Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Wood Products
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Pinus halepensis Mill.
Preferred Common Name
- Aleppo pine
- Pinus halepensis var. eldarica
Other Scientific Names
- Pinus abasica hort. ex Carriere
- Pinus arabica Sieber ex Spreng.
- Pinus persica Strangw.
International Common Names
- English: Jerusalem pine
- Spanish: Alepo pinua; pi blanc; pi bord; pino blanquillo; pino carrasco; pino de Alepo
- French: pin blanc; pin d'Alep
- Portuguese: pinheiro francos; pinheiro-de-alepo
Local Common Names
- Croatia: alepski bor; alepskim borom; alepskog bora; bili bor
- Germany: Aleppokiefer; Seekiefer
- Greece: halepios pefki; pefko
- Israel: oren Jerushalaim
- Italy: pino d'Aleppo
- Netherlands: Aleppo pijn
- Poland: alepskiej
- Serbia: alepski bor; alepskim borom; alepskog bora; bili bor
- Turkey: halepcami
- PIUHA (Pinus halepensis)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Gymnospermae
- Class: Pinopsida
- Family: Pinaceae
- Genus: Pinus
- Species: Pinus halepensis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
P. brutia was previously considered a subspecies or variety of P. halepensis by some authors, for example, by Gaussen et al. (1993) in their revision of Pinus in Europe. However, P. brutia is now almost universally accepted as a separate species (Price et al., 1998).
DescriptionTop of page
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 21 Jul 2022
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Planted||Reference||Notes|
|South Africa||Present||Introduced||First reported: pre-1830|
|India||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Present||Native|
|United States||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-New South Wales||Present||Introduced||Planted|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
As P. halepensis is not a species of major commercial importance, no comprehensive data are available on the global extent of plantings for this species, although there are more details concerning Southern Africa and Australia. Where P. halepensis is planted outside its natural range it can exhibit weedy characteristics and in some areas it has become an important weed, and Richardson and Higgins (1998) review the phenomenon of pines as plant invaders in the southern hemisphere. In other areas, P. halepensis has failed to establish, for example, in the Pescadore Islands in the Taiwan Straits (Kao, 1983). It is also notable that P. halepensis is not widely naturalized or a weed problem in California, USA, despite widespread plantings throughout coastal regions of the state where it grows vigorously without irrigation in areas that receive 400-500 mm of rain per year (DM Richardson, University of Cape Town, South Africa, personal communication, 1999). However, one area of California where it is reported invasive is Catalina Island (Knapp, 2004).
P. halepensis has been planted in all countries of southern Africa, where it was first introduced in the mid 1800s. Plantings and trials have been most extensive in South Africa, but the species is also grown in Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe (Poynton, 1979). P. halepensis is presumed to have been introduced in South Africa before 1830 (Shaughnessy, 1986). The first record of prolific natural regeneration and presumed spread of P. halepensis in the southern hemisphere is from the Caledon district of South Africa in 1855, some 25 years after it arrived in the country. Invasion of fynbos vegetation in South Africa often occurs after a fire (Trabaud, 1991).
P. halepensis arrived in Australia in about 1850, and the main phase of planting, mainly in South Australia, was just before 1900. It has been planted fairly widely in the southern part of the continent, mainly in predominantly winter rainfall areas that receiving 450-750 mm per year. In South and Western Australia, it has invaded disturbed eucalypt forest, especially around Adelaide and on the Eyre Peninsula. P. halepensis appears on the noxious weed list for Australian states and territories, its use being controlled in parts of South Australia, and it is presently unassigned prior to assessment in Western Australia (Anon., 1998). In New Zealand, most invaded sites are extensively managed grasslands, but various semi-natural vegetation types are also invaded. In a study of fifteen alien forestry species in Argentina, Zalba (1995) found that P. halepensis showed the greatest expansion.
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah)||Lithomyrtus||Unknown|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
P. halepensis is a diploid species with a chrosome number of 2n=24. Genetic variation in P. halepensis is considerable, and can be clearly observed in morphological features, such as trunk straightness, branch thickness and cone shape. Giordano (1960) studied provenances in Italy; differences exist between provenances from Israel, Morocco, Greece and Italy whilst Karschon (1961) established two altitudinal ecotypes in Israel. Morphological and biochemical studies of intraspecific genetic variation within the species have confirmed the existence of two main groups within the natural range of P. halepensis: East Mediterranean and West Mediterranean. The latter is subdivided into four subgroups: Eastern European subgroup (mainly in the Balkan peninsula); West European subgroup (Italy, France and Spain); West North-African subgroup (Morocco and West Algeria) and East North-African subgroup (East Algeria and Tunisia) (Schiller et al., 1986; Schiller and Grunwald, 1987). Different provenances of P. halepensis also display different levels of resistance to pests, and most of the devastating outbreaks of insect pests in Mediterranean Basin pine forests have occurred in planted, rather than natural, pine stands, where inappropriate provenances have been planted, for example, in Morocco (Questienne, 1979). Different provenances of P. halepensis also display different levels of resistance to frost and low water potentials (Schiller and Brunori, 1992) and the importance of careful site-provenance matching is now generally accepted.
Physiology and Phenology
It is a not a very long-lived pine, living for up to 150-200 years, though Lepart and Debussche (1991) report that P. halepensis lives until approximately the age of 100 years, but can bear cones at six years and produce viable seed from age 12.
P. halepensis reaches reproductive maturity at a relatively young age enabling it to cope with sites prone to fire. P. halepensis produces seed prolifically (Weber, 2003) and the time interval between seeding events is approximately two years (Moran et al., 2000). According to Moran et al. (2000) the seeds are stored in the canopy and are strongly serotinous. Seeds are able to germinate and establish in the immediate post-fire environment and it would appear that disturbance through fire promotes seedling establishment and invasion (Rouget et al., 2001). There is usually prolific seedling recruitment after fires, leading to dense, even-aged stands. However, seed release is not wholly dependent on fire as dry, hot conditions may also stimulate seed release, as occurs in Israel (Nathan et al., 2000). Lepart and Debussche (1991) note that P. halepensis is not able to recruit seedlings under its own canopy and in natural successions, tends to be replaced by other species such as the oaks Quercus ilex and Q. pubescens. Seeds remain viable for up to ten years (Dean et al., 1986).
P. halepensis is one of the most drought-tolerant of all pines and Rouget et al. (2001) consider that this may have contributed to its widespread invasion of semi-arid shrubland in South Africa. It also survives nutrient-poor soils, frost (provenance-specific) and salt spray, but is unable to withstand waterlogging. In warm, humid conditions, P. halepensis is susceptible to damage from hail storms and subsequent infection by Diploidia pinea. In parts of its adventive range, crowns of P. halepensis can be broken by heavy snowfalls.
The distribution of P. halepensis in the Mediterranean basin follows the 1.5°C isotherm of mean minimum temperature for the coldest months of the year (Trabaud et al., 1985), with annual precipitation in the 300-900 mm range (Houérou, 1974). In the North African part of its range, Le Houérou (1981) argued that P. halepensis forests extended to the 200-150 mm isohyet at approximately 2500 BC, but that extensive deforestation in the 1800s resulted in the shrinkage of its range to areas with at least 300 mm annual rainfall. It grows from sea level to 1700 m (only in Morocco). Summer temperatures averaging 20-25°C accompanied by 3-month drought are typical in its current natural range. P. halepensis is generally considered to be very frost tolerant, surviving winter temperatures as low as -12°C (Calamassi et al., 1999), but this is dependent on microclimatic conditions.
At drier sites within and at the edge of this range, Quercus suber often assumes dominance (Summers, 1939), whereas other pine species (P. pinaster, P. pinea, P. nigra) replace P. halepensis in more humid areas at high elevations. The climatic conditions in the range of P. halepensis are conducive to widespread wildfires; indeed the P. halepensis zone is one of the most flammable of all areas in the Mediterranean Basin. Although P. halepensis is best suited to Mediterranean areas with predominantly winter rainfall, it also grows well when planted outside its natural range in uniform- and summer-rainfall regions.
In its natural range in the Mediterranean basin, P. halepensis generally grows on marls, limestone and dolomites, avoiding wet soils and compacted clay soils. In Israel, it grows on luvisols, tolerating terra rossa soils, but preferring brown and pale rendzinas. In South Africa, P. halepensis has proved very accommodating with respect to soils, but it grows best in the presence of lime. It grows well on clay-loams overlying dolerite or shale and, on the highveld, it succeeds on acid, sandy and skeletal soils derived from sandstones. In Australia, it also grows on a wide range of soils, from moderately heavy clays to rather poor sandy podsols, but it does best on sandy loams. For amenity plantings it is generally suitable for most soil types, except for tight clays. Plantations of P. halepensis in southeast Croatia appear to stop the degradation of the limestone soils (karsting) and to improve basic soil properties, resulting in improved regeneration of native trees and shrubs (Tomasevic, 1994) and similar results have been obtained in Bulgaria (Tilev, 1977). In some locations P. halepensis can experience deficiencies in phosphate (Doumas et al., 1983, 1984) and/or potassium (Mandouri, 1981; Doumas et al., 1986).
P. halepensis is often a dominant component of coniferous forests at lower altitudes in the Mediterranean basin and also occurs in maquis, various other scrub communities and on planted coastal dunes. It typically occurs above a layer of shrubs, such as Arbutus unedo, Erica arborea and Myrtus communis or Cistus species. In Australia, P. halepensis has invaded disturbed native eucalypt forest in South Australia and Eucalyptus marginata forest in Western Australia. Aleppo pine is a widespread invader of two types of vegetation in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa: fynbos and renosterveld.
The most common mycorrhizal fungi found to be associated with P. halepensis in different parts of its range are: Suillus, Rhizopogon and Cenococcum geophilum (Iberia, Spain; Diaz et al., 1996); Amanita spissa, Hebeloma edurum, Lactarius deliciosus, Pisolithus tinctorius, Suillus luteus and S. variegatus (Spain; Torres and Honrubia, 1994); Pisolithus tinctorius, Rhizopogon roseolus, and Suillus collinitus (south-east Spain; Roldan and Albaladejo, 1994); Suillus collinitus, S. granulatus, Rhizopogon roseolus, R. luteolus, Amanita muscaria and Lactarius deliciosus (Spain; Torres and Honrubia, 1991); Tuber melanosporum, T. brumale var. moschatum, T. aestivum, T. albidum and T. maculatum (Italy; Pirazzi and Gregorio, 1987).
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-12|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||15||17|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||0||3||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||150||900||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Among the fungal diseases known to affect P. halepensis, the following are probably the most widespread and damaging: Coleosporium inulae, a heteroecious foliar rust, can seriously damage P. halepensis in young plantations (Magnani, 1974); Cronartium flaccidum (blister rust) (Raddi and Fagnani, 1978; Moriondo et al., 1980; Luisi, 1983; Karadzic and Vujanovic, 1992); Crumenulopsis sororia, a canker, particularly following abnormally high rainfall years (Morelet, 1971, 1978); Gibberella fujikuroi var. subglutinans (conidial state = Fusarium subglutinans) or pitch canker (McCain et al., 1987); Phellinus pini (red ring rot) (Sisto and Luis, 1991; Karadzic and Vujanovic, 1992; Arbouche et al., 1993); Phellinus torulosus (white decay fungus) (Perlini, 1997); Sclerotium bataticola Taub. (Macrophomina phaseolina) (Madar and Reuveni, 1981); Sirococcus strobilinus (S. conigenus) causes bud death (Morelet, 1972; Munoz López, 1997); Sphaeropsis sapinea (Diplodia pinea) or Sphaeropsis canker/crown wilt (Torres-Juan, 1971; Schiller, 1972; Capretti et al., 1987; Karadzic and Vujanovic, 1992; Diminic et al., 1993; Stiki et al., 1995; Diminic, 1994, 1996; Madar et al., 1996); Thyriopsis halepensis (Glavas, 1983).
Among the insect pests of P. halepensis, the following (listed in alphabetical order) are probably the most widespread and/or damaging: Leucaspis pusilla (Homoptera Diaspididae) (Tuscany, Italy; damages trees already weakened by abiotic or biotic factors; Raspi and Antonelli, 1987). Another species, L. pini, has caused damage to P. halepensis in Argentina (Mallea et al., 1988). Matsucoccus josephi (Homoptera: Margarodidae) (Israeli pine bast scale); the most serious pest of P. halepensis in Israel (Golan et al., 1983). Damage caused by this introduced insect has dramatically reduced the use of P. halepensis in plantations in Israel resulting in the replacement of P. halepensis with P. brutia and P. pinea in many areas (O Boneh, Forestry Department KKL, Jewish National Fund, Zefat, Israel, personal communication, 1999); Monochamus galloprovincialis (Cerambycid) (Georgebits, 1974); Orthotomicus erosus (Halperin et al., 1982; Mendel and Halperin, 1982; Georgebits, 1974); Pityogenes calcaratus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) (Halperin et al., 1982; Georgebits, 1974); Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Thaumetopoeidae; pine processionary caterpillar) (Tsankov et al., 1995; Papitto, 1995); Hylurgus destruens (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is one of the most destructive pests of pine forests in the Mediterranean region (Monleon et al., 1996); Secondary pests include borers (Pissodes castaneus, Tomicus piniperda, Orthotomicus erosus and Monochamus galloprovincialis) that usually cause problems only after trees have been weakened by environmental stresses (for example, prolonged drought followed by very cold temperatures; Capretti et al., 1987). The mite Cenopalpus wainsteini is an important pest in north-western Apulia, Italy, where adverse growing conditions of the trees on dry stony ground can permit insufficient retention of water in the soil when the temperature was most favourable for growth (Macchia et al., 1983).
In Israel, porcupines (Hystrix indica) cause patchy but sometimes heavy damage to Aleppo pine, especially in rocky sites with low vegetation cover (Izhaki and Ne'eman, 1996).
Current ambient levels of ozone over much of the natural range of Aleppo pine exceed UN-ECE critical level guidelines for the protection of forest trees and this pine is sensitive to ozone (Elvira et al., 1998). Typical ozone injury symptoms of chlorotic mottle and damage to plicate mesophyll cells may lead to the death of young seedlings (Naveh et al., 1980). Ozone exposure (by inducing an increase in diffusive resistance; Anttonen et al., 1998) and moderate water shortage induce similar reductions in gas exchange rates. An antagonistic response modulated by the severity of water stress followed combined exposure to both ozone and water stress (Inclam et al., 1998). In combination, ozone and mild drought decrease the carbon-fixation capacity of P. halepensis, reducing the amount of carbon transferred to the roots, leading to reduced root growth. Thus, high levels of ozone during the summer months may impair the ability of P. halepensis to withstand severe water stress in its natural environment (Gerant et al., 1996).
In many areas of the current range of Aleppo pine in the Mediterranean Basin, large-scale dieback in stands has been attributed to complex interactions between various factors, and is often the result of planting an inappropriate provenance (Capretti et al., 1987). In Israel, ozone damage predisposes Aleppo pine to attack by M. josephi. The combined effect is progressive desiccation from the lower branches and finally death of the tree; this together with the increase of dry matter from bush encroachment increases the intensity of wildfires (Z. Naveh, Faculty of Agriculture Engineering, Technicon, Haifa, Israel, personal communication, 1999).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Pest and disease transmission
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
UsesTop of page
It is not used for commercial forestry anywhere in the world, mainly because of its poor stem form and low-quality timber. P. halepensis yields a yellowish-brown, coarse-grained, resinous, moderately dense wood of poor quality which is sometimes used for rough constructional purposes, in low-grade joinery and boxes, as railway sleepers, telephone poles, mine props, also as a firewood and charcoal.
Formerly, P. halepensis was often tapped for resin, especially in Portugal and Spain, but this is now only performed in some parts of Greece. The bark has been used in tanning leather.
Uses ListTop of page
- Boundary, barrier or support
- Erosion control or dune stabilization
- Shade and shelter
- Soil improvement
Human food and beverage
- Spices and culinary herbs
- Miscellaneous materials
Wood ProductsTop of page
- Pit props
Sawn or hewn building timbers
- Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
- For light construction
- Wall panelling
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Weber (2003) lists fire among the control approaches for P. halepensis but notes that this can lead to the release of large numbers of seeds. According to Lepart and Debussche (1991), P. halepensis can be eradicated if consecutive fire events occur within a twelve-year period. However, lack of disturbance also promotes the eventual reduction of P. halepensis as it is outcompeted by other species in such environments (Lepart and Debussche, 1991).
Mechanical control methods suitable for P. halepensis include the removal of seedlings and juveniles by pulling and for mature trees, felling or ringbarking (Weber, 2003). Trees do not resprout if they are cut (Lepart and Debussche, 1991) and it is not usually necessary to apply herbicides to the cut stumps of felled P. halepensis (Weber, 2003).
Moran et al. (2000) considered that a cone weevil currently being tested in South Africa for release as a biocontrol agent for P. pinaster might also act as an agent for P. halepensis, and the cecidomyid flies Caryphomyia pinicolana and Camistomyi pinicolana may also be potential agents. Research efforts focus on seed and cone feeding species for control of Pinus species in South Africa because of their importance to commercial stakeholders (Moran et al., 2000).
ReferencesTop of page
Acherar M; Lepart J; Debussche M, 1984. Colonization of old fields by Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) in the Mediterranean Languedoc. [La colonisation des friches par le pin d'Alep (Pinus halepensis Miller) en Languedoc mediterraneen.] Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Plantarum, 5(2):179-189.
Agee JK, 1998. Fire and pine ecosystems. In: Richardson DM, ed, Ecology and biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press, pp. 193-218.
Anon, 1998. Noxious Weeds List for Australian States and Territories. National Weeds Strategy Executive Committee (NWSEC), Australia. http://www.weeds.org.au/index.html.
Barbéro M; Loisel R; Quezel P; Richardson DM; Romane F, 1998. Pines of the Mediterranean Basin. In: Richardson DM, ed., Ecology and biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 153-170.
Binggeli P, 1999. Invasive woody plants. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html.
Calamassi R; Strati S; Paoletti E, 1999. Frost hardening in Aleppo pine. In: Proceedings, MEDPINE. International Workshop on Mediterranean Pines. Oranim, Israel: Department of Biology, University of Haifa.
Ciancio O; Maetzke F; Menguzzato G; Portoghesi L, 1990. Wood production in a Mediterranean environment: forest management on the Massanova estate. [L'arboricoltura da legno in ambiente mediterraneo: il piano colturale dell'azienda Massanova.] Annali dell'Istituto Sperimentale per la Selvicoltura, publ. 1992, 21:5-56.
Dallara PL; Storer AJ; Gordon TR; Wood DL, 1995. Current status of pitch canker disease in California. California Division of Forestry and Fire Protection, Tree Notes 20.
Dean SJ; Holmes PM; Weiss PW, 1986. Seed biology of invasive alien plants in South Africa and South West Africa / Namibia. In: Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Ferrar AA (eds.), The Ecology and Management of Biological Invasions in Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 157-170.
Diaz G; Honrubia M; Garcia G; Gutierrez A, 1996. Identification of mycorrhizas in Aleppo pine forests in the Sistema IbTrico, Spain. Preliminary results. Cahiers Options Me^acute~diterrane^acute~ennes, 20:43-50; 15 ref.
Doumas P; Ba A; Coupe M; D' Auzac J, 1984. Comparison of the effect of phosphate deficiency on the activity of phosphatases in the roots of two species of Pinus (P, halepensis and P.pinaster). [Comparaison de l'effet de la carence en phosphate sur les activites phosphatasiques racinaires chez deux especes du genre Pinus (P. halepensis et P. pinaster).] Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, III, 299(2):39-44.
Doumas P; Coupe M; D' Auzac J, 1983. Effect of phosphate deficiency on phosphatase activity in the roots of Aleppo pine. [Effet de la carence en phosphate sur les activites des phosphatases racinaires du pin d'Alep.] Physiologie Vegetale, 21(4):651-663.
Elvira S; Alonso R; Castillo FJ; Gimeno BS, 1998. On the response of pigments and antioxidants of Pinus halepensis seedlings to Mediterranean climatic factors and long-term ozone exposure. New Phytologist, 138(3):419-432; many ref.
Gaussen H; Heywood VH; Chater AO, 1993. Pinus. In: Tutin TG, Burges NA, Chater AO, eds. Flora Europaea. Vol. 1. Psilotaceae to Platanaceae. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Georgebits RP, 1974. Wood- and bark-eating insects on Pinus halepensis in Attica (observations made in 1967-1971). Publication, Institouton Dasikon Ereunon, 'Upourgeion Georgias, No. 60, 47 pp.; 34 ref.
Gerant D; Podor M; Grieu P; Afif D; Cornu S; Morabito D; Banvoy J; Robin C; Dizengremel P, 1996. Carbon metabolism enzyme activities and carbon partitioning in Pinus halepensis Mil. exposed to mild drought and ozone. Special issue: vegetation stress I. First international symposium on vegetation stress, Munich, Germany, 19-21 June 1995. Journal-of-Plant-Physiology, 148(1-2):142-147; 34 ref.
Girard F; Vennetier M; Guibal F; Corona C; Ouarmim S; Herrero A, 2012. Pinus halepensis Mill. crown development and fruiting declined with repeated drought in Mediterranean France. European Journal of Forest Research, 131(4):919-931. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=110827
Henderson L, 2001. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 12. Cape Town, South Africa: Paarl Printers.
Kadik B; Riedacker A; Gagnaire-Michard J, 1978. The effect of mycorrhization on the growth of young forest plants (Pinus halepensis). Symposium: root physiology and symbiosis. Nancy, 11-15 Sept. 1978. Proceedings: Symposium: physiologie des racines et symbioses. Nancy, 11-15 Septembre 1978. Comptes-rendus, 444-448.
Karadzic D; Vujanovic V, 1992. Pathogenic mycoflora of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) in the Mediterranean part of Montenegro. Glasnik S^hacek~umarskog Fakulteta, Univerzitet u Beogradu, No. 74:1:31-41; 10 ref.
Knapp JJ, 2002. List of invasive plants for Catalina island. Catalina Island Conservancy. http://www.catalinaconservancy.org/ecology/research/knapp.asp.
Le Houérou HN, 1974. Fire and vegetation in the Mediterranean basin. Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, 13:237-277.
Le Houérou HN, 1981. Impact of man and his animals on mediterranean vegetation. In: di Castri F, Goodall DW, Specht RL, eds. Mediterranean-Type Shrublands. Ecosystems of the World, Vol. 11. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 479-517.
Lepart J; Debussche M, 1991. Invasion processes as related to succession and disturbance. Biogeography of mediterranean invasions [edited by Groves, R. H.; Castri, F. di] Cambridge, UK; Cambridge University Press, 159-177
Lepart J; Debussche M, 1992. Human impact on landscape patterning: Mediterranean examples. In: Hansen AJ, di Castri F, eds. Landscape Boundaries. Consequences for Biotic Diversity and Ecological Flows. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag, 76-106.
Macchia F; Nuzzaci G; Triggiani O, 1983. Relationship between Cenopalpus wainsteini (Livsh. & Mitrof.) and morpho-physiological alterations in Pinus halepensis Mill. in the reafforestation zones of the Murge in north-western Apulia. Entomologica, 18:225-230
Mallea R; Macola S; Garcia Spz G; Lanati J, 1988. A population study of coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Coccinellinp), part III. Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 24(1-2):79-93
Mandouri T, 1981. Contribution to the knowledge of acid soils on Numidian sandstone on the Zem-Zem mountains (Western Rif). Application to afforestation. [Contribution a la connaissance des sols acides sur gres Numidien de la montagne de Zem-Zem (Rif occidentale). Application aux reboisements.] Annales de la Recherche Forestiere au Maroc, 21: 99-207; 56 ref.
Ministere de l'Agriculture et de la Peche; France, 1996. La santé des forets (France) en 1995. Cahiers du DSF, 1.
Moran VC; Hoffmann JH; Donnelly D; Van Wilgen BW; Zimmermann HG, 2000. Biological control of alien, invasive pine trees (Pinus species) in South Africa. In: Spencer NR, ed. Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, 4-14 July 1999. Bozeman, USA: Montana State University.
Morelet M, 1978. Comparative study of canker due to Crumenulopsis sororia on Aleppo pine in Provence and on black pines in Lozere. Annales de la Societe des Sciences Naturelles et d'Archeologie de Toulon et du Var, 155-162
Nathan R; Safriel UN; Noy-Meir I; Schiller G, 2000. Spatiotemporal variation in seed dispersal and recruitment near and far from Pinus halepensis trees. Ecology, 81:2156-2169.
Naveh Z; Steinberger EH; Chaim S; Rotmann A, 1980. Photochemical air-pollutants -- a threat to Mediterranean coniferous forests and upland ecosystems. Environmental Conservation, 7(4):301-309; 38 ref.
Nyoka BI, 2002. The status of invasive alien forest trees species in Southern Africa. Forest Resources Division, FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y4341E/Y4341EO4.htm.
Pellizo A; Tocci A, 1978. Indogini prelimineri sui ssemie semenzali di Pinus halepensis e P. brutia-elderica. Ann. Inst. Speri. Selv. Arezzo, 9:109-130.
Poirazidis KS; Zografou K; Kordopatis P; Kalivas DP; Arianoutsou M; Kazanis D; Korakaki E, 2012. A GIS-based integrated approach predicts accurately post-fire Aleppo pine regeneration at regional scale. Annals of Forest Science [Fourth International Conference on Mediterranean Pines, Avignon, France, 6-10 June 2011.], 69(4):519-529. http://www.springerlink.com/content/j78457144h978341/
Poynton RJ, 1979. Report to the Southern African Regional Commission for the Conservation and Utilization of the Soil (SARCCUS) on tree planting in southern Africa. Vol. 2. The eucalypts. Pretoria, South Africa: Department of Forestry. xvi + 882 pp.; ISBN 0-621-04763-5; 208 ref.
Prévosto B; Amandier L; Quesney T; Boisgelin Gde; Ripert C, 2012. Regenerating mature Aleppo pine stands in fire-free conditions: site preparation treatments matter. Forest Ecology and Management, 282:70-77. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112712003726
Price RA; Liston A; Strauss SH, 1998. Phylogeny and systematics of Pinus In: Richardson, DM, ed. Ecology and biogeography of Pinus, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 49-68.
Rejmanek M, 1995. What makes a species invasive? Plant invasions: general aspects and special problems. Workshop held at Kostelec nad Cernymi lesy, Czech Republic, 16-19 September 1993 [edited by Pysek, P.; Prach, K.; Rejmanek, M.; Wade, M.] Amsterdam, Netherlands; SPB Academic Publishing, 3-13
Richardson DM; Higgins SI, 1998. Pines as invaders in the southern hemisphere. In: Richardson DM, ed. Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 450-473.
Roldßn A; Albaladejo J, 1994. Effect of mycorrhizal inoculation and soil restoration on the growth of Pinus halepensis seedlings in a semiarid soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 18(2):143-149; 32 ref.
Rouget M; Richardson DM; Milton SJ; Polakow D, 2001. Predicting invasion dynamics of four alien Pinus species in a highly fragmented semi-arid shrubland in South Africa. Plant Ecology, 152(1):79-92; 43 ref.
Schiller G, 1972. Ecological factors affecting the growth of Aleppo Pine in the Southern Judean hills. Leaflet, Division of Forestry, Agricultural Research Organization, Israel, No.44, 21 pp.; 13 ref.
Seva JP; Vilagrosa A; Valdecantos A; Cortina J; Vallejo VR; Bellot J, 1996. Mycorrhization and application of urban compost for the improvement of survival and growth of Pinus halepensis seedlings under semiarid conditions. Cahiers Options Me^acute~diterrane^acute~ennes, 20:87-104; 26 ref.
Shaughnessy GL, 1986. A case study of some woody plant introductions to the Cape Town area. In: Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Ferrar AA, eds. The ecology and management of biological invasions in southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 37-43.
Stiki A, 1995. Crown wilt of Pinus associated to Sphaeropsis sapinea infection of woody stems. Shoot and foliage diseases in forest trees. Proceedings of a Joint Meeting of the IUFRO Working Parties S2.06.02 and S2.06.04, Vallombrosa, Firenze, Italy 6-11 June 1994., 271-272; 4 ref.
Tomasevic A, 1994. Ameliorative effect of Pinus halepensis and Pinus pinea on degraded habitat of Querco pubescentis-Carpinetum orientalis in the region of Zadar. [Meliorativni utjecaj kulture alepskog bora (Pinus halepensis Mill.) i pinije (Pinus pinea Endl.) na degradirano staniste hrasta medunca (Querco pubescentis-Carpinetum orientalis H-ic, Anic 1959) u zadarskom podrucju.] Glasnik za Sumske Pokuse, 30:223-297.
Tsankov G; Schmidt GH; Mirchev P, 1995. Impact of parasitoids in egg-batches of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Den. & Schiff.) in Algeria. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura, 27(1):53-60; 9 ref.
Ugenc S, 1972. Studies on the possibilities of introduction and planting of some fast growing exotic coniferous species in Turkey. Istanbul Universitesi Orman Fakultesi Yayinlari, No. 188, vii + 198 pp + 18 pl.; 75 ref.
USDA-NRCS, 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov.
Weinstein-Evron M; Lev-Yadun S, 1999. Paleocology of Pinus halepensis in Israel in the light of archaeobotanical data. In: Proceedings, MEDPINE. International Workshop on Mediterranean Pines. Department of Biology, University of Haifa, Oranim, Israel.
Wit AMW de; Brouwer LC, 1998. The effect of afforestation as a restoration measure in a degraded area in a Mediterranean environment near Lorca (Spain). Advances in ecological sciences. Volume 1: Ecosystems and sustainable development., 165-170.
Zalba SM, 1995. Alien woody plants in Ernesto Tornquist Provincial Park (Buenos Aires): impact assessment and a proposal for their control. MSc Thesis. Cordoba, Argentina: Centro de zoologia aplicada, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba.
Acherar M, Lepart J, Debussche M, 1984. Colonization of old fields by Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) in the Mediterranean Languedoc. (La colonisation des friches par le pin d'Alep (Pinus halepensis Miller) en Languedoc méditerraneén.). Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Plantarum. 5 (2), 179-189.
Anon, 1998. Noxious Weeds List for Australian States and Territories., Australia: National Weeds Strategy Executive Committee (NWSEC). http://www.weeds.org.au/index.html
Barbar Z, 2018. New mite records (Acari: Mesostigmata, Trombidiformes) from soil and vegetation of some Syrian citrus agrosystems. Acarologia. 58 (4), 919-927. http://www1.montpellier.inra.fr/CBGP/acarologia/export_pdf.php?id=4298&typefile=1
Bella S, Aguiar A F, 2020. Non-native insect pests from the Madeira archipelago (Portugal): new records and further data (Insecta: Orthoptera; Thysanoptera; Hemiptera; Coleoptera; Diptera; Lepidoptera; hymenoptera). Fragmenta Entomologica. 52 (2), 369-376. DOI:10.13133/2284-4880/469
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Carlucci A, Colatruglio L, Frisullo S, 2007. First report of pitch canker caused by Fusarium circinatum on Pinus halepensis and P. pinea in Apulia (Southern Italy). Plant Disease. 91 (12), 1683. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-12-1683C
Diaz G, Honrubia M, Garcia G, Gutierrez A, 1996. Identification of mycorrhizas in Aleppo pine forests in the Sistema Ibérico, Spain. Preliminary results. (Caracte\acutearisation des mycorhizes dans les bois de pin d'Alep sur le Sistema Ibérico (Espagne). Résultats préliminaires.). In: Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes [Mycorrhization of forest plants under arid and semiarid conditions and desertification control in the Mediterranean basin. Proceedings of the CIHEAM Working Group Seminar, 15-17 November 1995, held at Zaragoza, Spain.], 20 43-50.
Ezzine O, Dhahri S, Mahdhi S, Hausmann A, Jamâa M L B, 2016. First report of Casama innotata in Jebel Brourmet forest, Tataouine, Tunisia. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection. 11 (2), 251-254. http://www.tjpp.tn/SiteWeb/CurrentIssue/TJPP22.pdf
Garbelotto M, Schweigkofler W, Shaw D, 2007. First report of Fusarium circinatum, causal agent of pitch canker disease, from the roots of mature Aleppo pines in California. Plant Health Progress. 1-2.
Handal E N, Qumsiyeh M B, 2019. First record of the western conifer seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis heidemann, 1910 (Hemiptera, Coreidae), from Palestine. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences (JJBS). 12 (5), 657-658. http://jjbs.hu.edu.jo/files/vol12/n5/Binder12n5.pdf
Henderson L, 2001. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. In: Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 12, Cape Town, South Africa: Paarl Printers.
Karadžić D, Vujanović V, 1992. Pathogenic mycoflora of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) in the Mediterranean part of Montenegro. (Prilog poznavanju patogene mikoflore bora (Pinus halepensis Mil) u mediteranskom delu crne gore.). Glasnik Šumarskog Fakulteta, Univerzitet u Beogradu. 31-41.
Kim S J, Harrington T C, Lee J C, Seybold S J, 2011. Leptographium tereforme sp. nov. and other Ophiostomatales isolated from the root-feeding bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda in California. Mycologia. 103 (1), 152-163. DOI:10.3852/10-096
Knapp JJ, 2002. List of invasive plants for Catalina island. In: Catalina Island Conservancy, http://www.catalinaconservancy.org/ecology/research/knapp.asp
Lazreg F, Belabid L, Sanchez J, Gallego E, Garrido-Cardenas J A, Elhaitoum A, 2013a. First report of Fusarium acuminatum causing damping-off disease on Aleppo pine in Algeria. Plant Disease. 97 (4), 557-558. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-12-0608-PDN
Lazreg F, Belabid L, Sanchez J, Gallego E, Garrido-Cardenas J A, Elhaitoum A, 2013b. First report of Fusarium redolens as a causal agent of Aleppo pine damping-off in Algeria. Plant Disease. 97 (7), 997. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-12-1169-PDN
Lazreg F, Belabid L, Sanchez J, Gallego E, Garrido-Cardenas J A, Elhaitoum A, 2013c. First report of Globisporangium ultimum causing pythium damping-off on Aleppo pine in Algeria, Africa, and the Mediterranean region. Plant Disease. 97 (8), 1111. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-12-0625-PDN
Lazreg F, Belabid L, Sanchez J, Gallego E, Garrido-Cardenas J A, Elhaitoum A, 2014. First report of Fusarium equiseti causing damping-off disease on aleppo pine in Algeria. Plant Disease. 98 (9), 1268-1269. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-13-0194-PDN
Lazreg F, Lakhdar B, Belabid L, Sanchez J, Gallego E, Garrido-Cardenas J A, Elhaitoum A, 2013. First report of Fusarium chlamydosporum causing damping-off disease on Aleppo pine in Algeria. Plant Disease. 97 (11), 1506. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-13-0208-PDN
Lopes J R S, Landa B B, Fereres A, 2014. A survey of potential insect vectors of the plant pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa in three regions of Spain. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 12 (3), 795-800. DOI:10.5424/sjar/2014123-5613
Luisi N, 1983. Attacks of blister rust (Cronartium flaccidum Wint.) on Aleppo pine in Apulia. (Attacchi di ruggine vescicolosa (Cronartium flaccidum Wint.) su pino d'Aleppo in Puglia.). Informatore Fitopatologico. 33 (9), 43-47.
Mejri M, Naves P, Sousa E de, Ben Jamâa M L, 2016. The European wood wasp Sirex noctilio: distribution, hosts and parasitoids recovered in Tunisia. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection. 11 (1), 157-163. http://www.iresa.agrinet.tn/tjpp/tjpp21/14Mejri.pdf
Mejri M, Naves P, Sousa E, Jamâa M L B, 2014. Distribution and hosts of Monochamus galloprovincialis in Tunisia. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection. 9 (2), 171-176. http://www.iresa.agrinet.tn/tjpp/tjpp18/8Mejri.pdf
Mejri M, Sousa E de, Naves P, Jama M L B, 2016a. Monochamus galloprovincialis distribution in Aleppo pine forests in Tunisia. Turkish Journal of Forestry. 17 (Special Issue), 65-70. http://dergipark.ulakbim.gov.tr/sduofd/issue/viewIssue/5000017282/5000005234
Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435
Szita É, Fetykó K G, Benedicty Z K, Kozár F, Partsinevelos G, Milonas P, Kaydan M B, 2017. Data on the scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) fauna of Greece, with description of two new species. Zootaxa. 4329 (5), 463-476. http://www.mapress.com/j/zt/article/view/zootaxa.4329.5.4 DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.4329.5.4
Tinivella F, Dani E, Minuto G, Minuto A, 2014. First report of Sydowia polyspora on Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) in Italy. Plant Disease. 98 (2), 281. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-13-0658-PDN
Tomašević A, 1994. Ameliorative effect of Pinus halepensis and Pinus pinea on degraded habitat of Querco pubescentis-Carpinetum orientalis in the region of Zadar. (Meliorativni utjecaj kulture alepskog bora (Pinus halepensis Mill.) i pinije (Pinus pinea Endl.) na degradirano stanište hrasta medunca (Querco pubescentis-Carpinetum orientalis H-ić, Anić 1959) u zadarskom području.). Glasnik za Šumske Pokuse. 223-297.
Ugenc S, 1972. Studies on the possibilities of introduction and planting of some fast growing exotic coniferous species in Turkey. In: Istanbul Universitesi Orman Fakultesi Yayinlari, vii + 198 pp + 18 pl.
USDA-NRCS, 2004. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov
Zalba SM, 1995. Alien woody plants in Ernesto Tornquist Provincial Park (Buenos Aires): impact assessment and a proposal for their control. MSc Thesis., Cordoba, Argentina: Centro de zoologia aplicada, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/