Bhusan Wild Life Sanctuary, West Bengal. Journal of Global Biosciences. 4 (7), 2795-2807. https://www.mutagens.co.in/jgb/vol.04/7/040721.pdf

Nguyen T K, Vo T K L, Nguyen T L, Tran T T A, Nguyen H H T, 2016. Phytosanitary irradiation of the mealybugs, Dysmicoccus neobrevipes, Planococcus lilacinus, and Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), infesting dragon fruit in Viet Nam. Florida Entomologist. https://journals.flvc.org/flaent/article/view/88693

Pillai G B, 1987. Integrated pest management in plantation crops. In: Journal of Coffee Research, 17 (1) 150-153.

Rahiman P A, Naik P R, 2009. Distribution of coffee mealy bug species in Wayanad district of Kerala. Journal of Coffee Research. 37 (1/2), 82-86.

Reddy K B, Prakasan C B, Bhat P K, Kumar A C, 1992. Establishment of Leptomastix dactylopii How. (Hym.: Encyrtidae) in Karnataka for control of Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hom.: Pseudococcidae) of coffee. Journal of Coffee Research. 22 (1), 37-44.

Reyne A, 1961. Scale insects from Dutch New Guinea. Beaufortia. 121 - 167. https://archive.org/details/beaufortia-8-121-167/mode/2up

Sartiami D, Watson G W, Mohamad Roff M N, Idris A B, 2016. New Indonesian country records and species information for mealybugs (Hemiptera Pseudococcidae) in Wirjati's historic collection. Redia. 155-161. http://www.redia.it/images/stories/pdf2016/21%20Dewi-Sartiani%20corr%201__.pdf

Shukla R P, Tandon P L, 1984. India-insect pests on custard apple. Plant Protection Bulletin, FAO. 32 (1), 31.

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