Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pinus pinaster
(maritime pine)

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Datasheet

Pinus pinaster (maritime pine)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pinus pinaster
  • Preferred Common Name
  • maritime pine
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Gymnospermae
  •         Class: Pinopsida
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. pinaster is regarded as highly invasive and its past and future behaviour have been modelled in regions where it is a serious problem. Prolific seed production, wind-dispersed seed and rapid growth rate all...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A mature stand of maritime pine at the Sintra mountain, north of Lisbon, Portugal.
TitleStand
CaptionA mature stand of maritime pine at the Sintra mountain, north of Lisbon, Portugal.
CopyrightA. Oliveira, Inst. Sup. Agronomia, Lisbon
A mature stand of maritime pine at the Sintra mountain, north of Lisbon, Portugal.
StandA mature stand of maritime pine at the Sintra mountain, north of Lisbon, Portugal.A. Oliveira, Inst. Sup. Agronomia, Lisbon
Careful thinning and pruning are essential for good timber production (National Coastal Pine Forest, Central Portugal).
TitleManaged stand
CaptionCareful thinning and pruning are essential for good timber production (National Coastal Pine Forest, Central Portugal).
CopyrightA. Oliveira, Inst. Sup. Agronomia, Lisbon
Careful thinning and pruning are essential for good timber production (National Coastal Pine Forest, Central Portugal).
Managed standCareful thinning and pruning are essential for good timber production (National Coastal Pine Forest, Central Portugal).A. Oliveira, Inst. Sup. Agronomia, Lisbon
Although tolerant to coastal salt wind,P. pinaster may often be severely affected on its growth along the coast (National Coastal Pine Forest, Central Portugal).
TitleDistorted growth
CaptionAlthough tolerant to coastal salt wind,P. pinaster may often be severely affected on its growth along the coast (National Coastal Pine Forest, Central Portugal).
CopyrightA. Oliveira, Inst. Sup. Agronomia, Lisbon
Although tolerant to coastal salt wind,P. pinaster may often be severely affected on its growth along the coast (National Coastal Pine Forest, Central Portugal).
Distorted growthAlthough tolerant to coastal salt wind,P. pinaster may often be severely affected on its growth along the coast (National Coastal Pine Forest, Central Portugal).A. Oliveira, Inst. Sup. Agronomia, Lisbon
Timber is usually the main production obtained from stands (National Coastal Pine Forest, Central Portugal).
TitleTimber
CaptionTimber is usually the main production obtained from stands (National Coastal Pine Forest, Central Portugal).
CopyrightA. Oliveira, Inst. Sup. Agronomia, Lisbon
Timber is usually the main production obtained from stands (National Coastal Pine Forest, Central Portugal).
TimberTimber is usually the main production obtained from stands (National Coastal Pine Forest, Central Portugal).A. Oliveira, Inst. Sup. Agronomia, Lisbon
P pinaster tolerates very shallow soils and may even grow sometimes on stones (Sintra Mountain, Portugal).
TitleRocky outcrop site
CaptionP pinaster tolerates very shallow soils and may even grow sometimes on stones (Sintra Mountain, Portugal).
CopyrightA. Oliveira, Inst. Sup. Agronomia, Lisbon
P pinaster tolerates very shallow soils and may even grow sometimes on stones (Sintra Mountain, Portugal).
Rocky outcrop siteP pinaster tolerates very shallow soils and may even grow sometimes on stones (Sintra Mountain, Portugal).A. Oliveira, Inst. Sup. Agronomia, Lisbon
Resin, the main non-wood production obtained from P. pinaster, may be collected in plastic bags, like in this example observed in Central Portugal.
TitleResin
CaptionResin, the main non-wood production obtained from P. pinaster, may be collected in plastic bags, like in this example observed in Central Portugal.
CopyrightA. Oliveira, Inst. Sup. Agronomia, Lisbon
Resin, the main non-wood production obtained from P. pinaster, may be collected in plastic bags, like in this example observed in Central Portugal.
ResinResin, the main non-wood production obtained from P. pinaster, may be collected in plastic bags, like in this example observed in Central Portugal.A. Oliveira, Inst. Sup. Agronomia, Lisbon

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pinus pinaster Aiton

Preferred Common Name

  • maritime pine

Other Scientific Names

  • Pinus hamiltonii Ten.
  • Pinus maritima Poir.
  • Pinus mesogeensis Fieschi & Gaussen

International Common Names

  • English: cluster pine
  • Spanish: pino gallego; pino negral; pino resinero
  • French: pin de corte; pin des landes; pin maritime; pinastre
  • Portuguese: pinheiro-bravo

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Igelföhre; Meer Kiefer; Stern- Kiefer; Sternkiefer; Strand- Kiefer
  • Italy: pinastro; pino marittimo
  • Netherlands: zeeden; zeepijn
  • South Africa: trosden
  • Spain: itsas pinua; pinastre; piñeiro bravo; pino resinero; pino rodeno

EPPO code

  • PIUPI (Pinus pinaster)
  • PIUPL (Pinus pinaster subsp. atlantica)

Subspecies

  • Pinus pinaster subsp. atlantica
  • Pinus pinaster subsp. pinaster

Trade name

  • resin

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. pinaster is regarded as highly invasive and its past and future behaviour have been modelled in regions where it is a serious problem. Prolific seed production, wind-dispersed seed and rapid growth rate all contribute to its ability to invade native habitats, which suffer a consequent reduction in species diversity. P. pinaster is reported to be an aggressive colonizer in Chile, Uruguay, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Binggeli (1999) regarded this as a highly invasive plant, while Rejmánek (1995) rated it as one of the five most invasive pines. Richardson et al. (1994) considered P. pinaster to be the most widespread invasive pine in South Africa, with much of the spread occurring on endangered fynbos vegetation.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Gymnospermae
  •                 Class: Pinopsida
  •                     Family: Pinaceae
  •                         Genus: Pinus
  •                             Species: Pinus pinaster

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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P. pinaster shows considerable variation over its natural range, leading to several attempts at division into subspecies, varieties and races, according mainly to provenance, morphological characteristics of the trunk and branching, tolerance to calcareous substrates, and frost resistance. The observed variation may be categorized into two main groups, now often considered as subspecies: the Atlantic group (P. pinaster subsp. atlantica) comprising provenances from Portugal, northwestern Spain (Galicia) and southwestern France (the Landes); and the Mediterranean group (P. pinaster subsp. pinaster) comprising provenances from inland Spain, Morocco and the Mediterranean basin. Some authors consider the latter to be a separate species, Pinus mesogeensis Fieschi & Gaussen, but this classification has not obtained general acceptance. The recognized common name for P. pinaster is maritime pine.

Description

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P. pinaster is a relatively large tree, 20-40 m tall, with an average diameter at breast height (dbh) at maturity of 35-40 cm. Crowns of old trees are wide and flat and the bole is clear over most of its length. Plantation trees have long, clean cylindrical stems in contrast to those of open-grown individual trees where trunks are broad at the base with a pronounced taper and increased branching. It has a deep tap root with secondary roots well-developed. The bark is thick, deeply fissured and dark red-brown. Needles are spiny, stout, stiff but not rigid, frequently twisted, occurring in pairs, with a vivid green colour. Flowers appear between late winter and mid-spring; male flowers usually abundant, clustered in shallow rings beneath the leaves with pollen shed in early spring. Female flowers occur on the tips of expanding shoots and are dull red in colour. Cones are nearly sessile, very oblique at the base, slightly curved ovoid-conic; shiny light-brown with scales and a broad transverse ridge rising to a central, small, upcurved prickle. Cones ripen between late summer and autumn, persisting closed on the tree for several years.

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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There is some controversy about the area of origin of P. pinaster, although the centre of natural distribution appears to be western Mediterranean regions including southern France, Corsica, Sardinia, Italy, Spain and Morocco (subsp. pinaster), as well as more western regions, centred around coastal Atlantic areas of France, Spain and Portugal (subsp. atlantica). Lacking further information, Algeria and Tunisia and other parts of Europe are treated as an introduced range in this datasheet.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

TurkeyPresentIntroduced Planted Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2007

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroduced Natural CABI, 2005
MoroccoPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2007
South AfricaPresentIntroducedearly 1800 Invasive Pryor, 1991; Richardson et al., 1994; Cronk and Fuller, 1995
TunisiaPresentIntroduced Natural CABI, 2005

North America

USAPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2007
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Cronk and Fuller, 1995; USDA-NRCS, 2007
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2007

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced Planted CABI, 2005
ChilePresentIntroduced Invasive Planted CABI, 2005
UruguayPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Richardson et al., 1994

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroduced Planted Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2007
FrancePresentNativePlanted, NaturalRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2007
GreecePresentIntroduced Planted Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2007
ItalyPresentNative Natural Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2007
PortugalPresentNative Natural Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2007
Russian FederationPresentKulichin, 1989
SpainPresentNative Natural Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2007
UKPresentIntroducedpre-1600 Planted Mitchell, 1974; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2007
Yugoslavia (former)PresentIntroduced Planted Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2007

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Richardson et al., 1994
-VictoriaUnconfirmed recordCorbett, 1991
New ZealandPresentIntroduced1830s Invasive Knowles and Miller, 1989; Richardson et al., 1994; Cronk and Fuller, 1995

History of Introduction and Spread

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The range of P. pinaster has been much extended by cultivation, and it is widely planted in the Landes and Atlantic coastal regions of France, as well as throughout the Mediterranean region for timber and resin production, dune conservation and very often for pulp production. It was introduced into the UK in the 1600s (Mitchell, 1974), and has been extensively planted in Europe outside its natural distribution area, e.g., in Belgium, Turkey, Greece and countries of the former Yugoslavia (subsp. pinaster). It was introduced into New Zealand in the 1830s (Knowles and Miller, 1989), as well as South Africa and Australia (subsp. atlantica) and numerous other countries with a Mediterranean climate, such as parts of Chile, Argentina, Uruguay and the USA.

Risk of Introduction

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P. pinaster has become invasive in areas where it has been used extensively for forestry, notably South Africa, New Zealand and Hawaii, USA. Biological characteristics such as high reproduction capacity, air borne seed and rapid growth rate contribute to the risk of invasion following its intentional introduction. Sites of other introductions should be monitored for signs of invasive behaviour. It is a category 2 invader under the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act, 1983 in South Africa (Henderson, 2001).

Habitat

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The habitat in the native range of P. pinaster is typically on sands or poor soil in coastal regions (Weber, 2003). Henderson (2001) reports the invasion of both montane and lowland fynbos in South Africa where this species is an alien invader. In other areas of the world where it has become invasive, P. pinaster is known to colonize coastal dune areas (Uruguay), along road verges, in Banksia and Eucalyptus marginata woodlands (Australia), grassland slopes, cliff faces, cut-over forests, scrub and shrublands (New Zealand), fynbos (South Africa) and disturbed sites (Chile).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural
Coastal areas Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Coastal dunes Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal dunes Principal habitat Natural
Coastal dunes Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rocky areas / lava flows Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rocky areas / lava flows Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Rocky areas / lava flows Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
BanksiaProteaceaeUnknown
Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah)MyrtaceaeUnknown

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

P. pinaster shows a high degree of genetic variation over its native range. Some authors recognize as many as five different races corresponding to several geographical locations in Western Europe, the Mediterranean region and North Africa. Most of that variation has some kind of expression in growth characteristics, stem straightness and taper, fine branching and frost resistance. A high degree of heritability was evident, particularly for stem form, as well as for the chemical characteristics of resin monoterpenes. Provenances from Portugal, northwestern Spain and southwestern France (P. pinaster subsp. atlantica) exhibited faster growth than those from the Mediterranean, inland Spain or Morocco (mainly P. pinaster subsp. pinaster). However, some provenances of the latter group have a remarkably straight stem (e.g., the Corsican race), or a notable adaptation to summer drought and limestone substrates regardless of their lack of vigour (e.g., the Moroccan race from Tamjout), as compared to provenances of the former group. A Portuguese provenance from Leiria (central coastal Portugal) was genetically improved in Western Australia, South Africa and Portugal, allowing a growth gain estimated to be 20%, as well as an improvement of about 40% for stem form.

Physiology and Phenology

P. pinaster is fast-growing until it reaches an age of 60 years old, when annual growth rate usually decline. Flowers appear between late winter and mid-spring, and cones ripen between late summer and autumn, persisting closed on the tree for several years.

Reproductive Biology

This species has monoecious flowers (Cronk and Fuller, 1995). It is difficult to establish the age from which P. pinaster starts to produce fertile seeds because this factor varies with geographic location. In general, however, flowering may begin at about 6 years old, but regular seed production commences only at 10-15 years of age. Large quantities of seed are produced (Cronk and Fuller, 1995). The cones are serotinous meaning that they are able to withstand the fire that may kill the parent tree, and be stimulated to subsequently release the seeds (Macdonald and Richardson, 1986). According to Dean et al. (1986) the duration of seed viability is approximately one year.

Environmental Requirements

P. pinaster tolerates different climate conditions depending on the subspecies. In general, it occurs naturally in warm temperate regions including the Mediterranean area, with an oceanic influence on climate, mainly in humid and sub-humid areas, where annual rainfall is greater than 600 mm. In spite of that, it is possible for trees to survive in areas with only 400 mm annual precipitation, providing that there is sufficient atmospheric moisture. In particular, the southern provenances (P. pinaster subsp. pinaster) may grow well in semi-arid conditions. However, it will grow best in areas with a mean annual precipitation of 850 mm, with at least 75 mm in the period between May and September. In its native range it only withstands a maximum of 100 consecutive days without rainfall, but when used in plantations in some areas it can tolerate a maximum of 150 days of drought. Maritime pine cannot tolerate shade, and grows best at low and medium altitudes.

P. pinaster may be found in both flat and mountainous sites in its native range, but usually at low to moderate altitudes. The subspecies atlantica is less tolerant of high altitude than the subspecies pinaster. It seems to prefer siliceous soils with a coarse texture, especially sandy soils, but it can tolerate other soil types. The subspecies pinaster can tolerate some calcareous soils, especially when they have a coarse texture and are free-draining, whereas subsp. atlantica, however, has a low tolerance to limestone soils, and exhibits a clear preference for sandy silicate soils, and has played an important role in the afforestation of loose sand dunes along the western coast of the Iberian Peninsula especially in northern and central Portugal. It has adapted well to a substrate of silicate origin with low aggregation, poor in major nutrients and organic matter. Afforestation of these areas was undertaken during the late 1800s and first half of the 1900s, and played a major role in dune consolidation and soil improvement. Similarly, the Landes region of southwestern France, with sandy soils, has been extensively planted with P. pinaster. In South Africa, a study of four invasive pines found that soil pH was the most important predictor for the distribution of isolated trees, whereas the establishment of dense pine stands was largely determined by fire history (Rouget et al., 2001).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
48 34 0 1200

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -15
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 23
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 15 26
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 0 6

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration04number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall4001200mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral
  • very acid

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Descriptions of the principal insect pests are largely based on Berryman (1986).

Insect damage to cones and seeds are minor in heavy cone crop years, but in the years following a heavy cone crop, the entire cone crop may be lost as a large insect pest population is concentrated to a much reduced food supply. Due to this, the greatest impact of cone and seed pests is found in seed production orchards, commonly attacked by the pine cone weevil Pissodes validirostris (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) and the cone worm Dioryctria mendacella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae).

Insects feeding on buds, shoots and twigs may cause substantial long-term damage, affecting plant growth and wood quality, and they may also weaken the tree, facilitating attack by other organisms. They are particularly important in young plantations. Serious infestations seem to be associated with particular site and stand conditions that affect the vigour and exposure of seedlings and saplings. Outbreaks of shoot moths frequently occur in stands growing in dry or poorly drained sites, or in sites that have suffered soil compaction, erosion or nutrient deficiencies. Moreover, tip and shoot insect pests often prefer open conditions which means that damage is most intense in sparsely stocked clear-cut areas and plantations.

The pine shoot moth Rhyacionia buoliana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) is controlled with the use of growth inhibitors (diflubenzuron) in the spring (before the larvae penetrate the buds), by sexual pheromone trapping systems (to lure males) and by biological control (Adalia bipunctata is a predator of this species).

Leaf-feeding defoliating insects attack forest trees of all ages, but outbreaks are often associated with older stands, overstocked stands, or stands growing on poor sites. The immediate effect of defoliation is a reduction in the vigour and growth of the tree. Reduction in growth may have a significant economic impact on timber production when large areas are affected. Defoliation sometimes results in considerable tree mortality, particularly when the forest has been subjected to other stress factors such as nutrient or water deficiencies, extreme competition, or old age. In addition, the weakened trees often become susceptible to tree-killing insects, such as bark beetles, which frequently cause extensive mortality following defoliator outbreaks. The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae) is the most serious pest of P. pinaster in the Mediterranean region.

A number of insect groups feed on or within the stems of forest trees but, of these, the bark beetles (Scolytidae) are by far the most destructive. Bark beetle adults bore into the bark of living or recently killed trees and lay their eggs in galleries constructed in the cambial region. At the same time, bark beetles may introduce pathogenic fungi, e.g., Ceratocystis spp., which spread through phloem and xylem, blocking transport systems of the tree. The first adult beetles to attack a tree produce powerful pheromones that, together with resins exuding from the tree, attract other individuals of the same species. It is this combined attack by many beetles, together with the spread of pathogenic fungi that causes death of all or part of the tree. As pheromones concentrate the flying beetle population in an area, dead trees often occur in patches.

Bark beetle outbreaks occur at irregular intervals but are usually associated with stands that are under stress. However, once outbreaks have been initiated, they sometimes spread into relatively healthy stands. This ability of bark beetles to kill normal healthy trees when their populations become large is associated with their tolerance of tree host defensive chemicals, the pathogenicity of fungi associated with them, and/or the attractiveness of their aggregation pheromones. Ips sexdentatus, Tomicus piniperda, T. minor, Orthotomicus erosus, Pityogenes bidentatus and Hylastes ater are all bark-boring Scolytidae, and their populations can increase greatly if a stand contains high-risk trees. To avoid such pest population growth, all infested, broken, fallen and burnt trees must be removed, infestation points destroyed and a stand thinning plan implemented. Dioryctria sylvestrella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) is also a bark-boring insect pest, which particularly damages young trees. Low plantation densities stimulate attacks by this insect. Matsucoccus feytaudi (Homoptera, Margarodidae) attacks weaken trees, making them susceptible to attacks from Pissodes castaneus and Tomicus piniperda. Hylastes spp. (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) may flourish in stands which have suffered fire, or in which planting techniques were inadequate, or in which there are many exposed, freshly-felled stumps, or successive drought years. Anoxia australis, Vesperus xatarti and V. luridus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) may be particularly damaging in forest nurseries and in young P. pinaster stands.

P. pinaster has shown to be susceptible to Bursaphelencus xylophilus, the nematode that causes the pine wilt disease, also an invasive species. In other pines, namely Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii), this nematode causes a reduction in hydraulic conductance associated with plant water stress, death of xylem parenchyma cells, and eventually tree death (Kozlowski and Pallardy, 1997).

P. pinaster is susceptible to the pathogens: Armillaria mellea, Lophodermium spp. and Cyclaneusma niveum.

P. pinaster is very susceptible to fire, especially in pure stands. Abundant understorey is a key factor in determining stand flammability.

In recent years, P. pinaster has shown itself to be susceptible to another invasive species, the bast scale, Matsucoccus feytaudi (Homoptera: Margarodidae), in Corsica, France (Jactel et al., 2006).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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P. pinaster seeds are generally dispersed by the wind. Dean et al. (1986) also report that baboons may disperse P. pinaster seeds in South Africa. Long-distance dispersal was intentional, as this species was deliberately introduced to South Africa as a timber tree (Cronk and Fuller, 1995) and to other countries for a variety of uses.

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Wind Yes Cronk and Fuller, 1995

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production None
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species Negative
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Economic Impact

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Pinus spp. are probably the single most economic important genus of the trees in the world, and P. pinaster must rank within the top 50 commercially valuable species, giving it an economic value in excessive of very many millions of dollars per annum. The negative consequences of invasion, have not been accurately quantified either, however, it is clear that it the vast majority of situation, positive benefits outweigh negative ones. P. pinaster plantations have long been cultivated in the Mediterranean basin region, in both Europe and North Africa, also to stabilise sand dunes, coastal areas and on low fertility soils, and the tree has also been a major source of resin as well as general purpose timber.

Environmental Impact

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Macdonald and Richardson (1986) name P. pinaster among several species that accelerate soil erosion when they establish in riparian systems in South Africa, and soil nutrient and water levels are altered during invasion (Weber, 2003). P. pinaster needles decay slowly, resulting in large quantities of litter (Versfeld and van Wilgen, 1986). Henderson (2001) reports the invasion of both montane and lowland fynbos and describes P. pinaster as a habitat transformer.

Impact on Biodiversity

Cronk and Fuller (1995) report that P. pinaster is outcompeting rare fynbos vegetation in South Africa, being able to do so because of its rapid growth rate, greater longevity and ability to withstand fire. Higgins et al. (1999) used environmental data to estimate the potential future area occupied by P. pinaster to be 23-49% of the Cape Peninsula, constituting a very high threat to native species diversity. Richardson et al. (1989) demonstrated that indigenous species richness was negatively correlated with P. pinaster canopy cover in certain areas of South Africa.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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P. pinaster is widely planted for dune stabilization, enabling the agricultural use of large areas along the western coast of the Iberian Peninsula, and pine stands also serve as shelterbelts protecting agricultural crops against salt spray. In southwestern France it has also been used for sanitation plantations in the Landes region. P. pinaster has been used for soil conservation, including protection of slopes against erosion. Due to its fast growth characteristics and tolerance of poor soils, P. pinaster is often used for afforestation of abandoned agricultural land and as a shade tree in picnic areas, camp sites and recreational parks. However, one limitation to its use as an amenity tree is its susceptibility to soil compaction. P. pinaster has been traditionally considered a useful species for the improvement of thin soils because, as a pioneer species in the secondary ecological succession, it will encourage soil formation, i.e. roots will desegregate the rock and foliage will form a litter layer. In Portugal, this species is also used as a Christmas tree.

Wood is the major product that is obtained from P. pinaster. Its annual rings are very visible, creating a distinct and effective pattern to the timber; but the wood is susceptible to almost every defect imaginable in timber wood, and it is also very resinous. The main applications of P. pinaster timber include construction wood, furniture, roof shingles, shipbuilding, poles and posts for palisades and fencing, among others. It is also used for firewood, with cones and needles (after drying) also being used as kindling for starting fires.

Resin is the most important non-wood product from P. pinaster, being used, directly or indirectly after distillation, to make turpentine, pitch, oils, varnishes, adhesives, waxes and soap. It is also used for waterproofing. In the Landes, southwestern France, essential oil was produced from chipped crown materials (Alexandrian, 1992). The bark of P. pinaster may be distilled to produce tar, or chipped and composted to produce a low-weight substrate for nursery containers. P. pinaster stands also are an ideal ecosystem for the development of edible fungi, such as Boletus edulis, B. pinicola, Lactarius deliciosus and L. semisanguifluus.

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Land reclamation
  • Landscape improvement
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil conservation
  • Windbreak

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Bark products
  • Gum/resin
  • Wood/timber

Ornamental

  • Christmas tree

Wood Products

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Boats

Containers

  • Boxes
  • Cases
  • Crates
  • Pallets

Furniture

Pulp

  • Long-fibre pulp

Railway sleepers

Roundwood

  • Building poles
  • Piles
  • Posts
  • Stakes
  • Transmission poles

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • Exterior fittings
  • Fences
  • Flooring
  • For light construction
  • Shingles
  • Wall panelling

Veneers

Wood-based materials

  • Fibreboard
  • Laminated wood
  • Particleboard
  • Plywood

Prevention and Control

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Control
 
Mechanical control

Cronk and Fuller (1995) describe cutting and burning as providing effective control, and ringbarking or pulling can be effective depending on tree size. Considering that Pinus spp. do not coppice, mechanical means could prove to be a most simple and effective means of control. Burning should be used with caution, noting the species’ natural tolerance to fire, and the effects it appears to have on increasing seed germination and establishment.

Biological control

Cronk and Fuller (1995) note that any biological control should not interfere with intended commercial plantations and that the choice of agent is therefore restricted to seed predators, however, Henderson (2001) reports that research for a suitable biological control agent for use in South Africa is ongoing, with ARC investigations currently focussing on the potential agent Pissodes validirostris only, with a view to establishing the host specificity of various biotypes of this promising agent.

Integrated control

Whatever means are used to control or remove P. pinaster, adequate restoration work is require to prevent reinvasion (Holmes and Foden, 2001), although different techniques will be more suitable depending on the site and species concerned.

References

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Alexandrian D, 1992. Essences forestières: guide technique du forestier méditerranéen français Ed. 2 [Forest trees: a technical French Mediterranean forest guide.]. Aix-en-Provence, France: CEMAGREF.

Alves AAM, 1988. Técnicas de Produç¦o Florestal. 2ª Ediç¦o. Lisboa, Portugal: Instituto Nacional de Investigaç¦o Científica.

Berryman AA, 1986. Forest insects. Principles and practice of population management. New York, USA; Plenum Press, xiv + 279pp.

Binggeli P, 1999. Invasive woody plants. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html.

Boisseau B; Nouals D; Ripert C, 1992. Guide Technique du Forestier Méditerranéen Français. Aix-en-Provence, France: CEMAGREF.

CABI, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI.

Ceballos L; Ruiz de la Torre J, 1979. Arboles y arbustos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Montes. Madrid.

Corbett DP, 1991. Control of cluster pine on French Island, Victoria. Plant Protection Quarterly, 6(3):128

Cronk QCB; Fuller JL, 1995. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. London, UK; Chapman & Hall Ltd, xiv + 241 pp.

Dean SJ; Holmes PM; Weiss PW, 1986. Seed biology of invasive alien plants in South Africa and South West Africa / Namibia. In: Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Ferrar AA (eds.), The Ecology and Management of Biological Invasions in Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 157-170.

Farjon A, 1998. World checklist and bibliography of conifers. Kew, UK: The Royal Botanical Gardens.

Farjon A, 1998. World checklist and bibliography of conifers. Richmond, UK; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: v + 298 pp.

Fernández G, 2011. [English title not available]. (Microclimatología en Tierra de Pinares (Segovia): Factores que influyen en la regeneración de las masas forestales de Pinus pinaster Ait.) Microclimatología en Tierra de Pinares (Segovia): Factores que influyen en la regeneración de las masas forestales de Pinus pinaster Ait. Madrid, España: Editorial Académica Española.

Ferreira MC; Ferreira GWS, 1990. Insect pests of forest nurseries, plantations and natural regeneration: a field guide. Serie Divulgacao - Ministerio da Agricultura, Pescas e Alimentacao Lisboa, Portugal; Direccao-Geral de Planeamento e Agricultura (DGPA), No. 4:132 pp.

Ferreira MC; Ferreira GWS, 1991. Insects pests of conifers: a field guide. Se^acute~rie Divulgac^cedilla~a^tilde~o - Ministe^acute~rio da Agricultura, Pescas e Alimentac^cedilla~a^tilde~o, No. 3:108 pp.; 55 pp. of ref.

Gaspar MJ; Lousada JL; Rodrigues JC; Aguiar A; Almeida MH, 2009. Does selecting for improved growth affect wood quality of Pinus pinaster in Portugal? Forest Ecology and Management, 258(2):115-121. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781127

Guyon JP, 1991. Forest decline symptoms of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) in the Vendee region. Ecological factors. [Deperissement du pin maritime (Pinus pinaster Ait) en Vendee. Les causes ecologiques.] Annales des Sciences Forestieres, 48(3):333-346; 18 ref.

Hartmann HT; Kester DE; Davies FT Jr; Geneve RL, 1997. Plant propagation: principles and practices. 6th ed. London, UK; Prentice-Hall International (UK) Ltd.

Henderson L, 2001. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 12. Cape Town, South Africa: Paarl Printers.

Higgins SI; Richardson DM; Cowling RM; Trinder-Smith TH, 1999. Predicting the landscape-scale distribution of alien plants and their threat to plant diversity. Conservation Biology, 13(2):303-313.

Holmes PM; Foden W, 2001. The effectiveness of post-fire soil disturbance in restoring fynbos after alien clearance. South African Journal of Botany, 67(4):533-539.

Humphries CJ; Sutton DA; Press JR, 1981. Trees of Britain and Europe. London, UK: Hamlyn.

Jactel H; Menassieu P; Vetillard F; Gaulier A; Samalens JC; Brockerhoff EG, 2006. Tree species diversity reduces the invasibility of maritime pine stands by the bast scale, Matsucoccus feytaudi (Homoptera: Margarodidae). Canadian Journal of Forest Research [The ecology of forest insect invasions and advances in their management. IUFRO Working Parties D7 and D8 Conference: Forest diversity and resistance to native and exotic pest insects, Hanmer Springs, New Zealand, 10-13 August 2004.], 36(2):314-323.

Knowles FB; Miller JT, 1989. Introduced forest trees in New Zealand: recognition, role, and seed source. 8. Pinus pinaster Aiton - maritime pine. FRI Bulletin, No. 124, pt. 8, 13 pp.; 3 col. pl., 1 col. map; 15 ref.

Kozlowski TT; Pallardy SG, 1997. Physiology of woody plants. Physiology of woody plants., Ed. 2:xiv + 411 pp.; many ref.

Kulichin OA, 1989. Occurrence of Nagelus camelliae (Nematoda, Tylenchida) in the USSR. Trudy Gel'mintologicheskoi^breve~ Laboratorii, 37:102-105; [In ^italic~Problemy Fitogel'mintologii ^roman~(^italic~edited by Sonin, M.D.^roman~)]; 6 ref.

Lopez Gonzalez G, 1995. La Guia de Incafo de los Arboles y Arbustos de la Peninsula Iberica. 6ª edición. Madrid, Spain: Incafo Archivo Fotográfico.

Macdonald IAW; Richardson DM, 1986. Alien species in terrestrial ecosystems of the fynbos biome. In: Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Ferrar AA, eds. The ecology and management of biological invasions in southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 77-91.

Martínez-Alonso C; Kidelman A; Feito I; Velasco T; Alía R; Gaspar MJ; Majada J, 2012. Optimization of seasonality and mother plant nutrition for vegetative propagation of Pinus pinaster Ait. New Forests [Restoring Forests: Advances in Techniques and Theory, Madrid, Spain, September 2011.], 43(5/6):651-663. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=102971

Matthews JD, 1989. Silvicultural systems. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. xii + 284 pp.; 14 pp. of ref.

Michalopoulos Skarmoutsos H; Skarmoutsos G; Kalapanida M; Karageorgos A; Mota M, 2004. Surveying and recording of nematodes of the genus Bursaphelenchus in conifer forests in Greece and pathogenicity of the most important species. The-pinewood-nematode,-Bursaphelenchus-xylophilus.-Proceedings-of-an-International-Workshop,-University-of-Evora,-Portugal,-20-22-August-2001. 2004, 113-126.

Mitchell A, 1974. A field guide to the trees of Britain and northern Europe. London, UK; Collins. 415 pp. + 40 pl.

Mitchell AF, 1972. Conifers in the British Isles : a descriptive handbook. Forestry Commission Booklet, UK, No.33, 322 pp. + 24 pl.; 5 ref.

Office National des Forêts, 1996. Sylviculture [Silviculture.]. Bulletin Technique - Office National des Forêts, No. 31:80 pp.

Polunin O; Smythies B, 1981. Guía de Campo de las Flores de España, Portugal y Sudoeste de Francia. Barcelona, Spain: Ediciones Omega.

Pryor LD, Groves RH (ed. ), Castri F di, 1991. Forest plantations and invasions in the mediterranean zones of Australia and South Africa. Biogeography of mediterranean invasions, 405-412; 12 ref.

Rejmanek M, 1995. What makes a species invasive? Plant invasions: general aspects and special problems. Workshop held at Kostelec nad Cernymi lesy, Czech Republic, 16-19 September 1993 [edited by Pysek, P.; Prach, K.; Rejmanek, M.; Wade, M.] Amsterdam, Netherlands; SPB Academic Publishing, 3-13

Richardson DM, 1998. Ecology and biogeography of Pinus. Ecology and biogeography of ^italic~Pinus^roman~., xvii + 527 pp.; [many refs at ends of chapters].

Richardson DM; Macdonald IAW; Forsyth GG, 1989. Reductions in plant species richness under stands of alien trees and shrubs in the fynbos biome. South African Forestry Journal, No. 149:1-8

Richardson DM; Williams PA; Hobbs RJ, 1994. Pine invasions in the southern hemisphere: determinants of spread and invadability. Journal of Biogeography, 21(5):511-527

Riou-Nivert P, 1996. Les résineux. Tome 1: connaissance et reconnaissance [Conifers. Volume 1: knowledge and information.]. Paris, France: Institut pour le Développement Forestier. 255 pp.

Rouget M; Richardson DM; Milton SJ; Polakow D, 2001. Predicting invasion dynamics of four alien Pinus species in a highly fragmented semi-arid shrubland in South Africa. Plant Ecology, 152(1):79-92; 43 ref.

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2007. Flora Europaea, Database of European Plants (ESFEDS). Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden. http://193.62.154.38/FE/fe.html

Salinas F; Louro G; Marques H, 1999. Fichas de Apoio aos Planos Orientadores de Gest¦o. Lisboa, Portugal: Direcç¦o Geral das Florestas.

Santos-del-Blanco L; Climent J; González-Martínez SC; Pannell JR, 2012. Genetic differentiation for size at first reproduction through male versus female functions in the widespread Mediterranean tree Pinus pinaster. Annals of Botany, 110(7):1449-1460. http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/

Smith DM; Larson BC; Kelty MJ; Ashton PMS, 1997. The practice of silviculture: applied forest ecology. The practice of silviculture: applied forest ecology., Ed. 9:xvii + 537 pp.; [ref. at end of each chapter].

Soalleiro R; González J; González M; Vázquez P; Alonso P; Rosales M; Zorrilla P; Alonso G, 1997. Manual de Selvicultura del Pino Pinaster. Lugo, Spain: Escola Politécnica de Lugo.

Streets RJ, 1962. Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Tutin TG; Burges NA; Chater AO; Edmonson JR; Heywood VH; Moore DM; Valentine DH; Walters SM; Webb DA, 1993. Flora Europaea. Volume 1. 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. World Wide Web page at http://www.rbge.org.uk/forms/fe.html.

USDA; NRCS, 2007. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

USDA-ARS, 2007. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov.

Versfeld DB; van Wilgen BW, 1986. Impact of woody aliens on ecosystem properties. In: Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Ferrar AA (eds.), The Ecology and Management of Biological Invasions in Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 239-246.

Vidakovic M, 1991. Conifers: morphology and variation. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Weber E, 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: A reference guide to environmental weeds. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 548 pp.

Wotherspoon SH; Wotherspoon JA, 2002. The evolution and execution of a plan for invasive weed eradication and control, Rangitoto Island, Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. In: Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species [ed. by Veitch, C. R. \Clout, M. N.]. Gland and Cambridge, Switzerland and UK: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group, IUCN, 381-388.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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27/11/2007 Updated by:

Nick Pasiecznik, Consultant, France

Distribution Maps

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