Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Aleurocanthus spiniferus
(orange spiny whitefly)

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Datasheet

Aleurocanthus spiniferus (orange spiny whitefly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aleurocanthus spiniferus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • orange spiny whitefly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Aleurocanthus spiniferus (orange spiny whitefly); eggs and nymphs. Nymphal instars 1, 2 and 4 (pupae, 1.2 mm in length). The white waxy filaments are typical of the species.
TitleLife stages
CaptionAleurocanthus spiniferus (orange spiny whitefly); eggs and nymphs. Nymphal instars 1, 2 and 4 (pupae, 1.2 mm in length). The white waxy filaments are typical of the species.
Copyright©M.A. van den Berg/ITSC, Nelspruit, South Africa
Aleurocanthus spiniferus (orange spiny whitefly); eggs and nymphs. Nymphal instars 1, 2 and 4 (pupae, 1.2 mm in length). The white waxy filaments are typical of the species.
Life stagesAleurocanthus spiniferus (orange spiny whitefly); eggs and nymphs. Nymphal instars 1, 2 and 4 (pupae, 1.2 mm in length). The white waxy filaments are typical of the species.©M.A. van den Berg/ITSC, Nelspruit, South Africa

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance, 1903)

Preferred Common Name

  • orange spiny whitefly

Other Scientific Names

  • Aleurocanthus citricolus (Newstead) Quaintance & Baker
  • Aleurocanthus rosae Singh, 1931
  • Aleurocanthus spiniferus var. intermedia Silvestri, 1927
  • Aleurodes citricola Newstead, 1911
  • Aleurodes spinifera Quaintance, 1903

International Common Names

  • English: citrus blackfly; citrus mealywing
  • French: aleurode épineux du citronnier

Local Common Names

  • China: citrus spiny whitefly
  • Japan: mikan-toge-konazirami
  • Netherlands: djeroek-motschildluis
  • South Africa: spiny blackfly; spiny whitefly
  • Taiwan: citrus spiny blackfly

EPPO code

  • ALECSN (Aleurocanthus spiniferus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aleyrodoidea
  •                                 Family: Aleyrodidae
  •                                     Genus: Aleurocanthus
  •                                         Species: Aleurocanthus spiniferus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EswatiniPresent
KenyaPresent
MauritiusPresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent, Localized
South AfricaPresent
TanzaniaPresent
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
UgandaPresent

Asia

BangladeshPresent
BhutanPresent
BruneiPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent, Localized
-AnhuiPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HainanPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent, Localized
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent, Localized
-JavaPresent
-SumatraPresent
IranPresent
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
-ShikokuPresent
LaosPresent
MacauPresent
MalaysiaPresent, Widespread
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MyanmarPresent
North KoreaPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

AlbaniaPresent
BelgiumAbsent
CroatiaPresent, Localized
FranceAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
GreecePresent, Localized
ItalyPresent, Localized
LatviaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
MontenegroPresent
NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyBased on ongoing long-term monitoring for plant passport system and annual surveys.
United KingdomAbsent, Intercepted only

North America

JamaicaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
Puerto RicoPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-HawaiiPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Localized
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
-KosraePresent
GuamPresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acletoxenus spp. Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs
Aegerita webberi Pathogen Nymphs/Pupae Taiwan Citrus
Amitus hesperidum Parasite Nymphs Guam; Hawaii; Taiwan Citrus; fruits
Amitus longicornis Parasite
Aschersonia sp. Pathogen Nymphs/Pupae
Clubiona deletrix Predator Adults/Nymphs
Encarsia clypealis Parasite Adults/Nymphs Guam; Hawaii Citrus; fruits
Encarsia lahorensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs China; Guangdong Citrus
Encarsia opulenta Parasite Adults/Nymphs Guam; Hawaii Citrus; fruits
Encarsia smithi Parasite Nymphs Guam; Hawaii; Japan; Kosrae; Taiwan; South Africa; Swaziland; Southern Africa Citrus; fruits
Eretmocerus serius Parasite Adults/Nymphs Guam Citrus
Eretmocerus serius var. orientalis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Neriene oidedicata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Phintella bifurcilinea Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pleurodesmospora coccorum Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Tetragnatha praedonia Predator Adults/Nymphs

References

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APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA)

Berg MA van den, Bedford ECG, Cilliers CJ, 1990. Spiny blackfly, Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new pest of citrus in South Africa. Phytophylactica, 22(2):257-258

Bohlen E, 1973. Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey

Bubici, G., Prigigallo, M. I., Garganese, F., Nugnes, F., Jansen, M., Porcelli, F., 2020. First report of Aleurocanthus spiniferus on Ailanthus altissima: profiling of the insect microbiome and microRNAs. Insects, 11(3), doi: 10.3390/insects11030161

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp

Chien CC, Chiu SC, 1986. Biology of the citrus spiny blackfly Aleurocanthus spiniferus. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 35(2):222-229

CIE, 1990. Distribution map of pests No. 112, second revision. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Cioffi, M., Cornara, D., Corrado, I., Jansen, M. G. M., Porcelli, F., 2013. The status of Aleurocanthus spiniferus from its unwanted introduction in Italy to date. Bulletin of Insectology, 66(2), 273-281. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Clausen CP, 1978. Aleyrodidae. In: Clausen CP, ed. Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds; a world review. Agriculture Handbook No. 480. Washington D.C., USA: United States Department of Agriculture

Dai AnZuo, Wang Hao, Shen ZiWen, Xu ZhiHong, Du YuZhou, Wang JiRui, 2019. Description of two new records of whitefly pests that damage mulberry trees in Zhejiang Province. Acta Sericologica Sinica, (No.3), 447-450. http://caod.oriprobe.com/articles/57048104/zhe_jiang_di_qu_wei_hai_sang_shu_de_fen_shi_hai_ch.htm

David BV, Dubey AK, 2006. Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) fauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India with description of a new species. Entomon, 31(3):191-205

David BV, Dubey AK, 2012. Whitefly fauna (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) of Myanmar. Indian Journal of Entomology, 74(2):167-172

David BV, Subramaniam TR, 1976. Studies on some Indian Aleyrodidae. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, 70:133-233

Dubey, A. K., Ko ChiunCheng, 2012. Sexual dimorphism among species of Aleurocanthus Quaintance & Baker (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Taiwan, with one new species and an identification key. Zootaxa, 3177, 1-23. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2012/f/zt03177p023.pdf

EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

EPPO, 2016. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

IIE, 1990. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 112. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Jesudasan, R. W. A., David, B. V., 1991. Taxonomic studies on Indian Aleyrodidae (Insecta: Homoptera). Oriental Insects, 25, 231-434.

Jin Yong, Xie Yu, Yin XianLian, Yang LieFang, Zhao Yu, 2007. Bionomics of Aleurocanthus spiniferus and its control. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology, 44(5):734-736

Kanmiya K, Ueda S, Kasai A, Yamashita K, Sato Y, Yoshiyasu Y, 2011. Proposal of new specific status for tea-infesting populations of the nominal citrus spiny whitefly Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Zootaxa, 2797:25-44. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2011/f/zt02797p044.pdf

Kapantaidaki, D. E., Antonatos, S., Kontodimas, D., Milonas, P., Papachristos, D. P., 2019. Presence of the invasive whitefly Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Greece. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 49(1), 127-131. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/13652338

Lee, S. C., Kim, S. S., Kim, D. I., 1992. An observation of insect pests on the citron trees in southern region of Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology, 22(3), 223-226.

Luo ZhiYi, Zhou ChanMin, 2000. The record of citrus whitefly in China. South China Fruits, 29(6):15-17

Martin JH, 1985. The whitefly of New Guinea (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology, 50(3):303-351

Marutani, M., Muniappan, R., 1991. Biological Control of the Orange Spiny Whitefly, Aleurocanthus spiniferus [Homoptera:Aleyrodidae] on Chuuk and Yap in Micronesia. Journal of Biological Control, 5(2), 64-69. doi: 10.18311/jbc/1991/15209

Misra, C. S. , 1920. Some Indian Economic Aleyrodidae. Report of Proceedings. 3rd Ent. Meeting, Pusa, February 1919, 2, 418-433 pp.

Mound LA, Halsey SH, 1978. Whitefly of the world. A systematic catalogue of the Aleyrodidae (Homoptera) with host plant and natural enemy data. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons

Moutia, L. A., 1955. Bull. Dep. Agric. Mauritius, (No. 91), 79 pp.

Muniappan, R., Purea, M., Sengebau, F., Reddy, G. V. P., 2006. Orange Spiny Whitefly, Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), and Its Parasitoids in the Republic of Palau. [Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society], 38. 21-25. https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/119

Paulson, G. S., Beardsley, J. W., 1985. Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) egg pedicel insertion into host plant stomata. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 78(4), 506-508. doi: 10.1093/aesa/78.4.506

Pelley RH le, 1968. Pests of Coffee. London and Harlow, UK: Longmans, Green and Co Ltd

Porcelli F, 2008. First record of Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Apulia, Southern Italy. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 38(3):516-518. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/epp

Radonjic S, Hrncic S, Malumphy C, 2014. First record of Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Hemiptera Aleyrodidae) in Montenegro. Redia, 97:141-145. http://www.redia.it

Simala M, Milek TM, 2013. First record of whitefly quarantine species Aleurocanthus spiniferus Quaintance, 1903 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Croatia. (Prvi nalaz karantenske vrste stitastog moljca Aleurocanthus spiniferus Quaintance, 1903 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) u Hrvatskoj.) Glasilo Biljne Zastite, 13(6):425-433. http://www.hdbz.hr

Šimala, M., Milek, T. M., 2013. First record of the orange spiny whitefly, Aleurocanthus spiniferus Quaintance, 1903 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in Croatia [Conference poster]. In: Zbornik Predavanj in Referatov, 11. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin Z Mednarodno Udeležbo (in okrogle mize o zmanjšanju tveganja zaradi rabe FFS v okviru projekta CropSustaIn), Bled, Slovenia, 5.-6. Marec 2013, [ed. by Trdan, S., Maček, J.]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Plant Protection Society of Slovenia. 354-358.

Šimala, M., Milek, T. M., Pintar, M., 2015. The whitefly species (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) with dark puparium and pupal case recorded in Croatia. Natura Croatica, 24(1), 111-125. http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=206900

Smith IM, McNamara DG, Scott PR, Harris KM, eds. , 1992. Quarantine pests for Europe. CAB International with European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Cambridge, UK: University Press, 22-25

Suh SooJung, Ji JungYoun, 2014. A checklist of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) intercepted on imported plants in Korea 2005-2013. Insecta Mundi, (No.0354), 1-14. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=show_pubs&id=insecta_new

Suta AR, Esguerra NM, 1993. Recent history of biological control in the freely associated states of Micronesia. Micronesica, No. 4 suppl:61-64

Takahashi, R. , 1933. Aleyrodidae of Formosa. Part II. In: Report. Dept. Agric. Govt. Res. Inst. Formosa , (60) : Taihoku, Formosa.1-24 pp.

Tayyib, M., Yousuf, M. J., Akbar, M., Mukhtar, M., Khan, A. S., 2014. Genus Aleurocanthus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) with two new records from Pakistan. Journal of Global Innovation in Agricultural and Social Sciences, 2(4), 175-177. doi: 10.17957/JGIASS/2.4.601

United States Department of Agriculture., 1974. New United States records - orange spiny whitefly (Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) - Hawaii. Cooperative Economic Insect Report, 24(30):585

USDA, 1975. Outbreaks and new records. United States Department of Agriculture. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 23:27-28

van den Berg, M. A., Greenland, J., 1997. Classical biological control ofaleurocanthus spiniferus (Hem.: Aleyrodidae), on citrus in Southern Africa. Entomophaga, 42(4), 459-465. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02769805

Wang, J. R., Dai, A.-Q., Wang, H., Wang, H.-D, et al, 2019. Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Species Infesting Myrica rubra in China. 54(3), 223-237. doi: 10.18474/JES18-81

Weems HV, 1974. Orange spiny whitefly, Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Division of Plant Industry Entomology Circular, 151:1-2

Wei JianRong, 2002. Retrospection of alien invasive forest insect pests in China. Chinese Forestry Science and Technology, 1(3):66-70

Xie ZL, 1993. Investigation of the structure sequence of insect populations in the tea gardens of Gaungdong province (China). Tea in Guangdong, 1:2-10 [in Chinese; English summary in Review of Agricultural Entomology 1995 83:7883]

Zhang QuanBing, Lei HuiDe, Li HongYun, Liu HaoQiang, Yao TingShan, Tian WenHua, Qian KeMing, 2004. Damage by citrus spiny white fly and its control. South China Fruits, 33(1):15

Distribution References

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Berg M A van den, Höppner G, Greenland J, 2000. An economic study of the biological control of the spiny blackfly, Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in a citrus orchard in Swaziland. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 10 (1), 27-32. DOI:10.1080/09583150029350

Bohlen E, 1973. Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. In: Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey. 142pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chen ZhiTeng, Mu LiXia, Wang JiRui, Du YuZhou, 2016. Complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus spiny whitefly Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): implications for the phylogeny of whiteflies. PLoS ONE. 11 (8), e0161385. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0161385

Dai AnZuo, Wang Hao, Shen ZiWen, Xu ZhiHong, Du YuZhou, Wang JiRui, 2019. Description of two new records of whitefly pests that damage mulberry trees in Zhejiang Province. Acta Sericologica Sinica. 447-450. http://caod.oriprobe.com/articles/57048104/zhe_jiang_di_qu_wei_hai_sang_shu_de_fen_shi_hai_ch.htm

David B V, Dubey A K, 2006. Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) fauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India with description of a new species. Entomon. 31 (3), 191-205.

David B V, Dubey A K, 2012. Whitefly fauna (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) of Myanmar. Indian Journal of Entomology. 74 (2), 167-172.

Dubey A K, Ko ChiunCheng, 2012. Sexual dimorphism among species of Aleurocanthus Quaintance & Baker (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Taiwan, with one new species and an identification key. Zootaxa. 1-23. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2012/f/zt03177p023.pdf

El-Kenawy A, Baetan R, Corrado I, Cornara D, Oltean I, Porcelli F, 2015. Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Orange Spiny Whitefly, Osw) (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) an alien pest invading southern Italy. Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Agriculture. 72 (1), 86-88. http://journals.usamvcluj.ro/index.php/agriculture/article/view/11149/9215

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Galindo-Cardona A, Rodrigues J C V, 2013. DNA Barcoding for Targeting Invasive Species and Natural Control Agents in the Caribbean. [Proceedings of the Caribbean Food Crops Society.], 49 585-596. DOI:10.22004/ag.econ.253498

Gerling D, 1969. Comments on Eretmocerus serius Silvestri (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) with a description of two new species. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silvestri', Portici. 79-88.

Jesudasan R W A, David B V, 1991. Taxonomic studies on Indian Aleyrodidae (Insecta: Homoptera). Oriental Insects. 231-434.

Jin Yong, Xie Yu, Yin XianLian, Yang LieFang, Zhao Yu, 2007. Bionomics of Aleurocanthus spiniferus and its control. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology. 44 (5), 734-736.

Kapantaidaki D E, Antonatos S, Kontodimas D, Milonas P, Papachristos D P, 2019. Presence of the invasive whitefly Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Greece. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 49 (1), 127-131. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/13652338

Kenawy A E L, Baetan R, Corrado I, Cornara D, Oltean I, Porcelli F, 2015. Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (orange spiny whitefly, OSW) (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) invaded south of Italy. Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Agriculture. 72 (1), 285-286. http://journals.usamvcluj.ro/index.php/agriculture/article/view/11148/9251

Lee S C, Kim S S, Kim D I, 1992. An observation of insect pests on the citron trees in southern region of Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology. 22 (3), 223-226.

Lou GQ, 2005. Study on the Biologic Character of Aleurocanthus spiniferus(Quaintance) and its Control. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences. 33 (4), 628-629. http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-AHNY200504037.htm

Luo ZhiYi, Zhou ChanMin, 2000. The record of citrus whitefly in China. South China Fruits. 29 (6), 15-17.

Martin J H, 1985. The whitefly of New Guinea (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology. 50 (3), 303-351.

Marutani M, Muniappan R, 1991. Biological Control of the Orange Spiny Whitefly, Aleurocanthus spiniferus [Homoptera:Aleyrodidae] on Chuuk and Yap in Micronesia. Journal of Biological Control. 5 (2), 64-69. DOI:10.18311/jbc/1991/15209

Misra C S, 1920. Some Indian Economic Aleyrodidae. Report of Proceedings. 3rd Ent. Meeting, Pusa, February 1919. 418-433 pp.

Mound L A, Halsey S H, 1978. Whitefly of the world. A systematic catalogue of the Aleyrodidae (Homoptera) with host plant and natural enemy data. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons. [6+] 340 pp.

Moutia L A, 1955. Bull. Dep. Agric. Mauritius, 79 pp.

Muhammad Tayyib, Anjum Suhail, Arif M J, Khan M A, 2014. Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera) of Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Entomologist. 36 (1), 31-34. http://www.pakentomol.com/Downloads/Issues/2014-1/06.pdf

Muniappan R, Purea M, Sengebau F, Reddy G V P, 2006. Orange Spiny Whitefly, Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), and Its Parasitoids in the Republic of Palau. [Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society], 38 21-25. https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/119

Nafus D, 1988. Establishment of Encarsia simithi on Kosrae for control of the orange spiny whitefly, Aleurocanthus spiniferus. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. 229-231.

NHM, 1913. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1959. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1961. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1967. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1989. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1990. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:

Paulson G S, Beardsley J W, 1985. Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) egg pedicel insertion into host plant stomata. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 78 (4), 506-508. DOI:10.1093/aesa/78.4.506

Peterson G D Jr, 1955. Biological control of the orange spiny whitefly in Guam. Journal of Economic Entomology. 681-3. DOI:10.1093/jee/48.6.681

Porcelli F, 2008. First record of Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Apulia, Southern Italy. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 38 (3), 516-518. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/epp DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2008.01273.x

Radonjić S, Hrnčić S, Malumphy C, 2014. First record of Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Hemiptera Aleyrodidae) in Montenegro. Redia. 141-145. http://www.redia.it

Šimala M, Milek T M, 2013. First record of whitefly quarantine species Aleurocanthus spiniferus Quaintance, 1903 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Croatia. (Prvi nalaz karantenske vrste štitastog moljca Aleurocanthus spiniferus Quaintance, 1903 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) u Hrvatskoj.). Glasilo Biljne Zaštite. 13 (6), 425-433. http://www.hdbz.hr

Šimala M, Milek T M, Pintar M, 2015. The whitefly species (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) with dark puparium and pupal case recorded in Croatia. Natura Croatica. 24 (1), 111-125. http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=206900

Suta A R, Esguerra N M, 1993. Recent history of biological control in the freely associated states of Micronesia. In: Micronesica [Biological Control of Exotic Pests in the Pacific. Proceedings of a Plenary Session and Symposium, XIX International Congress of Entomology, Beijing, June 1992.], 61-64.

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