Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Pinnaspis strachani
(lesser snow scale)



Pinnaspis strachani (lesser snow scale)


  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pinnaspis strachani
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lesser snow scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley) 1899

Preferred Common Name

  • lesser snow scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Chionaspis (Hemichionaspis) aspidistrae Newstead, 1906
  • Hemichionaspis marchali Cockerell, 1902
  • Hemichionaspis minor var. strachani Cooley, 1899
  • Hemichionaspis strachani Cockerell, 1902
  • Hemichionaspis townsendi Cockerell, 1905
  • Pinnaspis gossypii (Newstead) Hall, 1946
  • Pinnaspis marchali (Cockerell) Hall, 1946
  • Pinnaspis temporaria Ferris, 1942

International Common Names

  • English: cotton white scale; Hibiscus snow scale
  • Spanish: escama blanca del algodón
  • French: chermes de strachan

Local Common Names

  • Japan: konma-kaigaramusi

EPPO code

  • PINNST (Pinnaspis strachani)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Diaspididae
  •                                     Genus: Pinnaspis
  •                                         Species: Pinnaspis strachani

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Hong KongPresentNHM
IndiaWidespreadNHM; Ferris, 1947
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNHM
-Andhra PradeshPresentNHM
-Tamil NaduPresentNHM
-West BengalPresentNHM
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Irian JayaPresentNHM
IranPresentMoghaddam, 2000
Korea, Republic ofRestricted distributionPaik, 1972
PhilippinesRestricted distributionFerris, 1947
Saudi ArabiaPresentFAO, 1972
Sri LankaRestricted distributionFerris, 1947; Fernando and Kanagaratnam, 1987


Cape VerdePresentNHM
CongoRestricted distributionMatile-Ferrero et al., 1978
Congo Democratic RepublicRestricted distributionMatile-Ferrero et al., 1978
Côte d'IvoirePresentNHM
MadagascarPresentMamet, 1954
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentNHM
Sierra LeonePresentNHM

North America

BermudaPresentNHM; Schotman, 1989
MexicoRestricted distributionFerris, 1947; Merrill, 1953; Miller, 1996
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaEradicatedGill, 1997
-FloridaWidespreadMerrill, 1953; Dekle and, 1976
-HawaiiRestricted distributionFerris, 1947; Gill, 1997

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNHM; Schotman, 1989
BahamasPresentMerrill, 1953
BarbadosPresentSchotman, 1989
Costa RicaPresentCoto and Saunders, 2001
CubaRestricted distributionFernandez et al., 1996
PanamaRestricted distributionFerris, 1947
Puerto RicoPresentSchotman, 1989
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNHM
Saint LuciaPresentNHM
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentSchotman, 1989
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNHM
United States Virgin IslandsPresent

South America

BrazilPresentdos Wolff, 2014
-Espirito SantoPresentCulik et al., 2009
-Minas GeraisPresentNHM
ColombiaPresentMosquera, 1973


FrancePresentGermain and Matile-Ferrero, 2005
HungaryRestricted distributionReiderne and Kozar, 1994


Cook IslandsPresentWilliams and Watson, 1988
FijiRestricted distributionFerris, 1947; Williams and Watson, 1988
French PolynesiaPresentNHM; Williams and Watson, 1988
KiribatiPresentWilliams and Watson, 1988
New CaledoniaRestricted distributionFerris, 1947; Williams and Watson, 1988
NiuePresentWilliams and Watson, 1988
Papua New GuineaPresentWilliams and Watson, 1988
SamoaPresentNHM; Williams and Watson, 1988
Solomon IslandsPresentWilliams and Watson, 1988
TokelauPresentWilliams and Watson, 1988
TongaPresentAPPPC, 1987; Williams and Watson, 1988
TuvaluPresentWilliams and Watson, 1988
VanuatuPresentAPPPC, 1987; Williams and Watson, 1988

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / mummification
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / dieback
Stems / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anagyrus pseudococci Parasite
Aphytis diaspidis Parasite Nymphs Peru cotton
Aphytis holoxanthus Parasite Adults/Nymphs India; Karnataka Citrus
Aphytis lingnanensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphytis mytilaspidis Parasite Nymphs Peru cotton
Aphytis pinnaspidis Parasite Nymphs India; Karnataka Citrus; Furcraea foetida
Arrhenophagus chionaspidis Parasite Nymphs Cape Verde; Peru cassava; cotton
Cheletogenes ornatus Predator Nymphs
Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus similis Predator Adults/Nymphs Peru cotton
Coccobius fulvus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Comperiella indica Parasite
Encarsia berlesei Parasite Adults/Nymphs Peru cotton
Encarsia citrina Parasite Nymphs Peru cotton
Encarsia fasciata Parasite
Encarsia lounsburyi Parasite
Habrolepis aspidioti Parasite Cape Verde cassava
Pharoscymnus horni Predator Adults/Nymphs
Promuscidea unfasciativentris Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Thomsonisca amathus Parasite


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APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Clausen CP, 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agricultural Handbook No. 480. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

Cockerell TDA, 1902. Note on the genus Hemichionaspis. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France, 4:81-82.

Cooley RA, 1899. The coccid genera Chionaspis and Hemichionaspis. Massachusetts Agriculture Experiment Station, Special Bulletin, 1899:1-57.

Coto A D; Saunders JL, 2001. Insect pests of soursop (Annona muricata) in Costa Rica. (Insectos plaga de la guanábana (Annona muricata) en Costa Rica.) Manejo Integrado de Plagas, No.61:60-68.

Culik MP; Ventura JA; Martins Ddos S, 2009. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) of pineapple in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Sixth International Pineapple Symposium, Joao Pessoa, Brazil, 18-23 November 2007.], No.822:215-218.

Dekle GW; Merrill GB, 1976. Florida armored scale insects. Arthropods of Florida and Neighbouring Land Areas No. 3. Gainesville, USA: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 32, 345 pp.

Fernandez M; Del Val I; Proenza MA; Mesa D; Burgos T; Del Val I, 1996. Revista de Proteccion Vegetal, 11(2):91-94.

Fernando LCP; Kanagaratnam P, 1987. New records of some pests of the coconut inflorescence and developing fruit and their natural enemies in Sri Lanka. COCOS, 5:39-42.

Fernßndez M; Val Ide; Proenza MA; Garcfa G, 1993. Diagnosis of snow scale insect (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in Isla de la Juventud. Revista de Proteccio^acute~n Vegetal, 8(1):17-22; 6 ref.

Ferris GF, 1947. The genus Pinnaspis Cockerell (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Microentomology, 12(2):25-28.

Food and Agriculture Organization, 1972. Report to the Government of Saudi Arabia on research in plant protection based on the work of H.E. Martin, FAO Entomologist. Report to the Government of Saudi Arabia on research in plant protection based on the work of H.E. Martin, FAO Entomologist., v + 38 pp.

Germain JF; Matile-Ferrero D, 2005. Scale insects from greenhouses in France: an illustrated survey. III - Diaspididae. (Les cochenilles sous serres en France: inventaire illustré. III - Les Diaspididae.) Phytoma, No.583:32-35.

Gill RJ, 1997. The scale insects of California. Part 3. The armoured scales (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Technical Series in Agricultural Biosystematics and Plant Pathology, No 3. Sacramento, USA: Department of Food and Agriculture.

Kosztarab M; Kozar F, 1988. Scale insects of Central Europe. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 455 pp.

Malumphy C; Sanchez MD; Hamilton MA, 2015. First report of lesser snow scale Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) killing Varronia rupicola (Urb.) Britton in the British Virgin Islands. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 151(4):285-288.

Mamet R, 1954. Notes on the Coccoidea of Madagascar, III. Memoires de L'Institut Scientifiquede Madagascar, Serie E, 4.

Matile-Ferrero D, 1978. Cassava mealybug in the People's Republic of Congo. In: Nwanze KF, Leuschner K, ed. Proceedings of the International Workshop on the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr. (Pseudococcidae) held at INERA-M'vuazi, Bas-Zaire, Zaire, June 26-29, 1977. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Ibadania Niger, 29-46

Merrill GB, 1953. A revision of the scale insects of Florida. Florida State Plant Board Bulletin, 1:1-143.

Miller DR, 1996. Checklist of the scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 98(1):68-86; 33 ref.

Moghaddam M, 2000. The first record of Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley) (Coccoidea: Diaspididae) in Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 19(1/2):105-106.

Mosquera PF, 1973. Some scale insects that attack plants cultivated in Colombia. Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomia Medellin, 28(2):57-64.

Paik WH, 1972. Scale insects found in the greenhouses in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 11(1):1-4.

Reiderne SK; Kozar F, 1994. Recently appeared scale insect species (Homoptera, Coccoidea: Diaspididae) on glasshouse ornamentals in Hungary. Novenyvedelem, 30(9):423-427.

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

Williams DJ; Watson GW, 1988. The Scale Insects of the Tropical South Pacific Region. Part 1. The Armoured Scales (Diaspididae). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Wolff VRdos S, 2014. Diaspididae ( Hemiptera : Coccoidea ) in olive tree, Olea europaea L. ( Oleaceae ) , in Brazil. (Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) en olivo, Olea europaea Linnaeus (Oleaceae), en Brasil.) Insecta Mundi, No.0385:1-6.

Distribution Maps

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