Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pinus oocarpa
(ocote pine)

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Datasheet

Pinus oocarpa (ocote pine)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pinus oocarpa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • ocote pine
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Gymnospermae
  •         Class: Pinopsida

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tree in Chiquimula, Guatemala.
TitleTree
CaptionTree in Chiquimula, Guatemala.
CopyrightW.S. Dvorak, COMCORE
Tree in Chiquimula, Guatemala.
TreeTree in Chiquimula, Guatemala.W.S. Dvorak, COMCORE
Stand in Chiquimula, Guatemala.
TitleStand
CaptionStand in Chiquimula, Guatemala.
CopyrightW.S. Dvorak, COMCORE
Stand in Chiquimula, Guatemala.
StandStand in Chiquimula, Guatemala.W.S. Dvorak, COMCORE
Plantation, Dukuduku, Honduras.
TitlePlantation
CaptionPlantation, Dukuduku, Honduras.
CopyrightEnvironmentek, CSIR, South Africa
Plantation, Dukuduku, Honduras.
PlantationPlantation, Dukuduku, Honduras.Environmentek, CSIR, South Africa
Plantation, Wilgeboom, South Africa.
TitlePlantation
CaptionPlantation, Wilgeboom, South Africa.
CopyrightEnvironmentek, CSIR, South Africa
Plantation, Wilgeboom, South Africa.
PlantationPlantation, Wilgeboom, South Africa.Environmentek, CSIR, South Africa
TitleTwig and cones
Caption
CopyrightGerrit van Wyk
Twig and conesGerrit van Wyk

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pinus oocarpa Schiede ex Schltdl.

Preferred Common Name

  • ocote pine

Variety

  • Pinus oocarpa var. manzanoi Martinez
  • Pinus oocarpa var. microphylla Shaw
  • Pinus oocarpa var. ochoterenai Martinez
  • Pinus oocarpa var. oocarpa
  • Pinus oocarpa var. trifoliata Martinez

Other Scientific Names

  • Pinus praetermissa

International Common Names

  • English: Nicaraguan pitch pine; oocarpa pine
  • Spanish: pino prieto

EPPO code

  • PIUOO (Pinus oocarpa)
  • PIUPZ (Pinus praetermissa)

Trade name

  • Caribbean pitch pine
  • Nicaraguan pitch pine

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Gymnospermae
  •                 Class: Pinopsida
  •                     Family: Pinaceae
  •                         Genus: Pinus
  •                             Species: Pinus oocarpa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The genus Pinus (family Pinaceae) contains 93 species (Mabberley, 1997). P. oocarpa belongs to Pinus section Diploxylon, characterized by hard timber and 2 xylem bundles. In addition to the type variety of P. oocarpa, four other varieties are recognized: var. ochoterenai, var. trifoliata, var. microphylla and var. manzanoi. P. oocarpa var. ochoterenai is believed by some to be the same as Pinus patula var. longepedunculata. However, Perry (1991) states the differences between the two species (P. oocarpa and P. patula) are even recognisable in the field. The cones and needles of the two differ in that var. longepedunculata has slender distinctly pendant needles and var. ochoterenai has erect, often drooping, slender needles that are not pendant. Var. ochoterenai has cones that are 5-6 cm wide and asymmetrical while var. longepedunculata has cones 2-5 cm long that are more symmetrical. Var. ochoterenai and var. longepedunculata have been crossed by the Institute of Forest Genetics in Placerville, California, and it is possible that these two varieties cross in nature, hence the possible confusion between them.

Var. trifoliata has leaves in fascicles of 3; its cones are small and almost spherical and can readily be distinguished from other varieties of P. oocarpa. The distribution of this variety is limited to Jalisco and Durango states in Mexico.

Var. microphylla has much shorter needles than the other oocarpa varieties, 8-16 cm compared with 20-25 cm in the other varieties. The peduncle is long and slender and significantly different from the other varieties (Perry, 1991).

Description

Top of page General

The tree is a medium to large pine, from 15 to about 37 m high. The stem normally reaches 50-70 cm and occasionally 90 cm in diameter. The lower branches are more horizontal while the top ones are more ascending, forming a thick, rounded crown. The bark is 2-4 cm thick and is a dark greyish brown colour when the tree is older and mature. The bark also has shallow vertical and horizontal fissures, which gives the bark rough, longitudinal, geometric shaped plates. Young trees also have a rough, but thin and reddish brown bark. Branchlets are stiff, upright, rough and scaly. The bark of branchlets is reddish brown and the bases of the leaf bracts are decurrent.

Foliage

The leaves of the tree are in fascicles of 5 and occasionally 3 or 4. Needles are usually 20 to 25 cm long, thick and stiff and are occasionally slender and flexible. The margins are finely serrated and the stomata are present on the dorsal and ventral surfaces. There are 4-8 resin canals, which are mostly septal. The exterior wall of the endoderm is not thickened. Two contiguous but distinct fibrovascular bundles are present. Fascicle sheaths are brown and approximately 25 mm long.

Inflorescences, flowers and fruits

Conelets are subterminal, borne singly and in pairs on long, 2-3 cm, scaly peduncles. The cone scales are small and thick and rounded with a very deciduous prickle. The cones are very variable in form and size, ranging from globose (almost round) to ovoid and somewhat conical. Cones taper off to the apex in general and are mostly symmetrical, and oblique and reflexed on 3-4 cm long strong penduncles. The peduncles can be slender and weak in some forms, though short, thick, and very tenacious in others. Cones are between 6-10 cm long and pale yellowish brown to polished ochre in colour.

The cones ripen from January to November and can be closed for very long periods only to release seeds during long dry periods. The cones are persistent for long periods on the branches and when they do fall off the peduncles remain attached to the cone. Cone scales are hard, strong, stiff, and the apophysis is almost flat with a well-defined transverse keel.

In Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador the apophysis may be raised to a pyramidal with a small, recurved umbo. In most cases the umbo is small and almost flat to depressed, with a very small, early-deciduous prickle. When the scales are open they form a wide open symmetrical rosette pattern which contrasts with the cones of P. patula or P. pringlei (Perry, 1991).

Seeds of P. oocarpa are small, dark brown and 4-7 mm long. The wings are 10 to 12 mm long, articulated and thickened at the base where it joins the seed. Cotyledons are 5 to 7, usually 6. About 120,000 seeds weigh a kilogramme.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
CameroonPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
Congo, Republic of thePresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
Côte d'IvoirePresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
EthiopiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
KenyaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
LiberiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
MadagascarPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
MalawiPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
Sierra LeonePresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
South AfricaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
TanzaniaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
UgandaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
ZambiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)

Asia

BangladeshPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
IndiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
IndonesiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
-JavaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
MalaysiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
NepalPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
PhilippinesPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
Sri LankaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
ThailandPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
VietnamPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)

North America

BelizePresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
Costa RicaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
CubaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
El SalvadorPresentCABI (Undated a)
GuatemalaPresentCABI (Undated a)
HondurasPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
JamaicaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
MexicoPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
NicaraguaPresentCABI (Undated a)
Puerto RicoPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Northern TerritoryPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
-QueenslandPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
FijiPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
Papua New GuineaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
Solomon IslandsPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
VanuatuPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)

South America

ArgentinaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
BrazilPresentBraga et al. (2014)
-Minas GeraisPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
-Sao PauloPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
ColombiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
EcuadorPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
French GuianaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
GuyanaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
PeruPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
VenezuelaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
28 13 250 2500

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 13 27
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 21 34
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 7 20

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration06number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall7003000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Soil improvement

Materials

  • Fibre
  • Gum/resin
  • Wood/timber

Wood Products

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Pulp

  • Long-fibre pulp

Railway sleepers

Roundwood

  • Piles
  • Posts

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Beams
  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • Flooring
  • For heavy construction
  • For light construction

References

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Billings RF; Schmidtke PJ, 2002. Central America southern pine beetle/fire management assessment. Report submitted to U.S. Agency for International Development under a technical services agreement with USDA Foreign Agriculture Service/International Cooperation and Development, 41 pp.

Birks JS; Barnes RD, 1990. Provenance variation in Pinus caribaea, P. oocarpa and P. patula ssp. tecunumanii. Tropical Forestry Papers, No. 21. Oxford Forestry Institute, University of Oxford. vii + 40 pp.; 56 ref.

Booth TH; Jovanovic T, 2000. Improving descriptions of climatic requirements in the CABI Forestry Compendium. A report for the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. CSIRO - Forestry and Forest Products, Client Report No. 758.

Braga EP; Zenni RD; Hay JD, 2014. A new invasive species in South America: Pinus oocarpa Schiede ex Schltdl. BioInvasions Records, 3(3):207-211. http://www.reabic.net/journals/bir/2014/3/BIR_2014_Braga_etal.pdf

Cibrián Tovar D; Tulio Mendez Montiel J; Campos Bolanos R; Yates HO; Flores Lara J, 1985. Insectos forestales de Mexico/Forest Insects of Mexico. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, North American Forestry Commission. [In English and Spanish].

Dallimore W; Jackson AB, 1966. Handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae. Fourth edition. Revised by SG Harison. London, UK: Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd.

Dvorak WS; Potter KM; Hipkins VD; Hodge GR, 2009. Genetic diversity and gene exchange in Pinus oocarpa, a Mesoamerican pine with resistance to the pitch canker fungus (Fusarium circinatum). International Journal of Plant Sciences, 170(5):609-626. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/597780

Ekwebelam SA, 1980. Effect of mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and yield of Pinus oocarpa and Pinus caribpa var. bahamensis seedlings. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 45(4):290-295

Geils BW; Cibrißn Tovar J; Moody B, 2002. Mistletoes of North American conifers. General Technical Report - Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, No.RMRS-GTR-98:x + 123 pp.; many ref.

Greaves A, 1977. Results from provenance trials of Pinus caribaea Morelet and P. oocarpa Schiede at Nzoia, Turbo pulpwood scheme. Technical Note, Kenya Forest Department, No. 148, 5 + v pp.; 3 ref.

Greaves A, 1978. Descriptions of seed sources and collections of provenances of Pinus oocarpa. Tropical Forestry Papers, Commonwealth Forestry Institute, University of Oxford, No. 13, iv + 144 pp.; 8 pl.; 35 ref.

Greaves A, 1979. Descriptions of seed sources and collections for provenances of Pinus oocarpa. Tropical Forestry Papers, No. 13, iv + 144pp.; 35 ref.

Greaves A, 1980. Review of the Pinus caribaea Mor. and Pinus oocarpa Schiede international provenance trials, 1978. Occasional Paper, Commonwealth Forestry Institute, University of Oxford, No. 12, v + 89 pp.; 10 pp. ref.

Greaves A, 1981. A bibliography on Pinus oocarpa covering the literature from 1920 to 1980. 23 pp.; 263 ref.

Greaves A, 1981. Progress in the Pinus caribaea Morelet and Pinus oocarpa Schiede international provenance trials. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 60(1):35-43; See FA 41, 6524; 14 ref.

Greaves A, 1982. Pinus oocarpa. [Review Article]. Forestry Abstracts, 43(9):503-532; 212 ref.

Greaves A, 1982. Pinus oocarpa. Annotated Bibliography, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, No. F22, i + 71 pp.; 310 ref.

Greaves A; Kemp RH; Diabate K; Egenti LC; Granhof JJ; Kageyama PY; Ferreira M; Bertolani F; Nicolielo N; Kaumi SYS; Rakotomanampison A; Wyk G van; Vivekanandan K; Ojo GOA, 1978. Progress and problems of genetic improvement of tropical forest trees. In: Nikles DG, Burley J, Barnes RD, eds, Proceedings of a joint workshop, IUFRO working parties S2.02-08 and S2.03-01, Brisbane, 1977. V. Provenance trials and breeding programmes. B. Pinus oocarpa Schiede. 552-668.

Harahap RMS, 1992. Pinus oocarpa and Pinus caribaea development for industrial forest plantations. [Pengembangan Pinus oocarpa Schiede dan P. caribaea Morelet untuk hutan tanaman industri.] Buletin Penelitian Hutan, No. 547, 33-44; With English tables; 21 ref.

Hawksworth FG; Wiens D, 1996. Dwarf Mistletoes: Biology, Pathology, and Systematics. Agriculture Handbook 709. Washington DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

Hernandez Paz M, 1975. El gorjojo de la corteza, plaga principal de los pinares. Publ. 1. Corporación Hondureña de Desarrollo Forestal. 13 pp.

Houkal D, 1982. Spiral grain in Pinus oocarpa. Wood and Fiber, 14(4):320-330; 14 ref.

Ivory MH, 1987. Diseases and disorders of pines in the tropics: a field and laboratory manual. Overseas Research Publication Series, Overseas Development Administration, UK, No. 31:92 pp.

Kanowski P; Wright J, 1985. Effects of resin extraction on optically determined density of Pinus caribaea Morelet and P. oocarpa Schiede. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 64(1):29-31; 5 ref.

Keeley JE; Zedler PH, 1998. Evolution of life histories in Pinus. In: Richardson, D.M. (editor), Ecology and biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press, pp. 219-250.

Ketcham DE; Bennett WH, 1964. Epidemics of pine bark beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm., in Honduras. Final Report USDA Forest Service unpublished manuscript. 7 pp.

Kromhout CP; Toon RE, 1978. Variation of wood properties of some tropical species grown in plantations in Southern Africa. In: Nikles DG, Burley J, Barnes RD, eds, Progress and problems of genetic improvement of tropical forest trees. Proceedings of a joint workshop, IUFRO working parties S2.02-08 and S2.03-01, Brisbane, 1977. I. Wood quality of tropical species in relation to provenance and tree breeding, 8-45; 18 ref.

Kromhout N, 1978. Potential of fast-grown tropical pines for uses other than pulp and paper in Southern Africa. In: Nikles DG, Burley J, Barnes RD, eds, Progress and problems of genetic improvement of tropical forest trees. Proceedings of a joint workshop, IUFRO working parties S2.02-08 and S2.03-01, Brisbane, 1977. II. Pulp, paper and timber properties of plantation-grown tropical pines, 162-166.

Liegel LH, 1984. Assessment of hurricane rain/wind damage in Pinus caribaea and Pinus oocarpa provenance trials in Puerto Rico. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 63(1):47-53; 15 ref.

Mabberley DJ, 1997. The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants. Ed. 2: xvi + 858 pp. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Nikles DG; Burley J; Barnes RD; eds, 1978. Progress and problems of genetic improvement of tropical forest trees. Proceedings of a joint workshop, IUFRO working parties S2.02-08 and S2.03-01, Brisbane, 1977. V. Provenance trials and breeding programmes. G. Other softwood species. 1978, 808 873.

Perry JP Jr, 1991. The pines of Mexico and Central America. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. 231 pp.; 6 pp. of ref.

Poynton RJ, 1977. Report to the Southern African Regional Commission for the Conservation and Utilisation of the Soil (SARCCUS) on Tree planting in southern Africa, Vol. 1, The Pines. Department of Forestry, Republic of South Africa.

Sáenz-Romero C; Guzmán-Reyna RR; Rehfeldt GE, 2006. Altitudinal genetic variation among Pinus oocarpa populations in Michoacán, Mexico: implications for seed zoning, conservation, tree breeding and global warming. Forest Ecology and Management, 229(1/3):340-350.

Schutt P; Schuck HJ; Aas G; Lang UM; eds, 1994. Encyclopaedia of woody plants: manual and atlas of dendrology. [Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse: Handbuch und Atlas der Dendrologie]. Landsberg am Lech, Germany: Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft.

Soerianegara I; Lemmens RHMJ, eds. , 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1). Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. Also published by PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. pp. 610.

Solberg KH, 1978. A nursery experiment with shading and potting soils. Pinus caribaea and P. oocarpa. Tanzania. EAC NORAD Lowland Afforestation Project, 1973 1975, Technical report No.5, 15 pp.

Solberg KH, 1978. Direct sowing contra transplanting in the nursery. Pinus caribaea and P. oocarpa. Tanzania. Lysholm, G.-Project-leader:-EAC-NORAD-Lowland-Afforestation-Project,-1973-1975, Technical Report No. 7, 8 pp.

Solberg KH, 1978. Miscellaneous nursery experiments. Pinus caribaea and P. oocarpa, Tanzania. Lysholm, G.-Project-leader:-EAC-NORAD-Lowland-Afforestation-Project,-1973-1975, Technical Report No. 8, 33 pp.; 2 ref.

Solberg KH, 1978. Nursery experiments with various potting soils. Pinus caribaea, Pinus oocarpa and Eucalyptus microcorys. Tanzania. EAC NORAD Lowland Afforestation Project, 1973 1975, Technical report No.3, 28 pp, 8 ref.

Solberg KH, 1978. Three nursery experiments with fertilization and potting soils. Pinus caribaea and P. oocarpa. Tanzania. EAC NORAD Lowland Afforestation Project, 1973 1975, Technical report No.4, 53 pp, 3 ref.

Solberg KH, 1978. Tube size and plant age. Nursery and field experiment. Pinus caribaea and Pinus oocarpa. Tanzania. Lysholm, G.-Project-leader:-EAC-NORAD-Lowland-Afforestation-Project,-1973-1975, Technical Report No. 10, 34 pp.

Solberg KH; Lysholm G, 1978. Miscellaneous nursery experiments with Pinus caribaea and Pinus oocarpa in Gede nursery, Kenya. Lysholm, G.-Project-leader:-EAC-NORAD-Lowland-Afforestation-Project,-1973-1975, Technical Report No. 1, 55 pp.; 5 ref.

Tampubolon AP; Harahap RMS, 1992. A silvicultural system for Pinus oocarpa and comparison of its performance with Pinus merkusii. [Sistem silvikultur Pinus oocarpa dan perbandingan penampilannya dengan Pinus merkusii.] Buletin Penelitian Hutan, No. 553, 9-22; With English tables; 22 ref.

Vidakovic M, 1991. Conifers: morphology and variation. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Webb DB; Wood PJ; Smith JP; Henman GS, 1984. A guide to species selection for tropical and sub-tropical plantations. Tropical Forestry Papers, No. 15. Oxford, UK: Commonwealth Forestry Institute, University of Oxford.

Wright JA; Gibson GL; Barnes RD, 1987. Provenance variation in stem volume and wood density of Pinus oocarpa and P. patula ssp. tecunumanii growing at two elevations in South Africa. South African Forestry Journal, No. 143, 46-48; 10 ref.

Distribution References

Braga E P, Zenni R D, Hay J D, 2014. A new invasive species in South America: Pinus oocarpa Schiede ex Schltdl. BioInvasions Records. 3 (3), 207-211. http://www.reabic.net/journals/bir/2014/3/BIR_2014_Braga_etal.pdf DOI:10.3391/bir.2014.3.3.12

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Distribution Maps

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