Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915
Preferred Common Name
- citrus blackfly
Other Scientific Names
- Aleurocanthus punjabensis Corbett, 1935
- Aleurocanthus woglumi var. formosana Takahashi, 1935
- Aleurodes woglumi
International Common Names
- English: blue grey fly; citrus spring whitefly
- Spanish: mosca negra de la naranja; mosca negra de los cítricos; mosca pinta de los cítricos; mosca prieta; mosca prieta de los cítricos
- French: aleurode noir des agrumes
Local Common Names
- Germany: Mottenschildlaus, Schwarze Citrus-
- ALECPU (Aleurocanthus punjabensis)
- ALECWO (Aleurocanthus woglumi)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Hemiptera
- Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
- Unknown: Aleyrodoidea
- Family: Aleyrodidae
- Genus: Aleurocanthus
- Species: Aleurocanthus woglumi
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page Aleurocanthus husaini was proposed as a synonym of A. woglumi by Martin (1985), but subsequent study suggests that A. husaini is a valid species (Martin JH, Natural History Museum, London, UK, personal communication, 1991).
DescriptionTop of page
The following details are based on Smith et al. (1992). The elongate-oval eggs (0.2 mm long) are yellow when first laid and then darken to charcoal grey or black; each is attached to the leaf by a short pedicel.
The six-legged, dusky, elongate first-instar larvae (0.3 x 0.15 mm) have two long and several shorter, slender dorsal glandular spines. All subsequent immature stages are sessile, have non-functional leg stubs and possess numerous, dark dorsal spines on which a stack of exuviae of earlier instars may occur. The second instar (0.4 x 0.2 mm) is a dark-brown to charcoal convex disc with yellow markings, whereas the third-instar (0.87 x 0.74 mm) is usually black with a rounded, greenish spot on the anterior part of the abdomen and obvious dorsal spines. In the fourth immature stage or 'pupa', females are larger (1.25 mm long) than males (1 mm long). This stage is black, has numerous dorsal spines and is often surrounded by a white fringe of waxy secretion. This is the stage required for identification purposes.
Adults are winged in both sexes, the females (1.7 mm long) being larger than the males (approximately 1.33 mm long). The wings are dark-grey at ecdysis, sometimes developing a metallic blue-grey sheen later; lighter markings on the wings appear to form a band across the insect. The body is orange to red initially; the thorax darkens to dark-grey in a few hours. The limbs are whitish with pale-yellow markings.
DistributionTop of page
A. woglumi originated from southern Asia and has spread widely to tropical and subtropical regions, overlapping with the distribution of Aleurocanthus spiniferus in some areas. Records of its presence in Korea Democratic People's Republic and Korean Republic are erroneous (CIE, 1995).
There have been unofficial reports of outbreaks of A. woglumi for St. Kitts and Nevis (CPPC, Bridgetown, Barbados, personal communication, 1998).
The distribution map includes records based on specimens of A. woglumi from the collection at the Natural History Museum (London, UK); dates of collection are noted in the List of countries (NHM, various dates). See also CIE (1995, No. 91).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Bangladesh||Widespread||APPPC, 1987; EPPO, 2014|
|Bhutan||Widespread||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Cambodia||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Guangdong||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Hainan||Present||Zhu and Fu, 2013|
|-Hong Kong||Present, few occurrences||EPPO, 2014|
|Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)||Present||Bellis et al., 2004; Gillespie, 2012|
|-Andhra Pradesh||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Assam||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Bihar||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Delhi||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Gujarat||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Indian Punjab||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Karnataka||Present||NHM,1988; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Madhya Pradesh||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Maharashtra||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Sikkim||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Tamil Nadu||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Uttar Pradesh||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-West Bengal||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Irian Jaya||Present||Martin, 1985; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Java||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; EPPO, 2014|
|-Kalimantan||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; EPPO, 2014|
|-Sulawesi||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Sumatra||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; EPPO, 2014|
|Iran||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Korea, DPR||Absent, invalid record||EPPO, 2014|
|Korea, Republic of||Absent, invalid record||EPPO, 2014|
|Laos||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Malaysia||Present, few occurrences||EPPO, 2014|
|-Peninsular Malaysia||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Sabah||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Sarawak||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Maldives||Present||Watson et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Myanmar||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; APPPC, 1987; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Nepal||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Oman||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Pakistan||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Philippines||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Singapore||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; APPPC, 1987; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Sri Lanka||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Taiwan||Absent, formerly present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Thailand||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|United Arab Emirates||Widespread||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Vietnam||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Yemen||Widespread||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Kenya||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Seychelles||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|South Africa||Restricted distribution||1959||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Swaziland||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Tanzania||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Tunisia||Absent, invalid record||EPPO, 2014|
|Uganda||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Bermuda||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; EPPO, 2014|
|Mexico||Widespread||1935||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|USA||Restricted distribution||EPPO, 2014|
|-Florida||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|-Hawaii||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; EPPO, 2014|
|-Texas||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
Central America and Caribbean
|Antigua and Barbuda||Restricted distribution||EPPO, 2014|
|Bahamas||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Barbados||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Belize||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|British Virgin Islands||Present||EPPO, 2014|
|Cayman Islands||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Costa Rica||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Cuba||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Dominica||Present||1997||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Dominican Republic||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; EPPO, 2014|
|El Salvador||Present||1965||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Guatemala||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Haiti||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; EPPO, 2014|
|Jamaica||Present||1913||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Netherlands Antilles||Restricted distribution||EPPO, 2014|
|Nicaragua||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Panama||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; EPPO, 2014|
|Puerto Rico||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Present||EPPO, 2014|
|Saint Lucia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Heileman, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Widespread||NHM, 1999; EPPO, 2014|
|Brazil||Restricted distribution||EPPO, 2014|
|-Amapa||Present||Pena et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|-Amazonas||Present||Ronchi-Teles et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-Maranhao||Present||Medeiros et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-Para||Present||Pena et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|-Parana||Present||Molina et al., 2014|
|-Pernambuco||Present||Monteiro et al., 2012|
|-Rio de Janeiro||Present||Alvim et al., 2016|
|-Roraima||Present||Correia et al., 2011|
|-Sao Paulo||Present||Pena et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|Colombia||Present||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Ecuador||Restricted distribution||Mound and Halsey, 1978; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|French Guiana||Present||EPPO, 2014|
|Peru||Absent, invalid record||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Suriname||Present||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Venezuela||Present||1965||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Croatia||Absent, confirmed by survey||EPPO, 2014|
|Netherlands||Absent, confirmed by survey||NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; EPPO, 2014||Based on ongoing long-term monitoring for plant passport system.|
|Portugal||Absent, unreliable record||EPPO, 2014|
|-Azores||Absent, unreliable record||CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|UK||Absent, intercepted only||EPPO, 2014|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||Martin, 1985; CIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014|
|Solomon Islands||Absent, unreliable record||EPPO, 2014|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page A. woglumi is considered an A1 quarantine pest for EPPO; it is also of quarantine significance for COSAVE and NAPPO. It mainly presents a risk to countries where citrus is grown and where A. woglumi does not yet occur. It could conceivably become a pest in heated glasshouses in temperate countries.
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
A. woglumi is a polyphagous species with a strong preference for citrus. Unlike A. spiniferus it is seldom found on roses. In Mexico, A. woglumi has been recorded on 75 species of host plant from 38 families (Shaw, 1950). Nguyen et al. (1993) stated that this species infests 169 host plant species belonging to 69 families. Steinberg and Dowell (1980) found evidence suggesting that A. woglumi is incapable of infesting host species other than citrus for more than three generations, which may explain why serious infestations of other hosts are usually found in close proximity to citrus groves. It can be found on mango (Mangifera indica) for several generations. A. woglumi has also been reported from Croton sp.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)||Anacardiaceae||Other|
|Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)||Moraceae||Other|
|Averrhoa carambola (carambola)||Oxalidaceae||Other|
|Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood)||Buxaceae||Other|
|Carica papaya (pawpaw)||Caricaceae||Other|
|Citrus reticulata (mandarin)||Rutaceae||Other|
|Citrus sinensis (navel orange)||Rutaceae||Other|
|Cocos nucifera (coconut)||Arecaceae||Other|
|Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)||Rubiaceae||Other|
|Cydonia oblonga (quince)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Khaya ivorensis (African mahogany)||Meliaceae||Other|
|Laurus nobilis (sweet bay)||Lauraceae||Other|
|Litchi chinensis (lichi)||Sapindaceae||Other|
|Mangifera indica (mango)||Anacardiaceae||Other|
|Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)||Sapotaceae||Other|
|Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)||Passifloraceae||Other|
|Persea americana (avocado)||Lauraceae||Other|
|Psidium guajava (guava)||Myrtaceae||Other|
|Punica granatum (pomegranate)||Punicaceae||Other|
|Zingiber officinale (ginger)||Zingiberaceae||Other|
Growth StagesTop of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage
SymptomsTop of page Sticky honeydew deposits accumulate on leaves and stems and usually develop black sooty mould fungus, giving the foliage (even the whole plant) a sooty appearance. Ants may be attracted by the honeydew. Infested leaves may be distorted. The insects are most noticeable as groups of very small, black spiny lumps on leaf undersides.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / abnormal forms|
|Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould|
|Stems / honeydew or sooty mould|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The following details are from Shaw (1950), Martinez and Angeles (1973) and Enkerlins (1976). In tropical conditions, all stages of A. woglumi may be found throughout the year, but reproduction stops during cold periods. Eggs are laid in a characteristic spiral on the underside of young leaves in batches of 35-50 and hatch in 4-12 days depending on conditions. The first instars are active and disperse over a short distance, avoiding strong sunlight and usually settling in a dense colony of up to several hundred on the undersides of young leaves to feed on phloem sap. Functional legs are lost in the subsequent moult, and the next three immature instars are attached to the leaf by their mouthparts. All stages (except a resting phase in the fourth instar or 'pupa') feed on phloem sap. Each female may lay considerably more than 100 eggs in her lifetime.
The life cycle takes 2-4 months depending on conditions, and there are three to six generations per year. Le Pelley (1968) gives the development times of different stages as: egg 11-20 days; larval instars 7-16, 5-30 and 6-20 days respectively; 'pupa' 16-80 days; adult 6-12 days. Mortality during development is high; Dietz and Zatek (1920) recorded a level of 77.5% in Panama.
The optimal conditions for development are 28-32°C and 70-80% relative humidity. A. woglumi does not survive temperatures below freezing and does not occur in areas where temperatures exceed 43°C. Dowell and Fitzpatrick (1978) give the threshold for development for A. woglumi as 13.7°C.
A. woglumi and Aleurocanthus spiniferus both occur on citrus in Kenya; however, they seem to have different ecological preferences, with A. spiniferus being dominant at higher altitudes and A. woglumi at lower altitudes (Cock MJW, International Institute of Biological Control, Ascot, UK, personal communication, 1990). Also, A. woglumi does not occur in Korea, whereas A. spiniferus does (UK CAB International, 1990). This may reflect less tolerance of low temperatures in A. woglumi than in A. spiniferus.
Movement by first instars is minimal. Adults are winged and are capable of limited down-wind flight (187 m in 24 hours) but this achieves only local dispersal (Meyerdirk et al., 1979). Long-range dispersal is mainly by international trade in planting material of citrus or other hosts, or possibly by contamination of transported fruits or leaves (USDA, 1988).
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Amitus hesperidum||Parasite||Nymphs||Bahamas; Ecuador; Florida; Mexico; Oman; Texas; Trinidad||Citrus, mango|
|Catana clauseni||Predator||Adults/Nymphs||Bahamas; Cuba||Citrus|
|Encarsia clypealis||Parasite||Nymphs||Florida; Mexico||Citrus|
|Encarsia divergens||Parasite||Adults/Nymphs||Cuba; Mexico||Citrus|
|Encarsia opulenta||Parasite||Nymphs||Bahamas; Barbados; Caribbean; Cayman Islands; El Salvador; Florida; Honduras; Jamaica; Kenya; Mexico; Oman; Pakistan; Texas; Trinidad; Venezuela||Citrus; Citrus sinensis; coffee; mango|
|Encarsia smithi||Parasite||Nymphs||Florida; Mexico||Citrus|
|Eretmocerus serius||Parasite||Nymphs||Bahamas; Barbados; Caribbean; Cayman Islands; Costa Rica; Cuba; Haiti; Jamaica; Kenya; Mexico; Panama; Seychelles; South Africa||Citrus; coffee|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Commercially successful biological control of A. woglumi is possible in most countries where it is established, because five effective parasitoids are known, any one of which is capable of regulating the pest if the environmental conditions are favourable to it (Clausen, 1978).
The following is from Clausen (1978): the most effective parasitoid of A. woglumi in hot, humid conditions is Eretmocerus serius, which can maintain a parasitism level of about 65% even in low populations of the pest. Encarsia opulenta [Encarsia perplexa] is adaptable to quite a wide climatic range and is particularly effective in hot, dry conditions. Encarsia clypealis and Amitus hesperidum both have more restricted climatic requirements in more humid conditions; A. hesperidum is particularly effective against heavy infestations, but tends to be displaced by Encarsia species if any are present, although both E. opulenta and A. hesperidum have been reported from citrus trees infested with A. woglumi (R Nguyen, Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Florida, USA, personal communication, 2008). Encarsia smithi is capable of regulating A. woglumi, but is displaced if Eretmocerus serius or any of the other Encarsia species are present. E. smithi is a facultative hyperparasite of E. opulenta. It was very abundant in Merrit Island, Florida, USA from 1980 to 1981, but later disappeared (Nguyen et al., 1983; Nguyen and Sailer, 1987; Nguyen et al., 1993). Encarsia clypealis was released, but then could not be found in Florida (R Nguyen, Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Florida, USA, personal communication, 2008).
Catana clauseni is a very effective predator on high populations of A. woglumi, with approximately two generations of the predator developing for each one of the pest; however, the beetle died out in Cuba several years after its introduction, even though it was recorded feeding on other species of whitefly after the populations of A. woglumi declined.
The fungi Ascgersonia aleurodis and Aegerita webberi attack larvae and pupae, and reduce infestations (Le Pelley, 1968).
Several natural enemies of A. woglumi are listed in Nguyen et al. (1993).
ImpactTop of page Feeding by A. woglumi damages new leaf growth, reducing nitrogen levels in infested leaves. Sooty mould growing on honeydew deposits blocks light and air from the leaves, reducing photosynthesis. This can reduce fruit set by up to 80% or more (Eberling, 1954). Crop losses of limes due to A. woglumi were recorded at 25% by Watts and Alam (1973). In Mexico, citrus blackfly is regarded as a threat to citrus crops and to other crops such as mangoes, pears or coffee grown adjacent to heavily infested citrus groves. A. woglumi is a constant menace to citrus and other crops in the USA and Venezuela. It has been recorded seriously affecting citrus in India (David and Subramaniam, 1976). Le Pelley (1968) mentions it as a severe pest of coffee in the New World.
DiagnosisTop of page Authoritative identification requires skilful preparation of slide mounts of fourth instar 'pupae' for microscopic examination by a whitefly specialist.
Detection and InspectionTop of page Examine plants, especially shrubs or trees, closely for signs of sooty mould or sticky honeydew on leaves and stems, or ants running about. Look for distorted leaves with immature stages on the undersides. Good light conditions are essential; in poor light, a powerful flashlight is helpful. A large hand lens may be necessary to help recognition of the dorsal spines on immature stages.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page Several similar species of Aleurocanthus occur on citrus, including Aleurocanthus citriperdus, Aleurocanthus husaini and Aleurocanthus spiniferus as well as A. woglumi. These species differ from each other only in microscopic characters of the 'pupa' and require expert preparation and identification to distinguish them reliably.
Prevention and ControlTop of page Regulatory Control
EPPO recommends that planting material and produce of host plants of A. woglumi, especially citrus, should be inspected in the growing season previous to shipment and should be found free of infestation (OEPP/EPPO, 1990). A phytosanitary certificate should guarantee absence of the pest from consignments of fruit. Whole or parts of host plants from countries where A. woglumi occurs should be fumigated.Chemical Control
It is possible to control A. woglumi by fumigation of planting material, or with chemical sprays, but the latter is likely to require several successive applications because the waxy nature of the immature stages and the non-feeding period in the 'pupa' reduces susceptibility. However, use of pesticides is expensive and it is likely to kill any natural enemies and make biological control ineffective.Biological Control
A. woglumi has been effectively controlled by natural enemies in all of the countries where introductions have been successful (Clausen, 1978). This is the most cost-effective and sustainable method of control, and the parasitoids available are capable of controlling it wherever it becomes established.
ReferencesTop of page
Alvim RG; Aguiar-Menezes Ede L; Lima AFde, 2016. Dissemination of Aleurocanthus woglumi in citrus plants, its natural enemies and new host plants in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ciência Rural, 46(11):1891-1897. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782016001101891&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en
APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).
Clausen CP, 1978. Aleyrodidae. In: Clausen CP, ed. Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds; a world review. Agriculture Handbook No. 480. Washington D.C., USA: United States Department of Agriculture.
Correia RG; Lima ACS; Farias PRS; Maciel FCda S; Silva MWda; Silva AGda, 2011. First record of occurrence of mosca-negra-dos-citrus, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) in Roraima, Brazil. (Primeiro registro da ocorrência de mosca-negra-dos-citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: aleyrodidae) em Roraima.) Agro@mbiente On-line, 5(3):245-248. http://ufrr.br/revista/index.php/agroambiente/article/view/487/620
David BV; Subramaniam TR, 1976. Studies on some Indian Aleyrodidae. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, 70:133-233.
Dietz HF; Zatek J, 1920. The black fly of citrus and other tropical plants. United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 885.
Eberling W, 1954. Subtropical Entomology (2nd edition). San Francisco, USA: Lithotype Process Co., 505-508.
Enkerlin S D, 1976. Some aspects of the Citrus blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby) in Mexico. Tall Timbers Research Station: Proceedings Tall Timbers Conference on Ecological Animal Control by Habitat Management, No. 6, Feb. 28 - March 1, 1974, Gainesville, Florida. Tall Timbers Research Station. Tallahasee, Florida USA, 65-76
EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Farias PRS; Maia PSP; Silva AGda; Monteiro Bda S, 2011. Occurrence of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby in an area reforested with African mahogany in eastern Amazonia. (Ocorrência de Aleurocanthus woglumi em área de eflorestamento com mognoafricano na Amazônia Oriental.) Revista de Ciências Agrárias / Amazonian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 54(1):85-88. http://www.ajaes.ufra.edu.br/index.php/ajaes/article/viewFile/22/182
Heileman S, 2007. Thematic Report for the Insular Caribbean Sub-Region, CLME Project Implementation Unit. Thematic Report for the Insular Caribbean Sub-Region, CLME Project Implementation Unit. Cave Hill Campus, Barbados: CERMES, University of the West Indies. http://ioc3.unesco.org/iocaribe/files/clme/Final%20Preliminary%20TDA%20for%20the%20Insular%20%20Caribbean%20Subregion.pdf
Huang J; Polaszek A, 1998. A revision of the Chinese species of Encarsia F÷rster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): parasitoids of whiteflies, scale insects and aphids (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Diaspididae, Aphidoidea). Journal of Natural History, 32(12):1825-1966; 7 pp. of ref.
Huang J; Polaszek A, 1998. A revision of the Chinese species of Encarsia F÷rster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): parasitoids of whiteflies, scale insects and aphids (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Diaspididae, Aphidoidea). Journal of Natural History, 32:1825-1966.
Katole SR; Mahajan RK; Tayde GS; Gawande RB, 1996. Neem oil: an environmentally safer biocide in the management of citrus blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby). PKV Research Journal, 20(1):28-30; 5 ref.
Medeiros FR; Lemos RNSde; Ottati ALT; Araújo JRG; Machado KKG; Rodrigues AAC, 2009. Populational dynamics of citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Citrus spp. in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. (Dinâmica populacional da mosca-negra-dos-citros Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em Citrus spp. no município de São Luís-MA.) Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 31(4):1016-1021. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_issues&pid=0100-2945&lng=pt&nrm=iso
Molina Rde O; Nunes WMde C; Gil LG; Rinaldi DAMda F; Croce Filho J; Carvalho RCZde, 2014. First report of citrus Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the State of Paraná, Brazil. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 57(4):472-475. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132014000400472&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
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ContributorsTop of page
05/06/2008 Updated by:
Ru Nguyen, Division of Plant Industry, Bureau Methods Development & Biocontrol, PO Box 147 100, Gainesville, Florida 32614-7100, USA
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