Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Piper auritum

Toolbox

Datasheet

Piper auritum

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Piper auritum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. auritum is an invasive and noxious weed which competes with other plants and threatens native forests where it is introduced. It grows very fast and vigorously, quickly forming large thickets and a dense can...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Piper auritum (false awa); habit on roadside. Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Lomaivuna. May 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionPiper auritum (false awa); habit on roadside. Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Lomaivuna. May 2013.
Copyright©Bal Narayan Swamy-2013
Piper auritum (false awa); habit on roadside. Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Lomaivuna. May 2013.
HabitPiper auritum (false awa); habit on roadside. Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Lomaivuna. May 2013.©Bal Narayan Swamy-2013
Piper auritum (false awa); habit on disturbed area, forest edge. Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Vunidawa. May 2013
TitleHabit
CaptionPiper auritum (false awa); habit on disturbed area, forest edge. Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Vunidawa. May 2013
Copyright©Bal Narayan Swamy-2013
Piper auritum (false awa); habit on disturbed area, forest edge. Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Vunidawa. May 2013
HabitPiper auritum (false awa); habit on disturbed area, forest edge. Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Vunidawa. May 2013 ©Bal Narayan Swamy-2013
Piper auritum (false awa); habit, growth with vines and grass Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Lomaivuna. May 2013
TitleHabit
CaptionPiper auritum (false awa); habit, growth with vines and grass Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Lomaivuna. May 2013
Copyright©Bal Narayan Swamy-2013
Piper auritum (false awa); habit, growth with vines and grass Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Lomaivuna. May 2013
HabitPiper auritum (false awa); habit, growth with vines and grass Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Lomaivuna. May 2013©Bal Narayan Swamy-2013
Piper auritum (false awa); habit, monocotic growth. Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Vunidawa. May 2013
TitleHabit
CaptionPiper auritum (false awa); habit, monocotic growth. Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Vunidawa. May 2013
Copyright©Bal Narayan Swamy-2013
Piper auritum (false awa); habit, monocotic growth. Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Vunidawa. May 2013
HabitPiper auritum (false awa); habit, monocotic growth. Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Vunidawa. May 2013©Bal Narayan Swamy-2013
Piper auritum (false awa); habit, dense canopy. Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Lomaivuna. April 2013
TitleHabit
CaptionPiper auritum (false awa); habit, dense canopy. Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Lomaivuna. April 2013
Copyright©Bal Narayan Swamy-2013
Piper auritum (false awa); habit, dense canopy. Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Lomaivuna. April 2013
HabitPiper auritum (false awa); habit, dense canopy. Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Lomaivuna. April 2013©Bal Narayan Swamy-2013
Piper auritum (false awa); habit, dense leaf canopy, Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Lomaivuna. 5 May 2013
TitleHabit
CaptionPiper auritum (false awa); habit, dense leaf canopy, Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Lomaivuna. 5 May 2013
Copyright©Bal Narayan Swamy-2013
Piper auritum (false awa); habit, dense leaf canopy, Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Lomaivuna. 5 May 2013
HabitPiper auritum (false awa); habit, dense leaf canopy, Fiji, Viti Levu, Naitasiri, Lomaivuna. 5 May 2013©Bal Narayan Swamy-2013

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Piper auritum Kunth

Other Scientific Names

  • Artanthe aurita (Kunt) Miq.
  • Artanthe seemanniana Miq.
  • Piper alstonii Trel.
  • Piper auritilaminum Trel.
  • Piper auritilimbum Trel.
  • Piper auritum var. amplifolium C. DC.
  • Piper auritum var. seemannianum (Miq.) Trel.
  • Piper heraldi Trel.
  • Piper heraldi var. amplius Trel.
  • Piper heraldi var. cocleanum Trel.
  • Piper perlongipes. Trel
  • Schilleria aurita Kunth

International Common Names

  • English: anise pepper; anison; eared pepper; ear-leaf pepper; false kava; Hawaiian sakau; makulan; Mexican pepper leaf; Mexican pepperleaf; root beer plant; sacred leaf; sacred pepper; Vera Cruz pepper; Veracruz pepper
  • Spanish: acuyo; anisillo; anison; cordoncillo; hierba santa; hinojo; hoja de la estrella; hoja de Santa María; hoja santa; sabalero; santa María
  • French: poivre mexicain
  • Russian: meksikanski perechnyi list

Local Common Names

  • Bolivia: cordoncillo matarro
  • Costa Rica: chicavarilla; hinojillo; hoja de ajan; santilla de comer
  • Cuba: caisimón
  • Denmark: Mexikansk Peber-blad
  • El Salvador: Santa Maria; santanaia
  • Germany: Cherenpfeffer; Geöhrter Pfeffe; Mexikanischer Blattpfeffer
  • Guatemala: hoja de jute; janapa; juniapa; santanaia
  • Honduras: alajan; matarro; santanaia
  • Hungary: Mexikói borslevél
  • Lithuania: Ausytasis pipiras
  • Mexico: acullo cimarrón; acuyo; alajan; candela de ixotte; cordoncillo grande; hanepa yerba santa; hierba santa; hoja de anís; hoja de anis y momo; hoja santa; kankaputuwari; santilla de comer; santilla de comer; tlamapaquelite; tlanepaquelite; totonaco; yerba santa
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: false sakau; sakau likamw (Pohnpei)
  • Nicaragua: Santa Marta
  • Panama: cordoncillo; hierba Santa Momo; juanico
  • Samoa: 'ava Tonga
  • Sri Lanka: bulath
  • Tonga: kava Hawaii
  • USA/Hawaii: false kava

EPPO code

  • PIPAU (Piper auritum)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

P. auritum is an invasive and noxious weed which competes with other plants and threatens native forests where it is introduced. It grows very fast and vigorously, quickly forming large thickets and a dense canopy, and is hard to kill as new shoots grow from rhizomes, cut stems and cuttings left on the soil surface.

The dense growth and spreading root suckers of P. auritum displace other plants. It is extremely difficult to control as root fragments, rhizomes and stems re-grow when cut. The plant grows more than twice as fast as true kava (P. methysticum Frost) and can out-compete older P. methysticum individuals within a year of its own establishment (Denslow and Nelson, 2000; Hawaii Invasive Species, 2013).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Piperales
  •                         Family: Piperaceae
  •                             Genus: Piper
  •                                 Species: Piper auritum

Description

Top of page

Adapted from PIER (2013):

P. auritum is a small, soft-wooded, common succulent herb. As a shrub it can grow 1-2 m tall, or as a tree 3-6 m tall. There is a single main stem that often has small prop roots near the base.

The large leaves are borne in two alternate ranks and are often held horizontally on the horizontal upper branches, thus forming a broad light-intercepting crown (Denslow and Nelson, 2000; PIER, 2012). Leaves are broadly ovate to oblong- or elliptic-ovate, acute or subacuminate, or rarely subovate. They are 12-20 (-25) cm wide and 30-30 (-40) cm long, apex acute or short-acuminate, base deeply cordate with one side 1-2 cm longer at the petiole and with the lower lobe longer, sinus rounded, the midrib with 3 or 4 up-curved branches from below the upper third and 3 or 4 branches from the base, rather thinly short-hairy above, at least along the nerves, more densely so beneath, densely white ciliolate throughout, drying thin, translucentoblong-ovate leaves with deeply chordate, unequal bases supported on heavy winged petioles that clasp the stem.  Large, thin, soft leaf blades are pinnately veined, with a few lateral veins. The nodes are about 20 cm apart at mid-stem.

The petiole is 4-9 plus 1-2 cm long, more or less pubescent or glabrate, vaginate-winged to the blade.

Opposite the leaves stand the spikes, which are creamy or light-yellow when dry, 3-5 mm thick and 10-25 cm long or sometimes more. The spikes contain numerous tiny, pale green flowers. Flowering internodes moderately sender and long, striate, often drying black, glabrate or sometimes slightly pubescent. The peduncle slender, 2-8 cm long, glabrate, often black when dry; bracts round- or triangular-subpeltate, marginally fringed. There are 3 sessile stigmas.

Fruit is very small (less than 1 mm), glabrate, obpyramidal-trigonous, and tightly packed on the spike.

Distribution

Top of page

The native range of P. auritum extends from southern Mexico to Colombia (PIER, 2012). It has been introduced to Florida (Denslow and Nelson, 2000; USDA-NRCS, 2013), where it is spreading aggressively in the south of the state (Denslow and Nelson, 2000; Botanical Online, 2013), the West Indies, and various Pacific Islands including Hawaii (PIER, 2013; World Trade Organisation, 2013) and Pohnpei (Federated States of Micronesia) (Engelberger, 2001).

 

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

North America

MexicoPresentNative Natural
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013Miami-Dade and Broward counties, south Florida. 'Probably introduced'
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Denslow and Nelson, 2000; Hawaii Invasive Species, 2013Cultivated on Kaua, Oahu and Big Island. No reports of cultivation on Maui Island. No naturalized populations reported from Oahu

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
Costa RicaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; USDA-ARS, 2013
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012naturalized
El SalvadorPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
GuatemalaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
HaitiPresentIntroducedGBIF, 20121,500 m altitude
HondurasPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
JamaicaPresentIntroduced Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
NicaraguaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
PanamaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2013
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Naturalized. St. Thomas

South America

ColombiaPresentNativeEncyclopedia of Life, EoL; USDA-ARS, 2013
EcuadorPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2012Records from 0-500 m altitude
French GuianaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
SurinamePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013

Oceania

FijiPresentIntroducedEnglberger, 2009
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedEnglberger, 2009Tahiti
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive Englberger, 2009; PIER, 2013Pohnpei, under eradication. Recorded as both invasive and cultivated
SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013Savaii and Upolu Islands
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive Encyclopedia of Life, EoL; PIER, 2013Invasive in Haano, Uiha, Eua, Tongatapu, Vavau Islands and the Lifuka and Foa Islands

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

P. auritum is thought to have been introduced to Hawaii in the 1900s, but the exact date is not known (Hawaii Invasive Species, 2013). In the West Indies, it was first reported by I. Urban in 1903 for the island of St Thomas (Urban, 1903-1911). Later it appears in herbarium collection made in 1930 in Cuba (US National Herbarium). 

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

A rising international demand for P. methysticum for use as an herbal relaxant (kava) has increased the risk of exporting P. auritum by mistake, thereby increasing its distribution (Denslow and Nelson, 2000). The ripe fruits are naturally dispersed by birds, bats and rodents.

Habitat

Top of page

In its native range (southern Mexico to Colombia), P. auritum grows in tropical rain forest, tropical moist forest, tropical dry forest and tropical mountainous forest. Gomez Pompa (1971, cited in PIER, 2013) described it as a ‘treelet of early successional habitats’. P. auritum can tolerate a dry season several months long. In Costa Rica the species is found from near sea level to about 1500 m (rarely 2000 m) elevation in evergreen and partly deciduous habitats, or in wet, deciduous sites. The plant prefers to grow in partly shaded forest, disturbed areas and forest edges, where it grows in monospecific thickets. In forests, P. auritum is never found in dark, deeply shaded sites.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

P. auritum grows vigorously, to the extent that it can exclude all other plants from its canopy. P. auritum affects the crop P. methysticum in the Pacific Island region. See Similarities to Other Species/Conditions.

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

Throughout its native range (southern Mexico to Colombia) P. auritum appears to be genetically uniform, with no evidence of sub-specific or varietal differentiation (PIER, 2000).

Reproductive Biology

P. auritum is a fast-growing, relatively short-lived plant. It can be propagated with seeds and vegetatively grown from cuttings. It also regrows from exposed roots and prolifically from subsurface rhizomes. P. auritum also roots easily from nodes (known as layering).

Flowering and fruiting occurs throughout the year. The plant has very small and unspecialised flowers arranged on spikes, held vertically above the foliage to aid pollination by beetles and flies (Denslow and Nelson, 2000).

The ripe fruits are fleshy and green where birds, bats and rodents assist in dispersal. Seeds are dispersed by bats, which remove the entire fruiting spike, by birds, which remove portions of the spike, and perhaps by arboreal rodents. In Micronesia, honeyeaters and white eyes also assist in dispersal (Denslow and Nelson, 2000).

Associations

P. auritum was found growing together with Mikania macrantha and Brachiara mutica in Lomaivuna, Naitasiri province, on the Fijian island of Viti Levu (B. Narayanswamy, personal observation).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Ripe fruits of P. auritum are dispersed by birds, bats and rodents. Within its native distribution range, piper fruits are eaten by bats, which play the major role in seed dispersal. In Micronesia, honeyeaters and white eyes also assist in dispersal (Denslow and Nelson, 2000).

Accidental Introduction

P. auritum has been accidentally introduced in Fiji (Denslow and Nelson, 2000), Samoa, Tonga and Vanuatu but the mode of introduction is unknown (Englberger, 2001). It may have been deliberately or accidentally introduced in place of P. methysticum (true kava), as these countries all produce P. methysticum.

Intentional Introduction

In Pohnpei (Federated States of Micronesia), P. auritum was introduced to increase production of kava (traditionally made from P. methysticum, true kava), which has various cultural and culinary uses, as it grows twice as fast as P. methysticum. In Hawaii it was introduced for medicinal purposes.

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Native flora Negative

Economic Impact

Top of page

Denslow and Nelson (2000) estimated that if immediate action was taken against P. auritum over a three year period in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micornesia, at an estimated cost of US $93,000, it would have yielded US $3,034,000 in savings. A delayed control effort would have cost more.

Economic Value

P. auritum is considered economically valuable in its native range: the leaves and bark are used for cooking and medicine (PIER, 2000) and the oil derived from the plant is used for catching fish (Mahabir et al., 1985). In Florida people have planted it as horticulture plant but now it is invasive.

Environmental Impact

Top of page

P. auritum is an invasive and noxious weed which competes with other plants and threatens native forests where it is introduced. It grows very fast and vigorously, quickly forming large thickets and a dense canopy which can dominate smaller secondary growth (PIER, 2013). The dense growth and spreading root suckers of P. auritum displace other plants, thereby out-competing other plant populations and reducing biodiversity (Denslow and Nelson, 2000).

The plant grows more than twice as fast as true kava (P. methysticum). In Pohnpei (Federated States of Micronesia), P. auritum occupied about 50% more area within a year’s growth than adjacent P. methysticum plants which had established about four years earlier (Denslow and Nelson, 2000).

In its native range the seeds of P. auritum are eaten by bats, birds and rodents (Denslow and Nelson, 2000).

P. auritum may be a carrier of pests and pathogens, such as cucumber mosaic virus (CMV).

Social Impact

Top of page

In its native range P. auritum has culinary and medicinal uses. The closely-related P. methysticum (true kava) is also using in medicine and cooking. Pacific cultivators of P. methysticum have found that mixing P. auritum with P. methysticum degrades the quality of the latter and lowers the trade value of the kava products (Denslow and Nelson, 2000).

There is the potential that P. auritum, which produces abundant flowers, may hybridize with P. methysticum, which has been cultivated for thousands of years and has become polyploid (has several sets of chromosomes) and sterile; it only producers female flowers and no seeds. Hybridization could potentially dilute P. methysticum’s gene pool and alter its desirable culinary and medicinal qualities (Denslow and Nelson, 2000).

Unlike true kava, P. auritum contains the chemical safrole which excess in consumption may be detrimental to health, although this is unproven (Denslow and Nelson, 2000).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering

Uses

Top of page

The soft wood of P. auritum can only be used as fire wood. The peppery aromatic leaves and bark are used for cooking in the plant’s native range. In Panama, householders use bundles of the leaves as bait for the fish Brycon chagrensis. After 15 days of eating the leaves the fish have assimilated the flavour of the plant (Joly, 1981). P. auritum is also used as medicinal plant in Hawaii (Botanical Online, 2013).

On Pohnpei (Federated States of Micronesia), Denslow and Nelson (2000) reported that P. auritum ‘has been marketed as a more productive alternative to sakau (P. methysticum). Sakau is used to brew a mildly narcotic drink used in traditional ceremonies’, and is an important part of traditional Pohnpeian culture.

Uses List

Top of page

Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Narcotic

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Sociocultural value
  • Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)

Human food and beverage

  • Food
  • Spices and culinary herbs

Detection and Inspection

Top of page

Detection and Inspection (Adapted from PIER, 2013)

P. auritum is easily recognized by its large leaves (20-50 cm), which are unequally lobed at the base and give off a very characteristic anise-like smell when crushed. ‘The thin, deeply and inequilaterally cordate leaves which are more or less pubescent on both sides and densely ciliolate, long, blackening peduncles, and comparatively small, yellowish spikes distinguish this species’ (PIER, 2013). The densely ciliolate, long, blackening peduncles and comparatively small, yellowish spikes also identify P. auritum.

The straight spike of flowers and the winged petiole on the leaves distinguish it from the congener P. aduncum (PIER, 2013)

In Costa Rica, P. auritum can be distinguished from the 94 piper species by the above features and also by its preference for open to partly-shaded secondary growth.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

The P. auritum (false kava) could be confused with P. methysticum (true kava), and is sometimes mistakenly planted as P. methysticum in the true kava-producing countries of the Pacific Islands. The leaves of P. methysticum are smaller and darker green than P. auritum leaves (PIER, 2012). The nodes and internodes look very similar in both species.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Public Awareness

The public should be shown specimens of P. auritum and P. methysticum and taught to recognise the difference between the two plants. This should help reduce accidental introductions of P. auritum in place of P. methysticum.

Monitoring and Evaluation

An eradication programme may take three to five years as the rhizomes in the soil will regrow and the seeds will germinate whenever there are the right climatic conditions. There should be continuous surveillance for regrowth from rhizomes and stems.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

P. auritum must be contained as best as possible and should not be moved for one place to another as it can quickly establish in new places. Intra- and inter-country quarantine should be established.

The mixing of P. auritum with true kava (P. methysticum) for trade should be discouraged as it encourages further imports of P. auritum.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Eradication can be done easily as P. auritum grows in monospecific thickets. If the plant is found in an isolated area it should be destroyed by burning or drying. Any cuttings should be removed from the sites and destroyed (by incineration or drying) as new plants can develop from rhizomes, stems and cut parts of the plant. Immediate action should be taken against newly-established plants to destroy the whole plant, including the root system. Hand pulling would assist in destroying the plant but it can aggravate the situation if roots are left exposed, as new plants will grow (Denslow and Nelson, 2000).

Chemical Control

Systemic herbicides such as triclopyr, 2,4-D, or imazapyr could be used on freshly cut stems and roots, thereby greatly reducing the chance of re-sprouting (Denslow and Nelson, 2000). P. auritum should be cut about 15 cm above ground level and sprayed immediately.

Risk of Introduction

If people started to use the oil extract from the plant to catch fish, as is done in Panama, this could harm wildlife due to the chemical safriol present in P. auritum, which has been shown to be mildly carcinogenic to rats.

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Allen G, 2013. The Herbalist in the Kitchen. Illinois, USA: University of Illinois Press.

Axtell BL, 1992. Juniapa-hinojo sabalero. Erowid (online). http://www.erowid.org/archive/rhodium/chemistry/3base/safrole.plants/moc/juniapa-hinojo_sabalero.html

Barlow S, 2007. Sorting Piper names. Multilingual multiscript plant name database (Online). University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. http://www.plantnames.unimelb.edu.au/Sorting/Piper.html

Botanical Online, 2013. Acuyo Pepper Properties. Botanical Online. http://www.botanical-online.com/english/acuyo_properties.htm

Botanical Online, 2013. Acuyo. Botanical Online. http://www.botanical-online.com/english/pepper_piper_auritum.htm

Chaa Creek, 2012. The Piper Auritum Shrub. Chaa Creek (Online). Chaa Creek Adventure Travel. http://belize-travel-blog.chaacreek.com/2012/01/the-piper-auritum-shrub/

DAFF, 2012. Biosecurity in Australia. Department of Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry (online). Canberra, Australia: Australian Government. http://www.daff.gov.au/aqis

Dave's garden, 2013. Companies selling Root Beer Plant, Hoja Santa, Mexican Pepper leaf (Piper auritum). Dave's garden (online), Internet Brands Inc., California, USA. http://davesgarden.com/products/ps/go/530/

Dave's Garden, 2013. Plant Files: Root Beer Plant, Hoja Santa, Mexican Pepperleaf, Piper Auritum. Dave's Garden (online), Internet Brands Inc., California, USA. http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/530/#b

Denslow JS; Nelson D, 2000. Escape and Spread of Piper Auritum Kunth on Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. Impact assessment. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (online). http://www.hear.org/pier/piaurr.htm

Encyclopedia of Life (EoL), 2012. Encyclopedia of Life (online), http://eol.org/.

Englberger K, 2001. Piper auritum. Pest Alert, 19. Kolonia, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia: SPC, Plant Protection Micronesia.

Englberger K, 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: A guide for identification and public awareness. Kolonia, Federated States of Micronesia: Conservation Society of Pohnpei, 29 pp.

Folia, 2013. Where to buy Root beer plant, Piper auritum. Folia social garden tracker and organiser (Online). http://myfolia.com/plants/2950-root-beer-plant-piper-auritum/where_to_buy

Food, 2013. Kitchen Dictionary: hoja santa. Food: Home of the Home Cook (online). http://www.food.com/library/hoja-santa-968

Garret H, 2013. Hoja Santa. The Dirt Doctor (online). Dallas, Texas, USA. http://www.dirtdoctor.com/Hoja-Santa_vq2052.htm

GBIF, 2012. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). http://data.gbif.org

Hawaii Invasive Species, 2013. False Kava, aka False awa (Piper Auritum). Hawaii Invasive Species (online). http://www.hawaiiinvasivespecies.org/pests/falsekava.html

Heller J, 2001. Taxonomy and Nomeclature. Mansfields World's database of Agriculture and Hoticultural crops (online). Gatersleben, Germany. http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:46:1198979588319501::NO::module,mf_use,source,akzanz,rehm,akzname,taxid:mf,,botnam,0,,Piper%20auritum,9917

ISSG, 2015. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Katzer G, 2012. Mexican Pepperleaf (Piper auritum Kunth). Gernot Katzer Spice Page (Online). http://gernot-katzers-spice-pages.com/engl/Pipe_aur.html

Lorence DH, 2012. Piper auritum. Botany Home Page (Online). College of Micronesia, Kolonia, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. http://www.comfsm.fm/~dleeling/invasive/hawaiian_sakau.html

Mahabir PG; Norris HW; Boss R; Tattje DHE, 1985. Journal of Natural Product, 48, 2:330-343. ACS Publication (online)[Cited: May 24, 2013.]; http://pubs.org/doi/p pdf/10.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry . http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Randy's Tropical Plants, 2013. Hoja Santa. Randy's Tropical Plants (online). http://www.randys-tropicalplants.com/Hoja-santa.html

Richard L, 2009. How to grow root beer plant. Howto.com. Santa Monica, California, USA: Demand Media, Inc. http://www.ehow.com/how_5351240

Shaman Australis Botanicals, 2013. Piper spp. Shaman Australis Botanicals (online). Mullumbimby, New South Wales, Australia. http://shaman-australis.com.au/shop/piper_spp_cp_102.php

Smith AC, 1981. A New Flora of Fiji. Vol.2. Honolulu, Hawaii: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 57-58.

The Plant List, 2010. Piper auritum Kunth. The Plant List (online). http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/tro-25002010

Top Tropicals, 2013. Piper auritum. Top Tropicals (online). Fort Myers, Florida, USA. http://toptropicals.com/catalog/uid/piper_auritum.htm

Trade Winds Fruits, 2013. Tropical Fruit. Trade Winds Fruits (online). http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/

Urban I, 1903-1911. Florae Indiae Occidentalis. In: Symbolae antillanae [ed. by Urban, I.].

USDA, 2002. Taxon: Piper auritum Kunth. USDA: Germplasm Resources Information Network. USDA (online). http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?312915

USDA, 2013. Profile. Piper auritum Kunth. USDA: Natural Resources Conservation Service. United States Department of Agriculture (online). http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIAU

USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2013. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

World Trade Organisation, 2013. Introduction to the SPS Agreement. SPS Agreement training module: Chapter 1. WTO (online). http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/sps_e/sps_agreement_cbt_e/c1s3p1_e.htm

Worldatlas, 2013. Caribbean. Worldatlas (online). Galveston, Texas, USA. http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/carib.htm#.UaBsNLVTCSq

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

Top of page

04/06/13 Original text by:

B Narayanswamy, consultant, Fiji

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map