Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Aleurodicus dispersus
(whitefly)

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Datasheet

Aleurodicus dispersus (whitefly)

Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A. dispersus, 'spiralling whitefly', eggs on soyabean leaf.
TitleEggs
CaptionA. dispersus, 'spiralling whitefly', eggs on soyabean leaf.
CopyrightErnst Neering
A. dispersus, 'spiralling whitefly', eggs on soyabean leaf.
EggsA. dispersus, 'spiralling whitefly', eggs on soyabean leaf.Ernst Neering
Adult A. dispersus usually have plain white wings, but occasionally have pale or dark spots on the forewings. Pupae secrete copious amounts of white, cottony, flocculent wax.
TitleAdults
CaptionAdult A. dispersus usually have plain white wings, but occasionally have pale or dark spots on the forewings. Pupae secrete copious amounts of white, cottony, flocculent wax.
Copyright©Matthew Cock
Adult A. dispersus usually have plain white wings, but occasionally have pale or dark spots on the forewings. Pupae secrete copious amounts of white, cottony, flocculent wax.
AdultsAdult A. dispersus usually have plain white wings, but occasionally have pale or dark spots on the forewings. Pupae secrete copious amounts of white, cottony, flocculent wax.©Matthew Cock
A. dispersus infestation on guava, Philippines: when abundant they are conspicuous on leaves due to the white flocculence that covers their bodies.
TitleInfestation on guava
CaptionA. dispersus infestation on guava, Philippines: when abundant they are conspicuous on leaves due to the white flocculence that covers their bodies.
Copyright©Matthew Cock
A. dispersus infestation on guava, Philippines: when abundant they are conspicuous on leaves due to the white flocculence that covers their bodies.
Infestation on guavaA. dispersus infestation on guava, Philippines: when abundant they are conspicuous on leaves due to the white flocculence that covers their bodies.©Matthew Cock
Stained slide preparation of an A. dispersus pupa.
TitlePupa
CaptionStained slide preparation of an A. dispersus pupa.
Copyright©Natural History Museum, London
Stained slide preparation of an A. dispersus pupa.
PupaStained slide preparation of an A. dispersus pupa.©Natural History Museum, London
Stained slide preparation of an A. dispersus pupa.
TitlePupa
CaptionStained slide preparation of an A. dispersus pupa.
Copyright©Natural History Museum, London
Stained slide preparation of an A. dispersus pupa.
PupaStained slide preparation of an A. dispersus pupa.©Natural History Museum, London
Stained slide preparation of an A. dispersus pupa.
TitlePupa
CaptionStained slide preparation of an A. dispersus pupa.
Copyright©Natural History Museum, London
Stained slide preparation of an A. dispersus pupa.
PupaStained slide preparation of an A. dispersus pupa.©Natural History Museum, London
Stained slide preparation of an A. dispersus adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionStained slide preparation of an A. dispersus adult.
Copyright©Natural History Museum, London
Stained slide preparation of an A. dispersus adult.
AdultStained slide preparation of an A. dispersus adult.©Natural History Museum, London
Stained slide preparation of an A. dispersus adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionStained slide preparation of an A. dispersus adult.
Copyright©Natural History Museum, London
Stained slide preparation of an A. dispersus adult.
AdultStained slide preparation of an A. dispersus adult.©Natural History Museum, London

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aleurodicus dispersus Russell, 1965

Preferred Common Name

  • whitefly

International Common Names

  • English: spiralling whitefly
  • Spanish: mosca blanca
  • French: aleurode

EPPO code

  • ALEDDI (Aleurodicus dispersus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aleyrodoidea
  •                                 Family: Aleyrodidae
  •                                     Genus: Aleurodicus
  •                                         Species: Aleurodicus dispersus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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A. dispersus was first described by Russell (1965) in Florida, USA and many Caribbean and Central American countries. It is located within the Aleurodicinae, the smaller of two subfamilies within the Aleyrodidae, which comprises approximately 100 species. A. dispersus is characterized by distinctive compound and simple pores (Russell, 1965).

Description

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Adult female A. dispersus lay a few to several elliptical, smooth-surfaced, yellow-to-tan coloured eggs (0.3 mm long). The eggs have a short pedicel or subterminal stalk, which is inserted into the host plant during oviposition (Waterhouse and Norris, 1989). The eggs are laid, along with deposits of waxy secretions, in a spiraling pattern.

The first larval stage ('crawler') is the only mobile immature stage (0.32 mm long). During the second larval stage (0.5 mm long), a row of mid-back waxy tufts form on the anterior of the body. During the third larval stage (0.65 mm long), short, evenly-spaced, glass-like, waxy rods emanate from distinctive compound pores along the side of the body (Waterhouse and Norris, 1989). Russell (1965) described the pore structure in detail for each immature stage.

During the early pupal stage (fourth larval stage), sedentary feeding continues (Russell, 1965; Waterhouse and Norris, 1989). Copious amounts of white, cottony flocculent wax, extending from the dorsum, are then secreted by the pupae; more so than for the larval stages. Young pupae are nearly flat dorsally and flat ventrally. Mature pupae (1.06 mm long) have a swollen ventral surface and are surrounded by a band of wax. The waxy rods emanating from each of the large compound pores, which occur in five subdorsal pairs, extend upward and outward from the back. The waxy rods can be up to 8 mm in length (Waterhouse and Norris, 1989). Pupae are colourless or yellowish, nearly oval and 1-1.25 mm long and 0.75-0.90 mm wide (Russell, 1965). Fully mobile adults emerge from the pupae. The pupal cases or puparia are used for identification purposes. Martin (1987, 1996) provided keys to tropical pest species based on pupal morphology.

Adult A. dispersus are white and coated with a fine dust-like waxy secretion. Body length of males 2.28 mm, and females 1.74 mm. Both sexes are winged. Wings are clear soon after emergence, but turn white due to the wax coating after a few hours. Pale or dark spots may occasionally occur on the forewings. Antennae have seven segments and eyes are dark reddish-brown (Waterhouse and Norris, 1989). Adult females do not have pores, while males have numerous circular pores on the abdomen (Russell, 1965).

Wen et al. (1994b) described the morphology, including body size for immatures and adults, of A. dispersus in Taiwan.

Distribution

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A. dispersus is of Neotropical origin, and is native to Central America and the Caribbean region. It is naturally found in Central and South America, the West Indies and southern Florida, USA. It has been present in the Canary Islands since 1962. During the 1970s it began a rapid expansion of its range. It established in Hawaii in 1978 (Paulson and Kumashiro, 1985). It was first reported in the Philippines in 1982, and during the 1980s it spread throughout the islands of the Pacific (Waterhouse and Norris, 1989). More recently, it has been reported in India, Sri Lanka, Africa, Indonesia, Thailand, Taiwan and northern Australia (Wijesekera and Kudagamage, 1990; Martin, 1990; Kajita et al., 1991; Akinlosotu et al., 1993; Wen et al., 1994b; Palaniswami et al., 1995; Carver and Reid, 1996).

The distribution map includes records based on specimens of A. dispersus from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK): dates of collection are noted in the List of countries (NHM, various dates).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresent
Cabo VerdePresent
CameroonPresent
Congo, Republic of thePresent
GabonPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
MauritiusPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
MoroccoPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigeriaPresentIntroducedInvasive
RéunionPresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent
SenegalPresent
SeychellesPresentIntroduced
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresentIntroducedInvasive

Asia

BangladeshPresent
BruneiPresentIntroducedInvasive
ChinaPresent
-HainanPresentIntroduced
IndiaPresent, Localized
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-LakshadweepPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-MizoramPresent
-OdishaPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-SulawesiPresent
-SumatraPresentIntroducedInvasive
LaosPresentIntroducedInvasive
MalaysiaPresent, Widespread
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-SabahPresentIntroducedInvasive
-SarawakPresentIntroducedInvasive
MaldivesPresentIntroducedInvasive
MyanmarPresentIntroducedInvasive
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedInvasive
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasive
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedInvasive
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasive
ThailandPresentIntroducedInvasive
VietnamPresentIntroducedInvasive

Europe

NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
PortugalPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedInvasive
SpainPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive

North America

BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent
Cayman IslandsPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent
MartiniquePresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
United StatesPresent
-FloridaPresent
-HawaiiPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent, Few occurrences
-QueenslandPresent, Few occurrences
Cook IslandsPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
GuamPresent
KiribatiPresent
Marshall IslandsPresent
NauruPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TokelauPresent
TongaPresent

South America

BrazilPresent
-BahiaPresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
PeruPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Risk of Introduction

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A. dispersus presents a serious phytosanitary risk to tropical and subtropical areas on the edges of its current range. Quarantine areas have been declared in Queensland, Australia. The movement of plants, plant material, and fruits out of quarantine areas can only proceed after official inspections (Lambkin, 1998). The spread of A. dispersus on citrus is of particular concern, in Australia, Mexico and other countries. Only the climatic limitations will ultimately determine the final distribution of this highly invasive and polyphagous pest. It has not stopped moving yet (2003).

Hosts/Species Affected

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A. dispersus is highly polyphagous, being common on a wide range of different families. Russell (1965) recorded it from 38 genera in 27 plant families in Florida, USA.

In Taiwan, Wen et al. (1994b) listed 144 species of host plant, in 64 families, with host range varying with season. In Indonesia, Kajita et al. (1991) reported A. dispersus attacking 22 plants in 14 families, including ornamentals, shade and fruit trees and annual crops. In Kerala, India, Prathapan (1996) listed 72 host plants, ranked by intensity of infestation.

In addition to the hosts listed, Diospyros philippensis, Elaeocarpus serratus, Heliotropum indicum, Ixeris oldhami, Laguncularia racemosa, Melaleuca leucadendron, Peristeria spp., Pterocarpus spp., Rhus semialata, Sagittaria trifolia and Sideroxylon ferruginium are also secondary hosts of A. dispersus.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeUnknown
Abelmoschus manihot (bele)MalvaceaeUnknown
Abutilon indicum (country mallow)MalvaceaeUnknown
Acacia (wattles)FabaceaeOther
Acacia farnesiana (huisache)FabaceaeUnknown
Acalypha (Copperleaf)EuphorbiaceaeOther
    Acalypha hispida (Copperleaf)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
    Acalypha indica (Indian copperleaf)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
    Acalypha wilkesianaEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
    Acanthospermum hispidum (bristly starbur)AsteraceaeUnknown
    Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
    Agave americana (century plant)AgavaceaeOther
      Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)AsteraceaeMain
      AglaonemaAraceaeUnknown
      Amaranthus (amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
      Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
      AngelicaApiaceaeUnknown
      Annona muricata (soursop)AnnonaceaeUnknown
      Annona squamosa (sugar apple)AnnonaceaeOther
      Antigonon leptopus (coral vine)PolygonaceaeUnknown
      Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeOther
        Areca catechu (betelnut palm)ArecaceaeOther
          Artocarpus (breadfruit trees)MoraceaeOther
            Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)MoraceaeUnknown
            Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)MoraceaeUnknown
            Asystasia gangetica (chinese violet)AcanthaceaeUnknown
            Averrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)OxalidaceaeUnknown
            Azadirachta indica (neem tree)MeliaceaeUnknown
            BarleriaUnknown
            Bauhinia (camel's foot)FabaceaeOther
              Bauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)FabaceaeUnknown
              BegoniaBegoniaceaeOther
                Bidens pilosa (blackjack)AsteraceaeUnknown
                Bixa orellana (annatto)BixaceaeUnknown
                BougainvilleaNyctaginaceaeOther
                  Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)NyctaginaceaeUnknown
                  Brachychiton acerifoliumSterculiaceaeUnknown
                  Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea)FabaceaeMain
                  Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo)FabaceaeUnknown
                  Calotropis gigantea (Yercum fibre)ApocynaceaeUnknown
                  CannaCannaceaeOther
                    Canna indica (canna lilly)CannaceaeOther
                    Capsicum (peppers)SolanaceaeOther
                    Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeOther
                    Capsicum frutescens (chilli)SolanaceaeUnknown
                    Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
                    Cascabela thevetia (yellow oleander)ApocynaceaeUnknown
                    Cassia (sennas)FabaceaeOther
                      Cassia roxburghiiFabaceaeOther
                        Cathormion umbellatumFabaceaeUnknown
                        Celtis (nettle tree)UlmaceaeOther
                          Centrosema pubescens (Centro)FabaceaeUnknown
                          Cestrum (jessamine)SolanaceaeOther
                            Chrysalidocarpus lutescens (butterfly palm)ArecaceaeOther
                              Chrysanthemum (daisy)AsteraceaeOther
                              Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum)AsteraceaeUnknown
                              Cinnamomum camphora (camphor laurel)LauraceaeOther
                                Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
                                CitrusRutaceaeMain
                                  Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeUnknown
                                  Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeUnknown
                                  Cleome gynandraCapparaceaeUnknown
                                  Clitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)FabaceaeUnknown
                                  Cochlospermum gillivraeiUnknown
                                  CocosUnknown
                                  Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeMain
                                  Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                                  Coelospermum decipiensUnknown
                                  Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeOther
                                    ColeusLamiaceaeOther
                                      ColocasiaAraceaeUnknown
                                      Colocasia esculenta (taro)AraceaeOther
                                      Combretum indicum (Rangoon creeper)CombretaceaeUnknown
                                      Corymbia torelliana (cadaga)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                      Crotalaria pallida (smooth crotalaria)FabaceaeUnknown
                                      Crotalaria retusa (rattleweed)FabaceaeUnknown
                                      Cucumis (melons, cucuimbers, gerkins)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                        Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                          Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
                                          Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                          Cymbopogon flexuosusUnknown
                                          Dahlia pinnata (garden dahlia)AsteraceaeOther
                                            Datura metel (Hindu datura)SolanaceaeOther
                                            Delonix regia (flamboyant)FabaceaeUnknown
                                            Dendrophthoe falcataLoranthaceaeOther
                                              Deplanchea tetraphyllaUnknown
                                              Derris trifoliataUnknown
                                              Desmodium tortuosum (Florida beggarweed)FabaceaeUnknown
                                              Dimocarpus longan (longan tree)SapindaceaeUnknown
                                              Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)ArecaceaeUnknown
                                              Erythrina variegata (Indian coral tree)FabaceaeUnknown
                                              EugeniaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                EupatoriumAsteraceaeUnknown
                                                Euphorbia (spurges)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                  Euphorbia cyathophoraEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                                                  Euphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                                                  Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                  Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                  FicusMoraceaeOther
                                                  Ficus benghalensis (banyan)MoraceaeUnknown
                                                  Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeUnknown
                                                  Ficus oppositaUnknown
                                                  Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree)MoraceaeUnknown
                                                  Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                  Gloriosa superba (glory lily)LiliaceaeUnknown
                                                  Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
                                                  Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeOther
                                                    Gossypium herbaceum (short staple cotton)MalvaceaeUnknown
                                                    Gyrocarpus americanusHernandiaceaeUnknown
                                                    Hedera (Ivy)AraliaceaeOther
                                                      HedychiumUnknown
                                                      Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                                      Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                                      Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                                                      Hibiscus (rosemallows)MalvaceaeOther
                                                        Hibiscus mutabilis (cottonrose)MalvaceaeOther
                                                          Hibiscus platanifoliusMalvaceaeOther
                                                            Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)MalvaceaeMain
                                                            Hibiscus schizopetalus (fringed hibiscus)MalvaceaeOther
                                                              Hibiscus syriacus (shrubby althaea)MalvaceaeUnknown
                                                              Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood)MalvaceaeUnknown
                                                              Impatiens (balsam)BalsaminaceaeUnknown
                                                              Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)BalsaminaceaeUnknown
                                                              Ipomoea (morning glory)ConvolvulaceaeOther
                                                                Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeOther
                                                                Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
                                                                Ipomoea eriocarpaConvolvulaceaeUnknown
                                                                Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
                                                                Ipomoea pileataUnknown
                                                                Ixora chinensisRubiaceaeOther
                                                                  Ixora coccinea (flame-of-the-woods)RubiaceaeOther
                                                                    Jasminum (jasmine)OleaceaeOther
                                                                      Jasminum auriculatumOleaceaeOther
                                                                        Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                          Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
                                                                          Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)LythraceaeUnknown
                                                                          Lantana camara (lantana)VerbenaceaeUnknown
                                                                          Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                                          Ludwigia hyssopifolia (water primrose)OnagraceaeUnknown
                                                                          Luffa aegyptiaca (loofah)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                          MacadamiaProteaceaeOther
                                                                            Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                                                                            Mallotus nesophilusUnknown
                                                                            Malvastrum coromandelianumMalvaceaeUnknown
                                                                            MalvaviscusUnknown
                                                                            MangiferaAnacardiaceaeUnknown
                                                                            Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                                                              Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeMain
                                                                              Manihot glaziovii (ceara rubber)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeOther
                                                                                Maranta arundinacea (arrowroot)MarantaceaeUnknown
                                                                                Merremia dissectaUnknown
                                                                                Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)NyctaginaceaeUnknown
                                                                                Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
                                                                                Monstera deliciosa (ceriman)AraceaeOther
                                                                                  Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree)MoringaceaeUnknown
                                                                                  Morus (mulberrytree)MoraceaeOther
                                                                                    Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeUnknown
                                                                                    Morus australisMoraceaeUnknown
                                                                                    Morus nigra (black mulberry)MoraceaeUnknown
                                                                                    Mucuna bracteataUnknown
                                                                                    Murraya koenigii (curry leaf tree)RutaceaeUnknown
                                                                                    Musa (banana)MusaceaeOther
                                                                                    Musa acuminata (wild banana)MusaceaeUnknown
                                                                                    Musa x paradisiaca (plantain)MusaceaeMain
                                                                                    MussaendaRubiaceaeUnknown
                                                                                    Nerium oleander (oleander)ApocynaceaeUnknown
                                                                                    OchrosiaApocynaceaeUnknown
                                                                                    Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil)LamiaceaeUnknown
                                                                                    Operculina turpethumUnknown
                                                                                    Osmanthus fragransOleaceaeOther
                                                                                      OxygonumUnknown
                                                                                      Pergularia daemiaUnknown
                                                                                      Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeMain
                                                                                      Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                        Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                          Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                            Phyllanthus emblica (Indian gooseberry)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                                                                                            Physalis (Groundcherry)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                              Physalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Physalis minima (Sunberry)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Piper betle (betel pepper)PiperaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Planchonia careyaAsterolecaniidaeUnknown
                                                                                              Pluchea indica (Indian camphorweed)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Plumeria (frangipani)ApocynaceaeOther
                                                                                              Plumeria albaApocynaceaeOther
                                                                                              Plumeria obtusaApocynaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Plumeria rubra (red frangipani)ApocynaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Polyalthia longifolia (debdar)AnnonaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Pongamia pinnata (Indian beech)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                              Pouteria unmackianaUnknown
                                                                                              Premna serratifoliaLamiaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Prunus (stone fruit)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                                Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                  Pueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                  Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                  Rhododendron (Azalea)EricaceaeOther
                                                                                                    Rhynchosia minimaFabaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                    Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                    Rorippa indica (Indian marshcress)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                                                                      Rosa (roses)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                      Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                        Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                        Salvia (sage)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                          Sanchezia speciosa (shrubby whitevein)AcanthaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                          Sauropus androgynusEuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                            Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                                                                                              Semecarpus australiensisAnacardiaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                              Senna (Spermatophyta)Unknown
                                                                                                              Senna montanaFabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                Senna occidentalis (coffee senna)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                Sida acuta (sida)MalvaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                Sida hyssopifoliaUnknown
                                                                                                                Sida rhombifoliaMalvaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                Solanum americanumSolanaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                Solanum incanum (grey bitter-apple)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                                  Sonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                  Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                  Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                    Stachytarpheta indicaVerbenaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                    StrelitziaStrelitziaceaeOther
                                                                                                                      Stylosanthes hamata (Caribbean Stylo)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                      Synedrella nodiflora (synedrella)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                      SyngoniumAraceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                      Syzygium aqueum (watery rose-apple)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                      Syzygium suborbiculareMyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                      Tabernaemontana divaricataApocynaceaeOther
                                                                                                                        Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                        Tecoma stans (yellow bells)BignoniaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                        Tectona grandis (teak)LamiaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                        Tephrosia (hoary-pea)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                        Tephrosia bracteolataFabaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                        TerminaliaCombretaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                        Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)CombretaceaeOther
                                                                                                                        Thespesia populnea (portia tree)MalvaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                        TournefortiaBoraginaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                        Trichosanthes cucumerina (snake gourd)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                        Urena lobata (caesar weed)MalvaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                        Vigna (cowpea)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                          Vigna marina (beach bean)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                          Vigna radiata (mung bean)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                          Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                          Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                          WedeliaAsteraceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                          Wollastonia bifloraUnknown
                                                                                                                          Ximenia americana (hog plum)OlacaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                          Zingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger)ZingiberaceaeOther

                                                                                                                            Growth Stages

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                                                                                                                            Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                                                                                            Symptoms

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                                                                                                                            In cassava, A. dispersus infestation caused yellowish speckling of the leaves, and in severe infestation the leaves crinkled and curled. Infestation spread from the bottom leaves to the top (Palaniswami et al., 1995).

                                                                                                                            Copious honeydew is excreted which coats surrounding surfaces and often develops a layer of sooty mould.

                                                                                                                            List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                                                                                            SignLife StagesType
                                                                                                                            Leaves / abnormal colours
                                                                                                                            Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                                                                                            Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                                                                                            Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould

                                                                                                                            Biology and Ecology

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                                                                                                                            Females, collected in the field in Sri Lanka and studied in the laboratory, each laid 14-26 eggs in a loose spiral on the underside of leaves. The common name of A. dispersus, the spiralling whitefly, is derived from this characteristic egg-laying pattern, although other species of aleurodicine whitefly also lay eggs in spiral patterns (Martin, 1990). The eggs hatched after 7-10 days, the first and second larval instars lasted for 6-9 days in total, the third instar for 5-13 days and the fourth (pupae) 5-16 days. Adults lived for about 2 weeks (Wijesekera and Kudagamage, 1990). The immature stages of A. dispersus are found on the lower leaf surface of host plants. The leaf structure of the host plant appears to affect feeding preference (Wen et al., 1994a). The larval stages and adults feed by sucking phloem sap from leaves. Copious honeydew is excreted which coats surrounding surfaces and often develops a layer of sooty mould when colonies are poorly controlled.

                                                                                                                            Wen et al. (1994b) described the effects of temperature on development rate and fecundity. Adults were active between 12.3-32.3°C and maximum female fecundity occurred at 25°C. A. dispersus populations were found all year round in southern Taiwan, building up rapidly in October, reaching a peak in November, and then declining gradually after December. The developmental time (from oviposition to eclosion) of the pest at 25°C on poinsettia, canna, guavas and pawpaws was 26.1, 25.0, 29.4 and 26.1 days; immature mortality was 26.9, 24.5, 33.3 and 27.8%; and fecundity was 65.2, 35.8, 51.3 and 58.0 eggs per female, respectively (Wen et al., 1996).

                                                                                                                            Females begin laying eggs within a few days of emergence, and continue to lay throughout their lifetime. The rate of population growth can be rapid. In one experiment, 20 pairs produced 1549 individuals in 37 days (Waterhouse and Norris, 1989). Unmated females produce only male progeny, while mated females produce a mixture of male and female progeny. Adults are most active in the morning, but mate in the afternoon (Waterhouse and Norris, 1989).

                                                                                                                            In the USA, A. dispersus is limited to southern coastal areas in Florida where mild winter temperatures occur. Extreme mortality occurs at low temperatures (below 10°C), which limits the northward spread of A. dispersus in the Americas (Cherry, 1979).

                                                                                                                            Manzano et al. (1995) described the biology of A. dispersus in the Canary Islands. In Karnataka, India, Aishwariya et al. (2007) studied the biology of A. dispersus on guava during the winter, summer and wet seasons.

                                                                                                                            Natural enemies

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                                                                                                                            Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                                                                                            Allograpta obliqua Predator Adults/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
                                                                                                                            Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                            Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults/Larvae/Pupae
                                                                                                                            Chrysopa Predator Larvae/Pupae
                                                                                                                            Chrysoperla comanche Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                            Coelophora inaequalis Predator Adults/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
                                                                                                                            Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator
                                                                                                                            Curinus coeruleus Predator Adults/Larvae/Pupae
                                                                                                                            Delphastus pusillus Predator Adults/Nymphs American Samoa; Hawaii guavas; polyphagous
                                                                                                                            Encarsia guadeloupae Parasite
                                                                                                                            Encarsia haitiensis Parasite Adults/Larvae/Nymphs Guam; Northern Mariana Islands guavas; Plumeria
                                                                                                                            Encarsia meritoria Parasite
                                                                                                                            Encarsia nigricephala Parasite
                                                                                                                            Encarsia sophia Parasite
                                                                                                                            Encarsia transvena
                                                                                                                            Encarsiella aleurodici Parasite Larvae/Pupae
                                                                                                                            Encarsiella noyesi Parasite Larvae/Pupae
                                                                                                                            Euderomphale vittata Parasite Larvae
                                                                                                                            Harmonia sedecimnotata Predator Adults/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
                                                                                                                            Iridomyrmex anceps Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                            Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen
                                                                                                                            Nephaspis amnicola Predator Adults/Nymphs Hawaii
                                                                                                                            Nephaspis bicolor Predator Adults/Larvae/Pupae
                                                                                                                            Nephaspis oculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                            Olla v-nigrum Predator Adults/Larvae/Pupae
                                                                                                                            Paragus serratus Predator Adults/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
                                                                                                                            Scymnus Predator Adults/Larvae/Pupae

                                                                                                                            Notes on Natural Enemies

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                                                                                                                            A. dispersus is recorded as being frequently parasitized in Florida, USA (Russell, 1965). The common parasitoids of A. dispersus on banana in Costa Rica were described by Blanco Metzler and Laprade (1998). Gerling (1990) presented a short key for parasitoids of whiteflies. Clausen (1934) listed natural enemies of Aleyrodidae in tropical Asia, although A. dispersus was probably not present in Asia at that time.

                                                                                                                            Encarsia haitiensis was believed to be host-specific on A. dispersus (Waterhouse and Norris, 1989); however, E. haitiensis as a parasitoid of A. dispersus is based on a misidentification. The species widely reported in published papers as E. haitiensis or E. near haitiensis is in fact an undescribed species closely related to Encarsia hispida, which also attacks A. dispersus (Polaszek et al., 2004). Hernandez-Suarez et al. (2003) reported E. hispida and Encarsia guadeloupae affecting A. dispersus in the Canary Islands.

                                                                                                                            Paulson and Kumashiro (1985) described natural enemies of A. dispersus in Hawaii. Kumashiro et al. (1983) described the introduction of two parasitoids and several coccinellids into Hawaii for the biological control of A. dispersus, of which Nephaspis oculatus (N. amnicola) was the most effective coccinellid predator. Yoshida and Mau (1985) described the life history and feeding behaviour of N. oculatus. Although N. oculatus has a wide prey range in laboratory studies, in the field it shows a strong preference for whiteflies. However, it is only effective as a natural enemy within high prey densities. In contrast, E. haitiensis is most effective when whitefly populations are low (Kumashiro et al., 1983).

                                                                                                                            Means of Movement and Dispersal

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                                                                                                                            Movement in Trade

                                                                                                                            The eggs and larvae of A. dispersus may be transported on leaves, and these early insect stages are often cryptic. The eggs may also be transported on fruit. Newly-dead foliage may harbour puparia, which are usually detected by the presence of woolly secretions.

                                                                                                                            Pathway Vectors

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                                                                                                                            VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                                                            Clothing, footwear and possessionsAir travel with viable plant material Yes

                                                                                                                            Plant Trade

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                                                                                                                            Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                                                                                            Fruits (inc. pods) eggs Yes
                                                                                                                            Leaves eggs; larvae Yes
                                                                                                                            Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                                                                            Bark
                                                                                                                            Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
                                                                                                                            Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
                                                                                                                            Growing medium accompanying plants
                                                                                                                            Roots
                                                                                                                            Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
                                                                                                                            True seeds (inc. grain)
                                                                                                                            Wood

                                                                                                                            Wood Packaging

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                                                                                                                            Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                                                                            Loose wood packing material
                                                                                                                            Non-wood
                                                                                                                            Processed or treated wood
                                                                                                                            Solid wood packing material with bark
                                                                                                                            Solid wood packing material without bark

                                                                                                                            Impact Summary

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                                                                                                                            CategoryImpact
                                                                                                                            Animal/plant collections Negative
                                                                                                                            Animal/plant products Negative
                                                                                                                            Biodiversity (generally) None
                                                                                                                            Crop production Negative
                                                                                                                            Environment (generally) Negative
                                                                                                                            Fisheries / aquaculture None
                                                                                                                            Forestry production None
                                                                                                                            Human health Negative
                                                                                                                            Livestock production None
                                                                                                                            Native fauna None
                                                                                                                            Native flora Negative
                                                                                                                            Rare/protected species None
                                                                                                                            Tourism Negative
                                                                                                                            Trade/international relations Negative
                                                                                                                            Transport/travel None

                                                                                                                            Impact

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                                                                                                                            The economic impact of A. dispersus infestations is due to a combination of three factors. Direct feeding damage results from the extraction of sap from leaves, mainly by larval stages but with adults also contributing. Direct feeding can cause premature leaf drop, reduces plant vigour and yields, but rarely kills plants outright. Indirect damage is due to excreted honeydew that encourages the development of sooty moulds, which hinder photosynthesis and reduce yields. Finally, cosmetic damage is due both to sooty moulds and to the white flocculence secreted by immature stages, which reduces the market-value of crops. Wind-borne flocculence can be unsightly, and may also contribute to asthma attacks (Waterhouse and Norris, 1989).

                                                                                                                            A. dispersus is not usually an economic pest within its native range of Central America and the Caribbean. In Florida, USA, where A. dispersus has been collected from avocados, citrus, guavas and palms, it was initially suspected of being a vector of the mycoplasma causing coconut lethal yellowing disease (Russell, 1965). Lethal yellows was first recorded a short time after A. dispersus became established, and has in the past been responsible for the loss of over 90% of the coconut palms in the Florida Keys (Russell, 1965; Weems, 1971). However, a planthopper is now suspected of being the lethal yellowing disease vector (Waterhouse and Norris, 1989). A. dispersus is currently only a minor pest in Florida.

                                                                                                                            In regions where A. dispersus has established in the absence of its natural enemies, however, it can be a serious pest of many horticultural crops, vegetable crops, ornamentals, fruit trees and shade trees. A. dispersus was first recorded in Hawaii in 1978, for example, and a year later it was considered to be a major economic pest of a diverse range of crops. Successful biological programs have been in operation in Hawaii since the early 1980s (Kumashiro et al., 1983).

                                                                                                                            A. dispersus is a recently discovered economic pest in both southern India and west Africa. In India, for example, it has reached pest status on cassava, where up to 580 insects per leaf have been observed (Palaniswami et al., 1995). A range of susceptible crops has been catalogued in Kerala, India, by Ranjith et al. (1996) and in Nigeria by Akinlosotu et al. (1993). It has also recently been recorded on soyabean in Indonesia, where it is a potential economic pest (Kajita et al., 1991). Since its accidental introduction into Taiwan in 1988, it has posed a serious threat to fruit trees, forest trees, food crops, ornamentals and shade trees throughout the country (Wen et al., 1997). A. dispersus currently presents a major threat to Australian agriculture, as it has recently entered Queensland via the Torres Strait islands (Lambkin, 1998).

                                                                                                                            Detection and Inspection

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                                                                                                                            When A. dispersus are abundant they are conspicuous on leaves due to the white flocculence that covers their bodies (Russell, 1965). They are found on the undersides of leaves, often associated with sticky honeydew and sometimes sooty mould growth.

                                                                                                                            A. dispersus were found in significantly higher numbers in the upper canopy than in the middle and the lower canopy on guava (Shah Alam et al., 1997).

                                                                                                                            Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                                                                                                            Russell (1965) described A. dispersus in comparison with the closely related A. coccolobae and A. flavus. Identification is on the basis of distinctive compound and simple pores in the pupal stage. It should be noted that other members of this genus, mostly native to the Neotropical region, also lay their eggs in spiral patterns like A. dispersus. Reliable identification requires microscopic study of slide-mounted pupal cases.

                                                                                                                            Martin et al. (1997) provided keys to enable adults and puparia of A. dispersus to be distinguished from the newly introduced crop pest Lecanoideus floccissimus sp. nov. in the Canary Islands.

                                                                                                                            Prevention and Control

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                                                                                                                            Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                                                            Biological Control

                                                                                                                            A. dispersus was first recorded in Hawaii in 1978, after which it spread rapidly. Its pest status on guavas stimulated a successful biological control programme (Kumashiro et al., 1983; Beardsley, 1992). The introduction and establishment of the coccinellid beetle Nephaspis oculatus (N. amnicola) and the parasitoid Encarsia haitiensis successfully controlled A. dispersus on guavas in highland and lowland areas of Honolulu, Hawaii. In 1980-81, peak population densities of A. dispersus were reduced by 79% in the lowlands and 98.8% in the highlands. Rainfall, temperature and previously established predators, particularly Allograpta obliqua, probably also contributed to the reduction of A. dispersus populations (Kumashiro et al., 1983).

                                                                                                                            Since the biological control of A. dispersus in Hawaii, there have been further successes on Pacific Islands; for a review see Waterhouse and Norris (1989). In each case, Encarsia haitiensis was successful, aided by one or more of the introduced coccinellids.

                                                                                                                            A biological programme in Tropical Africa was described by Neuenschwander (1996), in which two exotic hymenopterous parasitoids were introduced. These helped control A. dispersus populations, with indigenous coccinellids playing a minor role. A. dispersus was observed in Benin for the first time in 1993, along with the parasitoids Encarsia ?haitiensis and E. guadeloupae, which were thought to have been accidentally introduced. Between 1993 and 1996, these parasitoids helped control A. dispersus populations on guava (D'Almeida et al., 1998). E. haitiensis has been successfully introduced into Queensland, as part of the biological control of A. dispersus in Australia (Lambkin, 1998).

                                                                                                                            Chemical Control

                                                                                                                            Kajita et al. (1991) described some insecticides effective against A. dispersus on soyabeans in Indonesia. However, because the whitefly has such a wide host-plant range, and insecticides also impact natural enemies, chemical control is usually considered impractical and uneconomic in the long-term (Kajita et al., 1991; Lambkin, 1998). Laprade and Cerdas (1998) evaluated insecticide treatments on banana farms in Costa Rica. Dilute aqueous solutions of soaps and detergents have also provided effective control in smallholdings, in conjunction with pruning and mulching, the latter to counter moisture loss by plants due to infestation (Anon., 1980).

                                                                                                                            References

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                                                                                                                            Aishwariya KK, Manjunatha M, Naik MI, 2007. Biology and host range of spiralling whitefly. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 20(1):149-152. http://203.129.218.157/ojs/index.php/kjas/article/viewFile/47/47

                                                                                                                            Akinlosotu TA, Jackai LEN, Ntonifor NN, Hassan AT, Agyakwa CW, Odebiyi JA, Akingbohungbe AE, Rossel HW, 1993. Spiralling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus in Nigeria. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 41(2):127-129

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                                                                                                                            Mware B, Olubayo F, Narla R, Songa J, Amata R, Kyamanywa S, Ateka EM, 2010. First record of spiraling whitefly in coastal Kenya: emergence, host range, distribution and association with cassava brown streak virus disease. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 12(3):411-415. http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_12_NO_3/18.pdf

                                                                                                                            Nasruddin, A., Said, A. E., Baco, M. S., Jumardi, 2014. Efficacy of selected insecticides and application methods in controlling Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on pepper plants. Journal of Entomology, 11(5), 283-290. doi: 10.3923/je.2014.283.290

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                                                                                                                            Neuenschwander P, 1996. Evaluating the efficacy of biological control of three exotic homopteran pests in tropical Africa. Entomophaga, 41(3/4):405-424; 5 pp. of ref.

                                                                                                                            Palaniswami MS, Pillai KS, Nair RR, Mohandas C, 1995. A new cassava pest in India. Cassava Newsletter, 19(1):6-7

                                                                                                                            Paulson GS, Kumashiro BR, 1985. Hawaiian Aleyrodidae. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 25:103-124

                                                                                                                            Polaszek A, Shahab-Manzari, Quicke DLJ, 2004. Morphological and molecular taxonomic analysis of the Encarsia meritoria species-complex (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae), parasitoids of whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) of economic importance. Zoologica Scripta, 33(5):403-421.

                                                                                                                            Prathapan KD, 1996. Outbreak of the spiralling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Aleurodidae: Homoptera) in Kerala. Insect Environment, 2(2):36-38; 2 ref.

                                                                                                                            Ramani, S., 2000. Fortuitous introduction of an aphelinid parasitoid of the spiralling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) into the Lakshadweep Islands with notes on host plants and other natural enemies. Journal of Biological Control, 14(1), 55-60.

                                                                                                                            Ranjith AM, Rao DS, Thomas J, 1996. New host records of the 'mealy whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell in Kerala. Insect Environment, 2(2):35-36; 4 ref.

                                                                                                                            Russell LM, 1965. A new species of Aleurodicus Douglas and two close relatives (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). The Florida Entomologist, 48:47-55.

                                                                                                                            Sakthivel, N., Punithavathy, G., Qadri, S. M. H., 2009. Record of natural enemy complex of spiralling whitefly Aleurodicus disperses Russell (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infesting mulberry in Tamil Nadu. Insect Environment, 15(2), 80-82.

                                                                                                                            Shah Alam, Islam MN, Alam MZ, Islam MS, 1997. Identification of the whitefly in guava, its spatial distribution and host susceptibility. Bangladesh Journal of Entomology, 7(1/2):67-73; 13 ref.

                                                                                                                            Suta AR, Esguerra NM, 1993. Recent history of biological control in the freely associated states of Micronesia. Micronesica, No. 4 suppl:61-64

                                                                                                                            Vimala, D., Sundararaj, R., Prabakaran, S., Ilango, K., Revathi, K., 2016. Status of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infesting Ficus religiosa Linn. in India and their coexistence. Journal of Applied Zoological Researches, 27(2), 123-129. http://www.azra-india.com/journal.html

                                                                                                                            Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

                                                                                                                            Waterhouse DF, Norris KR, 1989. Biological control: Pacific prospects: supplement. Canberra, Australia; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), vii + 123 pp.; hardb

                                                                                                                            Watson GW, Ooi PAC, Girling DJ, 1995. Insects on plants in the Maldives and their management. Ascot, UK: International Institute of Biological Control.

                                                                                                                            Weems HV Jr, 1971. Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), a possible vector of the lethal yellowing disease of coconut palms. Entomology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, No. 111:2 pp.

                                                                                                                            Wen HC, Chen CN, Hsu TC, 1996. 1996 Seasonal occurrence of spiralling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell and host plant effects. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 38(1):39-47; 18 ref.

                                                                                                                            Wen HC, Hsu TC, Chen CN, 1997. Review on the spiralling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 39(2):139-149; 70 ref.

                                                                                                                            Wen HungChich, Hsu TungChing, Chen ChiouNan, 1994. Effects of temperature on the development, adult longevity, activity and oviposition of the spiralling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Chinese Journal of Entomology, 14(2):163-172

                                                                                                                            Wen HungChich, Hsu TungChing, Chen ChiouNan, 1994. Supplementary description and host plants of the spiralling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell. Chinese Journal of Entomology, 14(2):147-161

                                                                                                                            Wen HungChich, Lu FengMing, Hao HsiouHwa, Liou TsungDao, 2002. Insects pests and their injuries and control on longan in Southern Taiwan. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 51(3), 56-64.

                                                                                                                            Wijesekera GAW, Kudagamage C, 1990. Life history and control of 'spiralling' white fly Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): fast spreading pest in Sri Lanka. Quarterly Newsletter - Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission, 33(2):22-24

                                                                                                                            Yoshida HA, Mau RFL, 1985. Life history and feeding behavior of Nephaspis amnicola Wingo. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 25:155-160

                                                                                                                            Yu GuoYue, Zhang GuoLiang, Peng ZhengQiang, Liu Kui, Fu YueGuan, 2007. The spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus, invaded Hainan island of China. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology, 44(3):428-431. http://kczs.chinajournal.net.cn

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                                                                                                                            Hazell S P, Vel T, Fellowes M D E, 2008. The role of exotic plants in the invasion of Seychelles by the polyphagous insect Aleurodicus dispersus: a phylogenetically controlled analysis. Biological Invasions. 10 (2), 169-175. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=103794 DOI:10.1007/s10530-007-9120-2

                                                                                                                            IPPC, 2006. Alert: Whitefly (Aleurodicus disperses) identified in 1995. (Signalisation: Mouche blanche (Aleurodicus disperses) identifiee en 1995.). In: IPPC Official Pest Report, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

                                                                                                                            Kajita H, Samudra I M, Naito A, 1991. Discovery of the spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) from Indonesia, with notes on its host plants and natural enemies. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 26 (3), 397-400.

                                                                                                                            Kotikal Y K, Ananda N, Balikai R A, 2011. Seasonal incidence of major sucking pests of pomegranate and their relation with weather parameters in India. Acta Horticulturae. 589-596. http://www.actahort.org/books/890/890_83.htm

                                                                                                                            Kumashiro B R, Lai P Y, Funasaki G Y, Teramoto K K, 1983. Efficacy of Nephaspis amnicola and Encarsia ?haitiensis in controlling Aleurodicus dispersus in Hawaii. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. 24 (2/3), 261-269.

                                                                                                                            Lambkin T A, 1999. A host list for Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology. 38 (4), 373-376.

                                                                                                                            Lambkin T A, Zalucki M P, 2010. Long-term efficacy of Encarsia dispersa Polaszek (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) for the biological control of Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in tropical monsoon Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology. 49 (2), 190-198. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-6055.2009.00742.x

                                                                                                                            Laprade Coto S, 2005. Effect of four insecticides-nematicides on the number of Aleurodicus dispersus Russell nymphs and parasitism rate in bananas (Musa AAA). (Efecto de cuatro insecticidas-nematicidas sobre la cantidad de ninfas de Aleurodicus dispersus Rusell y el porcentaje de parasitismo en banano (Musa AAA).). CORBANA. 31 (58), 27-34.

                                                                                                                            Mani M, Dinesh M S, Krishnamoorthy A, 2003. Establishment of Encarsia guadeloupae Viggiani on the spiralling whitefly at Hyderabad. Insect Environment. 9 (1), 34.

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                                                                                                                            Manzano F, Carnero A, Perez Padron F, Gonzalez A, 1995. Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Homoptera, Aleurodidae) a "white fly" of economic importance in the Canary Islands, with special reference to the island of Tenerife. (Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Homoptera, Aleurodidae) una "mosca blanca" de importancia económica en Canarias, con especial referencia a la isla de Tenerife). Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas. 21 (1), 3-9. https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=2134865

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                                                                                                                            Medina-Gaud S, Bennett F D, Franqui R A, 1991. New records of, and notes on, whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) from Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico. 75 (3), 297-299.

                                                                                                                            Megir Gumbek, 1987. Annual Report of the Research Branch, Department of Agriculture for the year 1986. Sarawak: Ministry of Agriculture and Community Development. 83-84.

                                                                                                                            Mollot G, Borowiec N, Duyck P F, Glénac S, Quilici S, 2016. Life-history traits of Encarsia guadeloupae, a natural enemy of the invasive spiralling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus. Journal of Applied Entomology. 140 (3), 209-217. DOI:10.1111/jen.12236

                                                                                                                            Monteiro A H R R, Gomes S, Gomes I, Queiroz P R, Lima L H C, Oliveira M R V, 2005. Current status of the whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus as an invasive pest in the Cape Verde Islands. In: Plant protection and plant health in Europe: introduction and spread of invasive species, held at Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany, 9-11 June 2005. [ed. by Alford D V, Backhaus G F]. Alton, UK: British Crop Protection Council. 261-262.

                                                                                                                            Mound L A, Halsey S H, 1978. Whitefly of the world. A systematic catalogue of the Aleyrodidae (Homoptera) with host plant and natural enemy data. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons. [6+] 340 pp.

                                                                                                                            Mware B, Olubayo F, Narla R, Songa J, Amata R, Kyamanywa S, Ateka E M, 2010. First record of spiraling whitefly in coastal Kenya: emergence, host range, distribution and association with cassava brown streak virus disease. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 12 (3), 411-415. http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_12_NO_3/18.pdf

                                                                                                                            Nasruddin A, Said A E, Baco M S, Jumardi, 2014. Efficacy of selected insecticides and application methods in controlling Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on pepper plants. Journal of Entomology. 11 (5), 283-290. DOI:10.3923/je.2014.283.290

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                                                                                                                            Rashid M M, Hossain M M, Alam M Z, Ibrahim M, Bhuiyan M K A, 2003. Seasonal Aboundance and Control of Spiraling Whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russel on guava. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 6 (24), 2050-2053. http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/ansinet/pjbs/2003/2050-2053.pdf

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                                                                                                                            Sakthivel N, Punithavathy G, Qadri S M H, 2009. Record of natural enemy complex of spiralling whitefly Aleurodicus disperses Russell (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infesting mulberry in Tamil Nadu. Insect Environment. 15 (2), 80-82.

                                                                                                                            Suta A R, Esguerra N M, 1993. Recent history of biological control in the freely associated states of Micronesia. In: Micronesica [Biological Control of Exotic Pests in the Pacific. Proceedings of a Plenary Session and Symposium, XIX International Congress of Entomology, Beijing, June 1992.], 61-64.

                                                                                                                            UK, CAB International, 1986. Aleurodicus dispersus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 476. DOI:10.1079/DMPP20056600476

                                                                                                                            Vimala D, Sundararaj R, Prabakaran S, Ilango K, Revathi K, 2016. Status of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infesting Ficus religiosa Linn. in India and their coexistence. Journal of Applied Zoological Researches. 27 (2), 123-129. http://www.azra-india.com/journal.html

                                                                                                                            Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

                                                                                                                            Watson G W, Ooi P A C, Girling D J, 1995. Insects on plants in the Maldives and their management. Ascot, UK: International Institute of Biological Control (IIBC). 124 pp.

                                                                                                                            Wen HungChich, Hsu TungChing, Chen ChiouNan, 1994. Supplementary description and host plants of the spiralling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell. Chinese Journal of Entomology. 14 (2), 147-161.

                                                                                                                            Wen HungChich, Lu FengMing, Hao HsiouHwa, Liou TsungDao, 2002. Insects pests and their injuries and control on longan in Southern Taiwan. Journal of Agricultural Research of China. 51 (3), 56-64.

                                                                                                                            Wijesekera G A W, Kudagamage C, 1990. Life history and control of 'spiralling' white fly Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): fast spreading pest in Sri Lanka. Quarterly Newsletter - Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission. 33 (2), 22-24.

                                                                                                                            Wijesekera G A W, Kudagamage C, 1990a. Life history and control of "spiralling" white fly Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): fast spreading pest in Sri Lanka. Quarterly Newsletter. Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission. 33 (2), 22-25.

                                                                                                                            Yu GuoYue, Zhang GuoLiang, Peng ZhengQiang, Liu Kui, Fu YueGuan, 2007. The spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus, invaded Hainan island of China. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology. 44 (3), 428-431.

                                                                                                                            Zheng L X, Zheng Y, Wu W J, Fu Y G, 2014. Field evaluation of different wavelengths light-emitting diodes as attractants for adult Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Neotropical Entomology. 43 (5), 409-414. DOI:10.1007/s13744-014-0228-7

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