Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Plasmodiophora brassicae
(club root)

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Datasheet

Plasmodiophora brassicae (club root)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 17 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Plasmodiophora brassicae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • club root
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Protista
  •     Phylum: Protozoa
  •       Class: Plasmodiophoromycetes
  •         Order: Plasmodiophorales
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Plasmodiophora brassicae is a root-infecting protist pathogen that causes clubroot disease in brassica species. The organism is soil-borne and has long-lived resting spores that can survive in soil for more tha...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Plasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); initial foliar wilting is followed by reddening of the leaves.
TitleFoliar symptoms on cabbage
CaptionPlasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); initial foliar wilting is followed by reddening of the leaves.
Copyright©AgrEvo
Plasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); initial foliar wilting is followed by reddening of the leaves.
Foliar symptoms on cabbagePlasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); initial foliar wilting is followed by reddening of the leaves.©AgrEvo
Plasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on cabbage roots.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPlasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on cabbage roots.
Copyright©Thorsten Kraska/University of Bonn, Germany
Plasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on cabbage roots.
SymptomsPlasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on cabbage roots.©Thorsten Kraska/University of Bonn, Germany
Plasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on broccoli roots.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPlasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on broccoli roots.
Copyright©Thorsten Kraska/University of Bonn, Germany
Plasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on broccoli roots.
SymptomsPlasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on broccoli roots.©Thorsten Kraska/University of Bonn, Germany
Plasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on cauliflower.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPlasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on cauliflower.
Copyright©AgrEvo
Plasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on cauliflower.
SymptomsPlasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on cauliflower.©AgrEvo
Plasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on cabbage roots.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPlasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on cabbage roots.
Copyright©AgrEvo
Plasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on cabbage roots.
SymptomsPlasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on cabbage roots.©AgrEvo
Plasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on cabbage roots.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPlasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on cabbage roots.
Copyright©Thorsten Kraska/University of Bonn, Germany
Plasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on cabbage roots.
SymptomsPlasmodiophora brassicae (cabbage club root); symptoms on cabbage roots.©Thorsten Kraska/University of Bonn, Germany

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin (1877)

Preferred Common Name

  • club root

International Common Names

  • English: cabbage club root; club root of cabbage; club root of crucifers; clubroot disease of cabbage; crucifers club root; finger and toe
  • Spanish: hernia de la col
  • French: gros-pied des cruciferes; hernie des cruciferes; hernie du chou; maladie digitaire des cruciferes
  • Portuguese: hérnia-das-crucíferas

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Knotensucht: Kohl; Kohlhernie; Kropfkrankheit: Kohl

EPPO code

  • PLADBR (Plasmodiophora brassicae)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Plasmodiophora brassicae is a root-infecting protist pathogen that causes clubroot disease in brassica species. The organism is soil-borne and has long-lived resting spores that can survive in soil for more than 15 years. Local spread of motile zoospores can be facilitated by wet conditions but most dispersal of the pathogen is through the movement of infested soil. P. brassicae has a wide host range in the brassica family including numerous weed species. Control of the disease is difficult but clubroot can be managed by a combination of crop rotation, varietal resistance, improved agronomic practice such as improved drainage and the application of lime of related products to raise pH which can limit the effects of the disease. There are currently no effective fungicides for the widespread control of clubroot. Yield losses range from 10 to 15% but can exceed 50% under disease conducive environmental conditions.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Protista
  •         Phylum: Protozoa
  •             Class: Plasmodiophoromycetes
  •                 Order: Plasmodiophorales
  •                     Family: Plasmodiophoraceae
  •                         Genus: Plasmodiophora
  •                             Species: Plasmodiophora brassicae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
MalawiPresentMazuma et al. (2008); CABI/EPPO (2011)
São Tomé and PríncipePresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
South AfricaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)

Asia

BruneiPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-AnhuiPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-BeijingPresentEPPO (2020)
-ChongqingPresentEPPO (2020)
-FujianPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-GansuPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-GuangxiPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-GuizhouPresentEPPO (2020)
-HeilongjiangPresentEPPO (2020)
-HenanPresentEPPO (2020)
-HubeiPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-HunanPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-JiangsuPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-JiangxiPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-JilinPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-LiaoningPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-ShaanxiPresentEPPO (2020)
-ShandongPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-SichuanPresentWang XuYi et al. (2002); CABI/EPPO (2011); Ren et al. (2014); EPPO (2020)
-TibetPresentEPPO (2020)
-YunnanPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-ZhejiangPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
Hong KongPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-Tamil NaduPresentLoganathan et al. (2001); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-West BengalPresentSen (2005); CABI/EPPO (2011)
IndonesiaPresentYamada et al. (2004); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-JavaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
IraqPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
IsraelPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-HokkaidoPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-KyushuPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
KyrgyzstanPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020); Herb IMI (Undated)
NepalPresent, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2011); IPPC (2005)
North KoreaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentMuhammad Shuaib and Khan (2008); CABI/EPPO (2011)
PhilippinesPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
SingaporeAbsent, EradicatedAVA (2001)
South KoreaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
Sri LankaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)

Europe

AustriaPresent, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
BelarusPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
BelgiumPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
CroatiaPresentCvjetković (2008); CABI/EPPO (2011)
CzechiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
CzechoslovakiaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2014)
DenmarkPresent, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
EstoniaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
Faroe IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
FinlandPresent, LocalizedCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
FrancePresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
GreecePresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
HungaryPresent, LocalizedCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
IcelandPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
IrelandPresent, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-SardiniaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
LatviaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
LithuaniaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
LuxembourgPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
MontenegroPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
NetherlandsPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
NorwayPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
PolandPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
PortugalPresent, LocalizedCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-AzoresPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
RomaniaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-Eastern SiberiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-Russia (Europe)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Western SiberiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
SerbiaPresentTodorović (2007); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentUK, CAB International (1977)
SlovakiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
SpainPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
SwedenPresent, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
SwitzerlandPresent, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
UkrainePresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-Channel IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-EnglandPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-Northern IrelandPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-ScotlandPresent, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)

North America

CanadaPresent, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-AlbertaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-British ColumbiaPresentXue et al. (2008); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-ManitobaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-New BrunswickPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-Nova ScotiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-OntarioPresentXue et al. (2008); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-QuebecPresentPageau et al. (2006); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-SaskatchewanPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
GuatemalaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
MexicoPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-AlaskaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-ColoradoPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-ConnecticutPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-DelawarePresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-FloridaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-HawaiiPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-IllinoisPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-IowaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-LouisianaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-MainePresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-MarylandPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-MassachusettsPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); CABI (Undated)
-MichiganPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-MinnesotaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-MissouriPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-New HampshirePresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-New JerseyPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-New YorkPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-North DakotaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); Chittem et al. (2014); EPPO (2020)
-OhioPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-OklahomaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-OregonPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-Rhode IslandPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-South CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-TexasPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-VermontPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-WashingtonPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-West VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-WisconsinPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-South AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-TasmaniaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-VictoriaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); Khangura and Wright (2012); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
Papua New GuineaPresent, LocalizedCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-ParanaPresentLima et al. (2004); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentEPPO (2020)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-Sao PauloPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
ChilePresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
ColombiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
GuyanaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Roots / galls along length
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Roots / stubby roots

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal productionInfested soil can be moved by livestock Yes
Crop productionP. brassicae resting spores can survive upwards of fifteen years. Infested soil can be easily moved on machinery, livestock, people, or by the environment. Yes Yes Wallenhammar, 1996
HitchhikerInfested soil can be moved on footwear Yes Wallenhammar et al., 2016
HorticultureInfected plants could be moved long distance Yes
People foragingInfested soil can be moved on footwear Yes Wallenhammar et al., 2016
ResearchInfested soil or disease roots could be distributed globally for research purposes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsInfested soil can be moved on footwear Yes Wallenhammar et al., 2016
Host and vector organismsInfested soil can be moved on livestock Yes
Machinery and equipmentInfested soil can be easily moved on machinery Yes Yes
Plants or parts of plantsInfected plants could be moved long distance Yes
Soil, sand and gravelP. brassicae resting spores can survive upwards of fifteen years. Infested soil can be easily moved on machinery, livestock, people, or by the environment. Yes Yes Wallenhammar, 1996

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants spores Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots plasmodia; sporangia Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants plasmodia; sporangia Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Antagonistic (micro-organisms)
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

References

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Aist JR, Williams PH, 1971. The cytology and kinetics of cabbage root hair penetration by Plasmodiophora brassicae. Canadian Journal of Botany, 49(11):2023-2034

Anon., 1999. Swedish Seed and Oilseed Growers' Association, Annual report. Alnarp, Sweden.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA)

Arie T, Kobayashi Y, Okada G, Kono Y, Yamaguchi I, 1998. Control of soilborne clubroot disease of cruciferous plants by epoxydon from Phoma glomerata. Plant Pathology, 47(6):743-748; 20 ref

Arie T, Watanabe T, Tohyama A, Hayashi H, Fukaya T, 1994. Control of clubroot disease of Chinese cabbage with a composite material of coral reef rock and fluazinam. Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, 1:520

Asano, T., Kageyama, K., 2006. Growth and movement of secondary plasmodia of Plasmodiophora brassicae in turnip suspension-culture cells. Plant Pathology, 55(1), 145-151. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=ppa doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2006.01320.x

Ashizawa M, Yoshikawa H, Hida K, Kameno T, Morita I, Takatsuka K(Takatuka K), 1978. Studies on breeding for resistance to clubroot in Brassica. I. Screening breeding material for resistance. Bulletin of the Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Research Station, A (Yasai Shikenjo Hokoku, A), 4:1-25

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Borges Mde LV, Sequeira JC, 1996. Soil solarization and phytosanitary problems of Brassica. Acta Horticulturae, No. 407:461-468; 20 ref

Bradshaw JE, Gemmell DJ, Wilson RN, 1997. Transfer of resistance to clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) to swedes (Brassica napus L. var. napobrassica Peterm) from B. rapa. Annals of Applied Biology, 130(2):337-348; 28 ref

Braselton, JP, 1995. Current status of the plasmodiophorids. Critical Review of Microbiology, 21:263-275

Buczacki ST, 1973. Glasshouse evaluation of some systemic fungicides for control of clubroot of brassicae. Annals of Applied Biology, 74(1):85-90

Buczacki ST, 1983. Plasmodiophora. An Inter-relationship Between Biological and Practical Problems. In:Buczacki ST, ed. Zoosporic Plant Pathogens. London, UK:Academic Press, 161-191

Buczacki ST, et al. , 1977. Fungal diseases. In: 27th Annual Report for 1976, National Vegetable Research Station. Wellesbourne, UK: National Vegetable Research Station, 93-102

Buczacki ST, Ockendon JG, White JG, 1974. Fungal diseases. In: 25th Annual Report for 1974, National Vegetable Research Station. Wellesbourne, UK: National Vegetable Research Station, 108-114

Buczacki ST, Toxopeus H, Mattusch P, Johnston TD, Dixon GR, Hobolth LA, 1975. Study of physiologic specialization in Plasmodiophora brassicae: proposals for attempted rationalization through an international approach. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 65(2):295-303

Bunin MS, Yoshikawa H, 1991. Selection of sources of resistance to main diseases of cabbage family from Japanese genetic collections of Daikon. Doklady Vsesoyuzn. Akad. Sel'skokhoz. Nauk Im V. I. Lenina Nr 11:30-35

Butcher DN, El-Tigani S, Ingram DS, 1974. The role of indole glucosinolates in the club root disease of the Cruciferae. Physiological Plant Pathology, 4(1):127-140

Böhner K, 1922. Vom Kohlkropf. FrSnkisher Kurirer. Nurnberg 8, No. 111. (In: Colhoun J, 1958. Clubroot disease of crucifers caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae Woron. Phytopathological Paper No 3. Kew, Surrey, UK:CMI, 1-107)

CABI/EPPO, 2011. Plasmodiophora brassicae. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 101 (Edition 4)

Chai, A. L., Li, J. P., Xie, X. W., Shi, Y. X., Li, B. J., 2016. Dissemination of Plasmodiophora brassicae in livestock manure detected by qPCR. Plant Pathology, 65(1), 137-144. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ppa.12391/abstract doi: 10.1111/ppa.12391

Chattopadhyay AK, Bagchi BN, 1989. Occurrence of club root disease on rapeseed mustard in West Bengal. Indian Journal of Mycological Research, 27(1):83-84

Chiang MS, Crete R, 1970. Inheritance of clubroot resistance in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.). Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology, 12(2):253-256

Chittem K, Mansouripour SM, Mendoza LEdel R, 2014. First report of clubroot on canola caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae in North Dakota. Plant Disease, 98(10):1438. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Christenssen CJ, Harder P, Ravn FK, 1909. Unders¢gelser over Forholdet mellem Jordbundens beskaffenhet og Kaalbroksvampen optraedens i Egnen mellem Aarhus og Silkeborg. Tidsskr. Landbr. Planteavl, 16:430-476

Colhoun J, 1953. Observations on the incidence of club-root disease of Brassicae in limed soils in relation to temperature. Annals of Applied Biology, 40(4):639-644

Colhoun J, 1958. Clubroot disease of crucifers caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae Woron. Phytopathological Paper No 3. Kew, Surrey, UK:CMI, 1-107

Colhoun J, 1961. Spore load, light intensity and plant nutrition as factors influencing the incidence of club root of Brassicae. Mycological Research (previously Transactions of the British Mycological Society), 44:593-600

Cooke WRI, Schwartz EJ, 1930. The life - history, cytology, and method of infection of Plasmodiophora brassicae Woron., the cause of finger and toe disease of cabbage and other crucifers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series B, 218:283-314

Crisp P, Crute IR, Sutherland RA, Angell SM, Bloor K, Burgess H, Gordon PL, 1989. The exploitation of genetic resources of Brassica oleracea in breeding for resistance to clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae). Euphytica, 42(3):215-226

Crute IR, 1986. The relationship between Plasmodiophora brassicae and its hosts: the application of concepts relating to variation in inter-organismal associations. Advances in Plant Pathology Volume 5 London, UK; Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd., 1-52

Cunningham GH, 1912. The comparative susceptibiolity of cruciferous plants to Plasmodiophora brassicae. Phytopathology 2:138-142

Cvjetkovic B, 2008. Less frequent diseases of oilseed rape. (RjeÐe ucestale bolesti uljane repice.) Glasilo Biljne Za?tite, 8(5):318-320

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Chittem K, Mansouripour S M, Mendoza L E del R, 2014. First report of clubroot on canola caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae in North Dakota. Plant Disease. 98 (10), 1438. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-14-0430-PDN

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Organizations

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Sweden: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Plant Biology, Uppsala BioCenter, Linnean Centre for Plant Biology, P.O. Box 7080, SE-75007 Uppsala, https://www.slu.se/en/departments/plant-biology-forest-genetics/

UK: Scotland’s Rural College (SRUC), SRUC, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, Scotland, https://www.sruc.ac.uk/

Canada: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 1341 Baseline Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C5, http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/home/?id=1395690825741

Canada: Crop Diversification Centre North (CDC North), Crop Diversification Centre North Pest Surveillance Section, 17507 Fort Road Edmonton AB, T5Y 6H3, http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/cdc5230

Distribution Maps

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