Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Plantago lanceolata
(ribwort plantain)



Plantago lanceolata (ribwort plantain)


  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Plantago lanceolata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • ribwort plantain
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • There are little data to suggest that this species is a priority invasive species in its native range: it is principally a weed of arable field margins rather than the fields themselves. However it has dispersed widely throughout the temperate, and s...
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Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Plantago lanceolata L.

Preferred Common Name

  • ribwort plantain

International Common Names

  • English: buckhorn plantain; English plantain; lance-leaf plantain; lanceolate plantain; narrowleaf plantain; narrow-leaved plantain; ribgrass; ribwort
  • Spanish: llantén menor
  • French: petit plantain
  • Portuguese: tanchagem menor

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: llantén
  • Germany: Spitzwegerich
  • Italy: cinquenervi; lanciuola cinquenervi; mestolaccio; piantaggine commune
  • Japan: heraoobako
  • Netherlands: weegbree, smalle
  • South Africa: bolilanyana; German psyllium; klein tongblaar; lamb's tongue; narrow leaved ribwort; oorpynhoutjie; oorpynwortels; ripplegrass; smalblaarplantago; small plantain; smalweeblaar; smalweebree; smalweegbree; weeblaar; wild sago
  • Sweden: kaempar, svart-; spetsgroblad

EPPO code

  • PLALA (Plantago lanceolata)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page There are little data to suggest that this species is a priority invasive species in its native range: it is principally a weed of arable field margins rather than the fields themselves. However it has dispersed widely throughout the temperate, and some of the tropical world, and is common in arable land and pastures. It has proved a problem in specific instances in the tropics and its lack of invasiveness in other areas may reflect global prophylactic use of broadleaf herbicides rather than an inherent lack of invasiveness in the species. It is a perennial and is, therefore, susceptible to cultivation. Traditional chemical control has proved effective.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Plantaginales
  •                         Family: Plantaginaceae
  •                             Genus: Plantago
  •                                 Species: Plantago lanceolata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Sagar and Harper (1964) note that a number of varieties have been recognised on the basis of hairiness, etc., but that the differences are often obscured as a result of phenotypic variation, and have not been adequately researched.


Top of page P. lanceolata is a small, glabrous to pubescent perennial with one to several rosettes; leaves linear- to narrowly ovate-elliptic, 2-30 x 0.5-3.5 cm, very gradually narrowed to the petiole, entire to sparsely and weakly toothed; bracts 2.5-3.5 mm, the anterior connate for most of their length but their midribs separate, often shortly hairy. Scapes to 50 cm deeply furrowed. Inflorescence a spike, up to 4(-8) cm long. Flowers bisexual, inconspicuous, corolla 4-lobed, tubular, almost as long as surrounding calyx. Corolla tube 2-3 mm, glabrous, the lobes 1.5-2.5 mm lanceolate to ovate, acute or acuminate, glabrous. Stamens 4, exserted, conspicuous, 3-5 mm long, the anthers yellowish. The fruit, 3-4 mm long, is a capsule opening with an operculum, containing 1-2 smooth, boat-shaped, mucilaginous. This species has a well-developed taproot (Lamp and Collet, 1979; Stace, 1997).

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Seed propagated


Top of page This remarkably widespread species is apparently native to Europe, North Africa and West and South Asia (USDA-ARS, 2003) but has been introduced extremely widely elsewhere and now occurs e.g. in every continental state of USA as well as in Hawaii, in Australia and New Zealand, 'throughout Japan' (Morita, 2002) and in many countries of Africa, where it thrives at high altitude.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AfghanistanPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
ArmeniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
AzerbaijanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
BhutanRestricted distributionIntroduced Not invasive Grierson et al., 2001
ChinaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1979
-FujianPresentIntroduced Invasive Wang et al., 1990
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced Invasive Wang et al., 1990
-GuangxiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wang et al., 1990
-GuizhouPresentIntroduced Invasive Wang et al., 1990
-HubeiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wang et al., 1990
-HunanPresentIntroduced Invasive Wang et al., 1990
-JiangsuPresentIntroduced Invasive Wang et al., 1990
-ShaanxiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wang et al., 1990
-SichuanPresentIntroduced Invasive Wang et al., 1990
-XinjiangPresentIntroduced Invasive Wang et al., 1990
-YunnanPresentIntroduced Invasive Wang et al., 1990
-ZhejiangPresentIntroduced Invasive Wang et al., 1990
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
IranPresentNativeMirkamaly Maddah, 1973
IraqPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
IsraelPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
JapanWidespreadHolm et al., 1979; Morita, 2002
JordanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
KazakhstanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
Korea, Republic ofPresentHolm et al., 1979
KyrgyzstanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
LebanonPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
NepalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
PakistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
PhilippinesPresentNativeOviedo Prieto et al., 2012
Saudi ArabiaPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
SyriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
TaiwanPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Chen et al., 1996
TajikistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
TurkeyPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979; Cobanoglu, 2000
TurkmenistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
UzbekistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
YemenPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003


AlgeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
BotswanaPresentIntroducedWells et al., 1986
EgyptPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
EthiopiaPresentHolm et al., 1979
GabonPresentIntroducedVerdcourt, 1971
KenyaPresentIntroducedVerdcourt, 1971
LesothoPresentIntroducedWells et al., 1986
LibyaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
MalawiPresentIntroducedVerdcourt, 1971
MauritiusPresentIntroducedMcIntyre and Barbe, 1994
MoroccoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
NamibiaPresentIntroducedWells et al., 1986
South AfricaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Wells et al., 1986; Glen, 1998
-Canary IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
SudanPresentIntroducedVerdcourt, 1971
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedVerdcourt, 1971
TunisiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
ZimbabwePresentNativeHolm et al., 1979

North America

CanadaPresentIntroducedCavers, 1980; Holm et al., 1979
MexicoPresentIntroducedLopez and Tellez Reyes, 1999
USAWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2003
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-AlaskaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-DelawarePresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-IdahoPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-IndianaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-IowaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-KansasPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-MainePresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-MarylandPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-MichiganPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-MinnesotaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-MississippiPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-MissouriPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-MontanaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-NevadaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-New HampshirePresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-New YorkPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-North DakotaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-OhioPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-OregonPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-South DakotaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-TennesseePresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-TexasPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-UtahPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-VermontPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003
-WyomingPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2003

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
Puerto RicoPresentHolm et al., 1979

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Conticello and Gandullo, 1991
ChilePresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Ramirez et al., 1989
EcuadorPresentHolm et al., 1979
UruguayPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979


AlbaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
AustriaPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
BelarusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
BelgiumPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
BulgariaPresentNativeMilusheva & Rankova, 2002
CyprusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
DenmarkPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
EstoniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
FinlandPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
FrancePresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
GermanyPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
GreecePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
HungaryPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
IcelandPresentHolm et al., 1979
IrelandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
ItalyPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
LatviaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
LithuaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
MaltaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
MoldovaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
NetherlandsPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
NorwayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
PolandPresentNativeKozlowski et al., 1997; Grzegorczyk and Alberski, 1999
PortugalPresentNativeSousa, 1998; Holm et al., 1979
-AzoresPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
RomaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
Russian FederationPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
-Russia (Europe)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
-Western SiberiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
SpainPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979; Iraola Calvo et al., 1999
SwedenPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
SwitzerlandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
UKPresentNativeMohd Norowi, 1999; Holm et al., 1979; Roberts and Boddrell, 1984
UkrainePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
Yugoslavia (former)PresentNativeHolm et al., 1979


AustraliaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedJames, 1988
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedLane, 1976
New ZealandPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Ferguson and Fraser, 1993; Suckling et al., 1998

Risk of Introduction

Top of page Although not a federally listed noxious weed in USA, P. lanceolata is listed and regulated by many individual states (USDA-ARS, 2003).


Top of page P. lanceolata is a plant of grasslands and wastelands with neutral or basic soils (Clapham et al., 1989). It is found in a wider range of grassland microclimates and soil types than some close relatives (such as P. major and P. media), but is not found in the hottest and driest grasslands (Stoutjesdijk, 1992). In general, it is restricted to comparatively open vegetation where there is plenty of light at ground level (Aart et al., 1992).

Habitat List

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Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page This species is quick to colonize, establish and spread in disturbed agricultural areas. Its small size and low vigour, however, mean that it is seldom reported as a principal weed for a particular crop (Holm et al., 1977). It has been reported as a weed of lucerne in Iran (Mirkamaly and Maddah, 1973) and of citrus and mango in Mauritius (McIntyre and Barbe, 1994).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeOther

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Genetics

P. lancelolata has a chromosome number of 2n=12 (Stace, 1997). The high level of genetic mixing, low polymorphism and lack of population genetic structure in this species are thought to result from its exclusive out-crossing strategy (Sharma and Koul, 1995).

Physiology and Phenology

Evidence suggests that there is little dormancy in this species, and virtually all seeds germinate within the first year (Roberts and Boddrell, 1984; Pons, 1992). However, germination rate seems to increase with storage over 6 months (Sousa et al., 1998). Unlike some close relatives, such as P. major, seed of this species does not require light for germination (Pons and Toorn, 1988; Blom, 1992) although the effect of light intensity on germination rate seems unclear (Roberts and Boddrell, 1984; Sousa et al., 1998). Optimum germination has been obtained at 21% soil moisture (Blom, 1992).

Reproductive Biology

Reproduction is via seed in this species. P. lanceolata is an obligate out-breeder and its flowers are self-incompatible (Sagar and Harper, 1964; Sharma et al., 1992; Sharma and Koul, 1995). The species is considered mainly anemophilous (wind-pollinated) (Sagar and Harper, 1964), but there is evidence to suggest biotic pollination by syrphid flies (Stelleman, 1982) and bees (Apis dorsata and Apis florea) (Sharma et al., 1993). Gynodioecy is observed in P. lanceolata, i.e. populations contain both hermaphrodites and sterile males (Poot et al., 1997).

Environmental Requirements

P. lanceolata is so widely distributed that it is probably not restricted by climate (Holm et al., 1977). Suitable climates include those with winter rainfall (temperate), all-year rainfall (temperate), summer rainfall (temperate), summer rainfall (sub-tropical) (Wells et al., 1986). The deep taproot enables this species to withstand periods of drought. It is seldom reported to be an important weed in the tropics because more vigorous plants keep its growth in check. In open areas, plants will overwinter below ground and, if frosted, they can re-grow from underground storage organs. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils in which Plantago species grow have been described by Troelstra (1992). Sagar and Harper (1964) note that P. lanceolata is found on a wide variety of soil types in the British Isles and occurs on sand-dunes, and spray-washed cliffs, but is absent from acidic uplands. It is mainly a species of basic and neutral grasslands.


Sagar and Harper (1964) provide detailed lists of plants associated with P. lanceolata in the British Isles.

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Chrysolina staphylaea Herbivore Leaves
Gibberella sacchari Pathogen
Gymnetron pascuorum Herbivore Seeds
Junonia coenia Herbivore Leaves
Phomopsis subordinaria Pathogen
Trichosirocalus troglodytes Herbivore Growing point

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Sagar and Harper (1964) provide a long list of natural enemies including invertebrates, fungi and viruses but imply that these have much less influence than livestock management.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

P. lanceolata produces a large number of small seeds which can be dispersed by the wind.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Seeds are mucilaginous and easily transported on animal fur or by man (Soekarjo, 1992). Sagar and Harper (1964) note that seeds retain over 50% viability after passing through cattle.

Accidental introduction

Because of the small size of its seeds, P. lanceolata may be introduced as a contaminant of agricultural produce.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes roots
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx seeds
Fruits (inc. pods) seeds
Growing medium accompanying plants seeds
Roots roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants whole plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches seeds
True seeds (inc. grain) seeds
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport

Impact Summary

Top of page
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health Negative
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None


Top of page P. lanceolata has been described as an agricultural, pastoral and environmental weed competing with other plants for light, water and nutrients and replacing preferred vegetation. P. lanceolata and P. major have together been reported as weeds in over 50 countries affecting a wide range of crops (Holm et al., 1977). Holm et al. (1979) record P. lanceolata as a serious weed in Italy, and a principal weed in Canada, Ecuador, Iran, Mauritius and New Zealand.

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of page P. lanceolata forms dense swards that crowd out native vegetation and prevent the establishment of native species (Weber, 2003).

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Speyeria callippe callippe (callippe silverspot butterfly)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009
Trifolium dichotomum (showy Indian clover)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesUSACompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008

Social Impact

Top of page Pollen of this species can cause allergies and respiratory problems (Lamp and Collet, 1979; Mehta and Wheeler, 1991).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant


Top of page P. lanceolata has been used for sward improvement (Stewart, 1996; Trzaskos, 1996; Kozlowski et al., 1997). The commercial cultivars 'Grasslands Lancelot' (Rumball et al., 1997) and 'Ceres Tonic' (Pyne Gould Guinness Ltd, 1996) have been developed in New Zealand for forage yield and suitability for livestock grazing. Sagar and Harper (1964) note that P. lanceolata is one of the most palatable species for sheep.

It also has value as a tough amenity turf component (Odermatt et al., 1998) and has been utilized as permanent ground cover in vineyards (Crozier, 1998).

Medicinal uses include the treatment of respiratory and inflammatory skin diseases (Marchesan et al., 1998; Paper and Marchesan, 1999).

Uses List

Top of page

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page P. lanceolata can be distinguished from P. major by its furrowed scape, lanceolate leaves, one- to two-seeded capsule which splits around the middle and the smooth, boat-shaped seeds with a scar around the middle (Holm et al., 1977).

Prevention and Control

Top of page Mechanical Control

Grazing or mowing may reduce growth of P. lanceolata (Weber, 2003). This species is traditionally hand weeded in mango and citrus orchards in Mauritius (McIntyre and Barbe, 1994).

Chemical Control

Around young trees and shrubs: glyphosate applied twice a year controlled P. lanceolata over several years (Frank and Simon, 1981). Alternate treatments of glyphosate and a mixture of diuron + paraquat were also satisfactory (McIntyre and Barbe, 1994).

In arable crops: butralin + linuron was found to be particularly effective (Fererro, 1978) and mecoprop has been recommended to control field margin weeds (including Plantago lanceolata; Birnie, 1984).

In turf: 2,4-D used alone and bromoxynil and mecoprop together were effective (Wehner et al., 1981). Bingham et al. (1986) reported that P. lanceolata was controlled better with a mecoprop than a dichlorprop mixture.

Integrated Control

McIntyre and Barbe (1994) observed acceptable control in young mango and citrus orchards in Mauritius with combined chemical and traditional hand weeding.


Top of page

Aart PJM van der, Vulto JC, 1992. General ecology. Plantago: a multidisciplinary study [edited by Kuiper, P. J. C.; Bos, M.] Berlin, Germany; Springer-Verlag, 6

Bingham SW, Rucker EG, Shaver RL, 1986. Broadleaf weed species' response to turfgrass herbicides. Proceedings, Southern Weed Science Society, 39th annual meeting, 110

Birnie JE, 1984. A preliminary study on the effect of some agricultural herbicides on a range of field margin flora. Technical Report, AFRC Weed Research Organization, No.79:24 pp.

Blom CWPM, 1992. Germination and establishment. In: Kuiper PJC, Bos M, eds. Plantago: a Multidisciplinary Study. Ecological Studies, Vol. 89. Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag, 88-98.

Cavers PB, Bassett IJ, Crompton CW, 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 47. Plantago lanceolata L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 60(4):1269-1282

Chen ShihHuei, Tseng YenHsueh, Wu MingJou, Liu ChingYu, 1996. Plantago lanceolata L., a newly naturalized plant in Taiwan. Taiwania, 41(3):180-184; 8 ref.

Clapham AR, Tutin TG, Moore DM, 1989. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Cobanoglu S, 2000. Aphididae (Homoptera) species of Edirne Province (Thrace part of Turkey). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 136(1628-31):45-52; 18 ref.

Conticello L, Gandullo R, 1991. Survey of summer weeds in the upper valley of Rio Negro y Neuquen. Proceedings of the 12th Argentine meeting on weeds and their control, Mar del Plata, Argentina, 9-11 October 1991., Vol. 1:19-26; 22 ref.

Crozier P, 1998. Permanent ground cover and mulch: agricultural aspects. Phytoma, No. 511:42-45.

Ferguson CM, Fraser WJ, 1993. Eurythecta zelaea, an occasional dryland pasture pest. Proceedings of the Forty Sixth New Zealand Plant Protection Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand, 10-12 August 1993 Rotorua, New Zealand; New Zealand Plant Protection Society, 242-244

Ferrero A, 1978. Selective weed control in maize. Rapporti sull'attivita svolta nell'ambito del subprogetto "Fitoiatria del frumento del mais e del sorgo" Progetto finalizzato fitofarmaci e fitoregolatori, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche; coordinatore V. Piglionica, Rome, 1978., 309-316

Frank JR, Simon JA, 1981. Glyphosate and paraquat effectiveness in woody nursery stock. Weed Science, 29(4):455-461

Glen HF, 1998. Investigation of the antiinflammatory activity of liquid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. FSA contributions 12: Plantaginaceae. Bothalia, 28(2):151-157; 26 ref.

Grierson AJC, Long DG, 2001. Flora of Bhutan including a record of plants from Sikkim and Darjeeling. Volume 2 Part 3. Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh and Royal Government of Bhutan.

Grzegorczyk S, Alberski J, 1999. The presence of forbs in meadow-pasture plant communities of the Olsztyn Lakeland. Folia Universitatis Agriculturae Stetinensis, Agricultura, No. 75:103-106.

Holm L, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Toronto, Canada: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Holm LG, Plucknett DL, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1977. The World's Worst Weeds. Distribution and Biology. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University Press of Hawaii.

Iraola Calvo VM, Moraza ML, Biurrun R, 1999. Spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae Berlese) and phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae Berlese) in pear orchards and ground cover vegetation in Navarra. Boleti^acute~n de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 25(1):49-58; 27 ref.

James DG, 1988. A new host plant for Junonia villida calybe (Godart) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Australian Entomological Magazine, 15(1):6

Kozlowski S, Golinski P, Swedrzynska D, Kolpak M, 1997. Plantago lanceolata - a commendable sward component of grasslands? Management for Grassland Biodiversity. Proceedings of the International Occasional Symposium of the European Grassland Federation, Warszawa-Lomza, Poland, 19-23 May, 1997. Grassland Science in Europe Vol. 2. Poznan, Poland: Organizing Committee of the International Occasional Symposium of the European Grassland Federation, 227-231.

Lamp C, Collet F, 1979. A field guide to weeds in Australia, revised edition. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.

Lane D, 1976. The vegetation of roadsides and adjacent farmland of the Mornington Peninsula, Victoria, Australia. Weed Research, 16(6):385-389

Lopez Tellez A, Reyes SA, 1999. Flora de Veracruz: Plantaginaceae, No. 108:1-20. Xalapa, Mexico: Instituto de Ecologia.

Marchesan M, Paper DH, Hose S, Franz G, 1998. Investigation of the antiinflammatory activity of liquid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. Phytother. Res., 12:33-34.

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