Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Aleurocanthus woglumi
(citrus blackfly)

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Datasheet

Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aleurocanthus woglumi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • citrus blackfly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult, perched on micro-forceps point. USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult, perched on micro-forceps point. USA.
Copyright©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult, perched on micro-forceps point. USA.
AdultAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult, perched on micro-forceps point. USA.©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult. USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult. USA.
Copyright©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult. USA.
AdultAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult. USA.©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); infestation on citrus leaf. October 2005. USA
TitleInfestation
CaptionAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); infestation on citrus leaf. October 2005. USA
Copyright©Chazz Hesselein/Alabama Cooperative Extension System/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); infestation on citrus leaf. October 2005. USA
InfestationAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); infestation on citrus leaf. October 2005. USA©Chazz Hesselein/Alabama Cooperative Extension System/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); nymphs and egg 'spirals'. USA
TitleNymphs and eggs
CaptionAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); nymphs and egg 'spirals'. USA
Copyright©Natalie Hummel/Louisiana State University AgCenter/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); nymphs and egg 'spirals'. USA
Nymphs and eggsAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); nymphs and egg 'spirals'. USA©Natalie Hummel/Louisiana State University AgCenter/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); egg 'spirals'. USA.
TitleEggs
CaptionAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); egg 'spirals'. USA.
Copyright©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); egg 'spirals'. USA.
EggsAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); egg 'spirals'. USA.©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); egg 'spiral' and nymphs. USA.
TitleEggs and nymphs
CaptionAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); egg 'spiral' and nymphs. USA.
Copyright©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); egg 'spiral' and nymphs. USA.
Eggs and nymphsAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); egg 'spiral' and nymphs. USA.©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); eggs, adults and nymphs on underside of citrus leaf. USA.
TitleEggs and nymphs
CaptionAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); eggs, adults and nymphs on underside of citrus leaf. USA.
Copyright©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); eggs, adults and nymphs on underside of citrus leaf. USA.
Eggs and nymphsAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); eggs, adults and nymphs on underside of citrus leaf. USA.©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult, with larvae in background, showing metallic grey wings with light markings, red abdomen and white-yellow legs and antennae.
TitleAdult
CaptionAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult, with larvae in background, showing metallic grey wings with light markings, red abdomen and white-yellow legs and antennae.
Copyright©Bayer Pflanzenschutz
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult, with larvae in background, showing metallic grey wings with light markings, red abdomen and white-yellow legs and antennae.
AdultAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult, with larvae in background, showing metallic grey wings with light markings, red abdomen and white-yellow legs and antennae.©Bayer Pflanzenschutz
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); fourth instar (pupa), showing oval bodies surrrounded by a white fringe of waxy secretion.
TitleFourth instar (pupa)
CaptionAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); fourth instar (pupa), showing oval bodies surrrounded by a white fringe of waxy secretion.
Copyright©Bayer Pflanzenschutz
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); fourth instar (pupa), showing oval bodies surrrounded by a white fringe of waxy secretion.
Fourth instar (pupa)Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); fourth instar (pupa), showing oval bodies surrrounded by a white fringe of waxy secretion.©Bayer Pflanzenschutz

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915

Preferred Common Name

  • citrus blackfly

Other Scientific Names

  • Aleurocanthus punjabensis Corbett, 1935
  • Aleurocanthus woglumi var. formosana Takahashi, 1935
  • Aleurodes woglumi

International Common Names

  • English: blue grey fly; citrus spring whitefly
  • Spanish: mosca negra de la naranja; mosca negra de los cítricos; mosca pinta de los cítricos; mosca prieta; mosca prieta de los cítricos
  • French: aleurode noir des agrumes

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Mottenschildlaus, Schwarze Citrus-

EPPO code

  • ALECPU (Aleurocanthus punjabensis)
  • ALECWO (Aleurocanthus woglumi)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aleyrodoidea
  •                                 Family: Aleyrodidae
  •                                     Genus: Aleurocanthus
  •                                         Species: Aleurocanthus woglumi

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Aleurocanthus husaini was proposed as a synonym of A. woglumi by Martin (1985), but subsequent study suggests that A. husaini is a valid species (Martin JH, Natural History Museum, London, UK, personal communication, 1991).

Description

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The following details are based on Smith et al. (1992). The elongate-oval eggs (0.2 mm long) are yellow when first laid and then darken to charcoal grey or black; each is attached to the leaf by a short pedicel.

The six-legged, dusky, elongate first-instar larvae (0.3 x 0.15 mm) have two long and several shorter, slender dorsal glandular spines. All subsequent immature stages are sessile, have non-functional leg stubs and possess numerous, dark dorsal spines on which a stack of exuviae of earlier instars may occur. The second instar (0.4 x 0.2 mm) is a dark-brown to charcoal convex disc with yellow markings, whereas the third-instar (0.87 x 0.74 mm) is usually black with a rounded, greenish spot on the anterior part of the abdomen and obvious dorsal spines. In the fourth immature stage or 'pupa', females are larger (1.25 mm long) than males (1 mm long). This stage is black, has numerous dorsal spines and is often surrounded by a white fringe of waxy secretion. This is the stage required for identification purposes.

Adults are winged in both sexes, the females (1.7 mm long) being larger than the males (approximately 1.33 mm long). The wings are dark-grey at ecdysis, sometimes developing a metallic blue-grey sheen later; lighter markings on the wings appear to form a band across the insect. The body is orange to red initially; the thorax darkens to dark-grey in a few hours. The limbs are whitish with pale-yellow markings.

Distribution

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A. woglumi originated from southern Asia and has spread widely to tropical and subtropical regions, overlapping with the distribution of Aleurocanthus spiniferus in some areas. Records of its presence in Korea Democratic People's Republic and Korean Republic are erroneous (CIE, 1995).

There have been unofficial reports of outbreaks of A. woglumi for St. Kitts and Nevis (CPPC, Bridgetown, Barbados, personal communication, 1998).

The distribution map includes records based on specimens of A. woglumi from the collection at the Natural History Museum (London, UK); dates of collection are noted in the List of countries (NHM, various dates). See also CIE (1995, No. 91).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EswatiniPresent
KenyaPresent
NigeriaPresent
SeychellesPresent
South AfricaPresent, Localized1959
TanzaniaPresent
TunisiaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
UgandaPresent
ZimbabwePresent, Widespread

Asia

BangladeshPresent, Widespread
BhutanPresent, Widespread
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-HainanPresent
Hong KongPresent, Few occurrences
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GoaPresent
-GujaratPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-LakshadweepPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-PunjabPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TelanganaPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-Irian JayaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SulawesiPresent
-SumatraPresent
IranPresent
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresent, Few occurrences
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MaldivesPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
North KoreaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresent
South KoreaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanAbsent, Formerly present
ThailandPresent
United Arab EmiratesPresent
VietnamPresent
YemenPresent, Widespread

Europe

BelgiumAbsent
CroatiaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyBased on ongoing long-term monitoring for plant passport system.
PortugalAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
-AzoresAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
SloveniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
United KingdomAbsent, Intercepted only

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent, Localized
BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent
BermudaPresent
British Virgin IslandsPresent
Cayman IslandsPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent1997
Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresent1965
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent
JamaicaPresent1913
MexicoPresent, Widespread1935
Netherlands AntillesPresent, Localized
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint BarthélemyPresent
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, Widespread
United StatesPresent, Localized
-FloridaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-TexasPresent

Oceania

Christmas IslandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
Solomon IslandsAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent, Localized
-AmapaPresent
-AmazonasPresent
-GoiasPresent
-MaranhaoPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent
-ParaibaPresent
-ParanaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-PiauiPresent2010
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-RoraimaPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
-TocantinsPresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent, Localized
French GuianaPresent
GuyanaPresent
PeruAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
SurinamePresent
VenezuelaPresent1965

Risk of Introduction

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A. woglumi is considered an A1 quarantine pest for EPPO; it is also of quarantine significance for COSAVE and NAPPO. It mainly presents a risk to countries where citrus is grown and where A. woglumi does not yet occur. It could conceivably become a pest in heated glasshouses in temperate countries.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

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A. woglumi is a polyphagous species with a strong preference for citrus. Unlike A. spiniferus it is seldom found on roses. In Mexico, A. woglumi has been recorded on 75 species of host plant from 38 families (Shaw, 1950). Nguyen et al. (1993) stated that this species infests 169 host plant species belonging to 69 families. Steinberg and Dowell (1980) found evidence suggesting that A. woglumi is incapable of infesting host species other than citrus for more than three generations, which may explain why serious infestations of other hosts are usually found in close proximity to citrus groves. It can be found on mango (Mangifera indica) for several generations. A. woglumi has also been reported from Croton sp.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Acacia (wattles)FabaceaeUnknown
  • Shaw (1950)
ActinidiaActinidiaceaeUnknown
Agonandra racemosaUnknown
  • Shaw (1950)
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)ApocynaceaeUnknown
  • Shaw (1950)
Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeOther
    AnnonaAnnonaceaeOther
      Annona muricata (soursop)AnnonaceaeUnknown
      • Shaw (1950)
      Antigonon leptopus (coral vine)PolygonaceaeUnknown
      • Shaw (1950)
      Ardisia solanaceaUnknown
      Ardisia swartziPrimulaceaeOther
        Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)MoraceaeOther
        Asclepias (Silkweed)AsclepiadaceaeUnknown
        • Shaw (1950)
        Asclepias curassavica (bloodflower)AsclepiadaceaeUnknown
        • Shaw (1950)
        Averrhoa carambola (carambola)OxalidaceaeOther
          Bauhinia (camel's foot)FabaceaeUnknown
          • Shaw (1950)
          Bixa orellana (annatto)BixaceaeUnknown
          • Shaw (1950)
          Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)NyctaginaceaeUnknown
          • Shaw (1950)
          Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood)BuxaceaeOther
            Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean)FabaceaeUnknown
            • Shaw (1950)
            Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
            Carissa macrocarpa (Natal plum)ApocynaceaeUnknown
            • Shaw (1950)
            Carya (hickories)JuglandaceaeUnknown
            • Shaw (1950)
            Casearia aculeataFlacourtiaceaeUnknown
            • Shaw (1950)
            Casimiroa edulis (white sapote)RutaceaeUnknown
            • Shaw (1950)
            Cestrum (jessamine)SolanaceaeOther
              CitrusRutaceaeMain
              Citrus aurantiifolia (lime)RutaceaeUnknown
              Citrus jambhiri (rough lemon)RutaceaeUnknown
              Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeUnknown
              Citrus limonia (mandarin lime)RutaceaeUnknown
              Citrus maxima (pummelo)RutaceaeUnknown
              Citrus medica (citron)RutaceaeUnknown
              Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeOther
                Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeOther
                Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit)RutaceaeUnknown
                Clausena lansium (wampi)RutaceaeUnknown
                Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeOther
                  Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeOther
                    Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeOther
                      ColocasiaAraceaeUnknown
                      • Shaw (1950)
                      Cydonia oblonga (quince)RosaceaeOther
                      • Shaw (1950)
                      Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeUnknown
                      EugeniaMyrtaceaeOther
                        Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                        EysenhardtiaUnknown
                        • Shaw (1950)
                        FicusMoraceaeUnknown
                        • Shaw (1950)
                        Fortunella (kumquats)RutaceaeUnknown
                        Fortunella japonica (round kumquat)RutaceaeUnknown
                        Gardenia jasminoides (cape jasmine)RubiaceaeUnknown
                        Gelsemium sempervirensUnknown
                        • Shaw (1950)
                        Geranium (cranesbill)GeraniaceaeUnknown
                        • Shaw (1950)
                        GonolobusUnknown
                        • Shaw (1950)
                        Hibiscus (rosemallows)MalvaceaeOther
                          Jasminum humileUnknown
                          • Shaw (1950)
                          Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine)OleaceaeUnknown
                          • Shaw (1950)
                          Khaya ivorensis (African mahogany)MeliaceaeOther
                            Laurus nobilis (sweet bay)LauraceaeOther
                              Ligustrum (privet)OleaceaeUnknown
                              • Shaw (1950)
                              Litchi chinensis (lichi)SapindaceaeOther
                                MangiferaAnacardiaceaeUnknown
                                Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                Manilkara sapotaUnknown
                                Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeOther
                                  Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
                                  • Shaw (1950)
                                  Morus (mulberrytree)MoraceaeOther
                                    MurrayaRutaceaeOther
                                      Murraya koenigii (curry leaf tree)RutaceaeUnknown
                                      Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)RutaceaeUnknown
                                      • Shaw (1950)
                                      Musa (banana)MusaceaeOther
                                        Parathesis serrulataUnknown
                                        • Shaw (1950)
                                        Passiflora (passionflower)PassifloraceaeUnknown
                                        • Shaw (1950)
                                        Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeOther
                                          PerseaLauraceaeUnknown
                                          • Shaw (1950)
                                          Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
                                            Persea zuihoensisLauraceaeUnknown
                                            Piper (pepper)PiperaceaeUnknown
                                            • Shaw (1950)
                                            Pithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind)FabaceaeUnknown
                                            • Shaw (1950)
                                            Pithecellobium lanceolatumFabaceaeUnknown
                                            • Shaw (1950)
                                            Plumeria (frangipani)ApocynaceaeOther
                                              Polyclathra cucumerinaUnknown
                                              • Shaw (1950)
                                              Poncirus trifoliata (Trifoliate orange)RutaceaeUnknown
                                              Populus (poplars)SalicaceaeOther
                                                Pouteria caimitoSapotaceaeOther
                                                Prunus armeniaca (apricot)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                • Shaw (1950)
                                                Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                • Shaw (1950)
                                                Prunus serotina (black cherry)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                • Shaw (1950)
                                                Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                • Shaw (1950)
                                                Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeOther
                                                  Pyracantha (Firethorn)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                  Pyrostegia venusta (Goldenshower)BignoniaceaeUnknown
                                                  • Shaw (1950)
                                                  Pyrus (pears)RosaceaeOther
                                                    Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                    • Shaw (1950)
                                                    Rosa (roses)RosaceaeOther
                                                    • Shaw (1950)
                                                    Salix (willows)SalicaceaeUnknown
                                                    • Shaw (1950)
                                                    Sapindus mukorossi (Chinese soap berry)SapindaceaeUnknown
                                                    • Shaw (1950)
                                                    Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
                                                    Senna occidentalis (coffee senna)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                    • Shaw (1950)
                                                    Struthanthus flexicaulisLoranthaceaeOther
                                                    Tabernaemontana albaApocynaceaeUnknown
                                                    • Shaw (1950)
                                                    Thunbergia fragrans (whitelady)AcanthaceaeUnknown
                                                    • Shaw (1950)
                                                    Thunbergia laurifolia (laurel clockvine)AcanthaceaeUnknown
                                                    • Shaw (1950)
                                                    Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)ApocynaceaeUnknown
                                                    • Shaw (1950)
                                                    Vitis (grape)VitaceaeOther
                                                      XylosmaUnknown
                                                      • Shaw (1950)
                                                      Zingiber officinale (ginger)ZingiberaceaeOther

                                                        Growth Stages

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                                                        Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                        Symptoms

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                                                        Sticky honeydew deposits accumulate on leaves and stems and usually develop black sooty mould fungus, giving the foliage (even the whole plant) a sooty appearance. Ants may be attracted by the honeydew. Infested leaves may be distorted. The insects are most noticeable as groups of very small, black spiny lumps on leaf undersides.

                                                        List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                        SignLife StagesType
                                                        Leaves / abnormal forms
                                                        Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                        Stems / honeydew or sooty mould

                                                        Biology and Ecology

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                                                        The following details are from Shaw (1950), Martinez and Angeles (1973) and Enkerlins (1976). In tropical conditions, all stages of A. woglumi may be found throughout the year, but reproduction stops during cold periods. Eggs are laid in a characteristic spiral on the underside of young leaves in batches of 35-50 and hatch in 4-12 days depending on conditions. The first instars are active and disperse over a short distance, avoiding strong sunlight and usually settling in a dense colony of up to several hundred on the undersides of young leaves to feed on phloem sap. Functional legs are lost in the subsequent moult, and the next three immature instars are attached to the leaf by their mouthparts. All stages (except a resting phase in the fourth instar or 'pupa') feed on phloem sap. Each female may lay considerably more than 100 eggs in her lifetime.

                                                        The life cycle takes 2-4 months depending on conditions, and there are three to six generations per year. Le Pelley (1968) gives the development times of different stages as: egg 11-20 days; larval instars 7-16, 5-30 and 6-20 days respectively; 'pupa' 16-80 days; adult 6-12 days. Mortality during development is high; Dietz and Zatek (1920) recorded a level of 77.5% in Panama.

                                                        The optimal conditions for development are 28-32°C and 70-80% relative humidity. A. woglumi does not survive temperatures below freezing and does not occur in areas where temperatures exceed 43°C. Dowell and Fitzpatrick (1978) give the threshold for development for A. woglumi as 13.7°C.

                                                        A. woglumi and Aleurocanthus spiniferus both occur on citrus in Kenya; however, they seem to have different ecological preferences, with A. spiniferus being dominant at higher altitudes and A. woglumi at lower altitudes (Cock MJW, International Institute of Biological Control, Ascot, UK, personal communication, 1990). Also, A. woglumi does not occur in Korea, whereas A. spiniferus does (UK CAB International, 1990). This may reflect less tolerance of low temperatures in A. woglumi than in A. spiniferus.

                                                        Movement by first instars is minimal. Adults are winged and are capable of limited down-wind flight (187 m in 24 hours) but this achieves only local dispersal (Meyerdirk et al., 1979). Long-range dispersal is mainly by international trade in planting material of citrus or other hosts, or possibly by contamination of transported fruits or leaves (USDA, 1988).

                                                        Natural enemies

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                                                        Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                        Aegerita webberi Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
                                                        Amitus hesperidum Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Bahamas; Ecuador; Florida; Mexico; Oman; Texas; Trinidad Citrus, mango
                                                        Aschersonia aleyrodes Pathogen Arthropods|Nymphs
                                                        Aschersonia aleyrodis Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
                                                        Cales noacki Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Sicily
                                                        Catana clauseni Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bahamas; Cuba Citrus
                                                        Delphastus pallidus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                                        Delphastus pusillus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                                        Encarsia bennetti Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                                        Encarsia clypealis Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Florida; Mexico Citrus
                                                        Encarsia divergens Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Cuba; Mexico Citrus
                                                        Encarsia longifasciata Parasite
                                                        Encarsia opulenta Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Bahamas; Barbados; Caribbean; Cayman Islands; El Salvador; Florida; Honduras; Jamaica; Kenya; Mexico; Oman; Pakistan; Texas; Trinidad; Venezuela Citrus; Citrus sinensis; coffee; mango
                                                        Encarsia perplexa Parasite
                                                        Encarsia smithi Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Florida; Mexico Citrus
                                                        Eretmocerus indicus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                                        Eretmocerus serius Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Bahamas; Barbados; Caribbean; Cayman Islands; Costa Rica; Cuba; Haiti; Jamaica; Kenya; Mexico; Panama; Seychelles; South Africa Citrus; coffee
                                                        Mallada boninensis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                                        Scymnus smithianus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Cuba Citrus
                                                        Serangium parcesetosum Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs

                                                        Notes on Natural Enemies

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                                                        Commercially successful biological control of A. woglumi is possible in most countries where it is established, because five effective parasitoids are known, any one of which is capable of regulating the pest if the environmental conditions are favourable to it (Clausen, 1978).

                                                        The following is from Clausen (1978): the most effective parasitoid of A. woglumi in hot, humid conditions is Eretmocerus serius, which can maintain a parasitism level of about 65% even in low populations of the pest. Encarsia opulenta [Encarsia perplexa] is adaptable to quite a wide climatic range and is particularly effective in hot, dry conditions. Encarsia clypealis and Amitus hesperidum both have more restricted climatic requirements in more humid conditions; A. hesperidum is particularly effective against heavy infestations, but tends to be displaced by Encarsia species if any are present, although both E. opulenta and A. hesperidum have been reported from citrus trees infested with A. woglumi (R Nguyen, Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Florida, USA, personal communication, 2008). Encarsia smithi is capable of regulating A. woglumi, but is displaced if Eretmocerus serius or any of the other Encarsia species are present. E. smithi is a facultative hyperparasite of E. opulenta. It was very abundant in Merrit Island, Florida, USA from 1980 to 1981, but later disappeared (Nguyen et al., 1983; Nguyen and Sailer, 1987; Nguyen et al., 1993). Encarsia clypealis was released, but then could not be found in Florida (R Nguyen, Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Florida, USA, personal communication, 2008).

                                                        Catana clauseni is a very effective predator on high populations of A. woglumi, with approximately two generations of the predator developing for each one of the pest; however, the beetle died out in Cuba several years after its introduction, even though it was recorded feeding on other species of whitefly after the populations of A. woglumi declined.

                                                        The fungi Ascgersonia aleurodis and Aegerita webberi attack larvae and pupae, and reduce infestations (Le Pelley, 1968).

                                                        Several natural enemies of A. woglumi are listed in Nguyen et al. (1993).

                                                        Impact

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                                                        Feeding by A. woglumi damages new leaf growth, reducing nitrogen levels in infested leaves. Sooty mould growing on honeydew deposits blocks light and air from the leaves, reducing photosynthesis. This can reduce fruit set by up to 80% or more (Eberling, 1954). Crop losses of limes due to A. woglumi were recorded at 25% by Watts and Alam (1973). In Mexico, citrus blackfly is regarded as a threat to citrus crops and to other crops such as mangoes, pears or coffee grown adjacent to heavily infested citrus groves. A. woglumi is a constant menace to citrus and other crops in the USA and Venezuela. It has been recorded seriously affecting citrus in India (David and Subramaniam, 1976). Le Pelley (1968) mentions it as a severe pest of coffee in the New World.

                                                        Diagnosis

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                                                        Authoritative identification requires skilful preparation of slide mounts of fourth instar 'pupae' for microscopic examination by a whitefly specialist.

                                                        Detection and Inspection

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                                                        Examine plants, especially shrubs or trees, closely for signs of sooty mould or sticky honeydew on leaves and stems, or ants running about. Look for distorted leaves with immature stages on the undersides. Good light conditions are essential; in poor light, a powerful flashlight is helpful. A large hand lens may be necessary to help recognition of the dorsal spines on immature stages.

                                                        Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                                        Several similar species of Aleurocanthus occur on citrus, including Aleurocanthus citriperdus, Aleurocanthus husaini and Aleurocanthus spiniferus as well as A. woglumi. These species differ from each other only in microscopic characters of the 'pupa' and require expert preparation and identification to distinguish them reliably.

                                                        Prevention and Control

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                                                        Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                        Regulatory Control

                                                        EPPO recommends that planting material and produce of host plants of A. woglumi, especially citrus, should be inspected in the growing season previous to shipment and should be found free of infestation (OEPP/EPPO, 1990). A phytosanitary certificate should guarantee absence of the pest from consignments of fruit. Whole or parts of host plants from countries where A. woglumi occurs should be fumigated.

                                                        Chemical Control

                                                        It is possible to control A. woglumi by fumigation of planting material, or with chemical sprays, but the latter is likely to require several successive applications because the waxy nature of the immature stages and the non-feeding period in the 'pupa' reduces susceptibility. However, use of pesticides is expensive and it is likely to kill any natural enemies and make biological control ineffective.

                                                        Biological Control

                                                        A. woglumi has been effectively controlled by natural enemies in all of the countries where introductions have been successful (Clausen, 1978). This is the most cost-effective and sustainable method of control, and the parasitoids available are capable of controlling it wherever it becomes established.

                                                        References

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                                                        05/06/2008 Updated by:

                                                        Ru Nguyen, Division of Plant Industry, Bureau Methods Development & Biocontrol, PO Box 147 100, Gainesville, Florida 32614-7100, USA

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