Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pinnaspis strachani
(lesser snow scale)

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Datasheet

Pinnaspis strachani (lesser snow scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pinnaspis strachani
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lesser snow scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley) 1899

Preferred Common Name

  • lesser snow scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Chionaspis (Hemichionaspis) aspidistrae Newstead, 1906
  • Hemichionaspis marchali Cockerell, 1902
  • Hemichionaspis minor var. strachani Cooley, 1899
  • Hemichionaspis strachani Cockerell, 1902
  • Hemichionaspis townsendi Cockerell, 1905
  • Pinnaspis gossypii (Newstead) Hall, 1946
  • Pinnaspis marchali (Cockerell) Hall, 1946
  • Pinnaspis temporaria Ferris, 1942

International Common Names

  • English: cotton white scale; Hibiscus snow scale
  • Spanish: escama blanca del algodón
  • French: chermes de strachan

Local Common Names

  • Japan: konma-kaigaramusi

EPPO code

  • PINNST (Pinnaspis strachani)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Diaspididae
  •                                     Genus: Pinnaspis
  •                                         Species: Pinnaspis strachani

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNHM (Undated)
BeninPresentNHM (Undated)
Cabo VerdePresentNHM (Undated)
CameroonPresentNHM (Undated)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Matile-Ferrero et al. (1978)
Congo, Republic of thePresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Matile-Ferrero et al. (1978)
Côte d'IvoirePresentNHM (Undated)
EritreaPresentNHM (Undated)
GambiaPresentNHM (Undated)
KenyaPresentNHM (Undated)
LiberiaPresentNHM (Undated)
MadagascarPresentMamet (1954)
MalawiPresentNHM (Undated)
MauritiusPresentNHM (Undated)
NigeriaPresentNHM (Undated)
São Tomé and PríncipePresentNHM (Undated)
SenegalPresentNHM (Undated)
SeychellesPresentNHM (Undated)
Sierra LeonePresentNHM (Undated)
SomaliaPresentNHM (Undated)
SudanPresentNHM (Undated)
TanzaniaPresentNHM (Undated)
TogoPresentNHM (Undated)
UgandaPresentNHM (Undated)

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
Hong KongPresentNHM (Undated)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadFerris (1947); NHM (Undated)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNHM (Undated)
-Andhra PradeshPresentNHM (Undated)
-AssamPresentNHM (Undated)
-BiharPresentNHM (Undated)
-GoaPresentNHM (Undated)
-KarnatakaPresentNHM (Undated)
-KeralaPresentNHM (Undated)
-MaharashtraPresentNHM (Undated)
-Tamil NaduPresentNHM (Undated)
-West BengalPresentNHM (Undated)
IndonesiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Irian JayaPresentNHM (Undated)
IranPresentMoghaddam (2000)
MalaysiaPresentNHM (Undated)
-SarawakPresentNHM (Undated)
OmanPresentNHM (Undated)
PakistanPresentNHM (Undated)
PhilippinesPresent, LocalizedFerris (1947)
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: FAO (1972)
South KoreaPresent, LocalizedPaik (1972)
Sri LankaPresent, LocalizedFerris (1947); Fernando and Kanagaratnam (1987)

Europe

FrancePresentGermain and Matile-Ferrero (2005)
HungaryPresent, LocalizedReiderné and Kozár (1994)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentSchotman (1989); NHM (Undated)
BahamasPresentMerrill (1953)
BarbadosPresentSchotman (1989)
BermudaPresentSchotman (1989); NHM (Undated)
Costa RicaPresentCoto A. and Saunders (2001)
CubaPresent, LocalizedFernandez et al. (1996)
DominicaPresentNHM (Undated)
JamaicaPresentNHM (Undated)
MexicoPresent, LocalizedFerris (1947); Merrill (1953); Miller (1996)
PanamaPresent, LocalizedFerris (1947)
Puerto RicoPresentSchotman (1989)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNHM (Undated)
Saint LuciaPresentNHM (Undated)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentSchotman (1989)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNHM (Undated)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentCABI (Undated b)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaAbsent, EradicatedGill (1997)
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadMerrill (1953); CABI (Undated)
-HawaiiPresent, LocalizedFerris (1947); Gill (1997)

Oceania

Cook IslandsPresentWilliams and Watson (1988)
FijiPresent, LocalizedFerris (1947); Williams and Watson (1988)
French PolynesiaPresentWilliams and Watson (1988); NHM (Undated)
KiribatiPresentWilliams and Watson (1988)
New CaledoniaPresent, LocalizedFerris (1947); Williams and Watson (1988)
NiuePresentWilliams and Watson (1988)
Papua New GuineaPresentWilliams and Watson (1988)
SamoaPresentWilliams and Watson (1988); NHM (Undated)
Solomon IslandsPresentWilliams and Watson (1988)
TokelauPresentWilliams and Watson (1988)
TongaPresentAPPPC (1987); Williams and Watson (1988)
TuvaluPresentWilliams and Watson (1988)
VanuatuPresentAPPPC (1987); Williams and Watson (1988)

South America

BrazilPresentWolff (2014)
-Espirito SantoPresentCulik et al. (2009)
-Minas GeraisPresentNHM (Undated)
ColombiaPresentMosquera Paris (1973)
GuyanaPresentNHM (Undated)
VenezuelaPresentNHM (Undated)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / mummification
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / dieback
Stems / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anagyrus pseudococci Parasite
Aphytis diaspidis Parasite Nymphs Peru cotton
Aphytis holoxanthus Parasite Adults/Nymphs India; Karnataka Citrus
Aphytis lingnanensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphytis mytilaspidis Parasite Nymphs Peru cotton
Aphytis pinnaspidis Parasite Nymphs India; Karnataka Citrus; Furcraea foetida
Arrhenophagus chionaspidis Parasite Nymphs Cape Verde; Peru cassava; cotton
Cheletogenes ornatus Predator Nymphs
Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus similis Predator Adults/Nymphs Peru cotton
Coccobius fulvus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Comperiella indica Parasite
Encarsia berlesei Parasite Adults/Nymphs Peru cotton
Encarsia citrina Parasite Nymphs Peru cotton
Encarsia fasciata Parasite
Encarsia lounsburyi Parasite
Habrolepis aspidioti Parasite Cape Verde cassava
Pharoscymnus horni Predator Adults/Nymphs
Promuscidea unfasciativentris Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Thomsonisca amathus Parasite

References

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APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Clausen CP, 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agricultural Handbook No. 480. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

Cockerell TDA, 1902. Note on the genus Hemichionaspis. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France, 4:81-82.

Cooley RA, 1899. The coccid genera Chionaspis and Hemichionaspis. Massachusetts Agriculture Experiment Station, Special Bulletin, 1899:1-57.

Coto A D; Saunders JL, 2001. Insect pests of soursop (Annona muricata) in Costa Rica. (Insectos plaga de la guanábana (Annona muricata) en Costa Rica.) Manejo Integrado de Plagas, No.61:60-68.

Culik MP; Ventura JA; Martins Ddos S, 2009. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) of pineapple in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Sixth International Pineapple Symposium, Joao Pessoa, Brazil, 18-23 November 2007.], No.822:215-218. http://www.actahort.org

Dekle GW; Merrill GB, 1976. Florida armored scale insects. Arthropods of Florida and Neighbouring Land Areas No. 3. Gainesville, USA: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 32, 345 pp.

Fernandez M; Del Val I; Proenza MA; Mesa D; Burgos T; Del Val I, 1996. Revista de Proteccion Vegetal, 11(2):91-94.

Fernando LCP; Kanagaratnam P, 1987. New records of some pests of the coconut inflorescence and developing fruit and their natural enemies in Sri Lanka. COCOS, 5:39-42.

Fernßndez M; Val Ide; Proenza MA; Garcfa G, 1993. Diagnosis of snow scale insect (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in Isla de la Juventud. Revista de Proteccio^acute~n Vegetal, 8(1):17-22; 6 ref.

Ferris GF, 1947. The genus Pinnaspis Cockerell (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Microentomology, 12(2):25-28.

Food and Agriculture Organization, 1972. Report to the Government of Saudi Arabia on research in plant protection based on the work of H.E. Martin, FAO Entomologist. Report to the Government of Saudi Arabia on research in plant protection based on the work of H.E. Martin, FAO Entomologist., v + 38 pp.

Germain JF; Matile-Ferrero D, 2005. Scale insects from greenhouses in France: an illustrated survey. III - Diaspididae. (Les cochenilles sous serres en France: inventaire illustré. III - Les Diaspididae.) Phytoma, No.583:32-35.

Gill RJ, 1997. The scale insects of California. Part 3. The armoured scales (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Technical Series in Agricultural Biosystematics and Plant Pathology, No 3. Sacramento, USA: Department of Food and Agriculture.

Kosztarab M; Kozar F, 1988. Scale insects of Central Europe. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 455 pp.

Malumphy C; Sanchez MD; Hamilton MA, 2015. First report of lesser snow scale Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) killing Varronia rupicola (Urb.) Britton in the British Virgin Islands. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 151(4):285-288. http://www.pemberleybooks.com

Mamet R, 1954. Notes on the Coccoidea of Madagascar, III. Memoires de L'Institut Scientifiquede Madagascar, Serie E, 4.

Matile-Ferrero D, 1978. Cassava mealybug in the People's Republic of Congo. In: Nwanze KF, Leuschner K, ed. Proceedings of the International Workshop on the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr. (Pseudococcidae) held at INERA-M'vuazi, Bas-Zaire, Zaire, June 26-29, 1977. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Ibadania Niger, 29-46

Merrill GB, 1953. A revision of the scale insects of Florida. Florida State Plant Board Bulletin, 1:1-143.

Miller DR, 1996. Checklist of the scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 98(1):68-86; 33 ref.

Moghaddam M, 2000. The first record of Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley) (Coccoidea: Diaspididae) in Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 19(1/2):105-106.

Mosquera PF, 1973. Some scale insects that attack plants cultivated in Colombia. Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomia Medellin, 28(2):57-64.

Paik WH, 1972. Scale insects found in the greenhouses in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 11(1):1-4.

Reiderne SK; Kozar F, 1994. Recently appeared scale insect species (Homoptera, Coccoidea: Diaspididae) on glasshouse ornamentals in Hungary. Novenyvedelem, 30(9):423-427.

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

Williams DJ; Watson GW, 1988. The Scale Insects of the Tropical South Pacific Region. Part 1. The Armoured Scales (Diaspididae). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Wolff VRdos S, 2014. Diaspididae ( Hemiptera : Coccoidea ) in olive tree, Olea europaea L. ( Oleaceae ) , in Brazil. (Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) en olivo, Olea europaea Linnaeus (Oleaceae), en Brasil.) Insecta Mundi, No.0385:1-6. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2014

Distribution References

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Coto A D, Saunders J L, 2001. Insect pests of soursop (Annona muricata) in Costa Rica. (Insectos plaga de la guanábana (Annona muricata) en Costa Rica.). Manejo Integrado de Plagas. 60-68.

Culik M P, Ventura J A, Martins D dos S, 2009. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) of pineapple in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Acta Horticulturae. 215-218. http://www.actahort.org

Fernandez M, Del Val I, Proenza MA, Mesa D, Burgos T, Del Val I, 1996. (Revista de Proteccion Vegetal)., 11 (2) 91-94.

Fernando L C P, Kanagaratnam P, 1987. New records of some pests of the coconut inflorescence and developing fruit and their natural enemies in Sri Lanka. COCOS. 39-42.

Ferris G F, 1947. The genus Pinnaspis Cockerell (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Microentomology. 12 (2), 25-28.

Germain J F, Matile-Ferrero D, 2005. Scale insects from greenhouses in France: an illustrated survey. III - Diaspididae. (Les cochenilles sous serres en France: inventaire illustré. III - Les Diaspididae.). Phytoma. 32-35.

Gill RJ, 1997. The scale insects of California. Part 3. The armoured scales (Homoptera: Diaspididae). In: Technical Series in Agricultural Biosystematics and Plant Pathology, Sacramento, USA: Department of Food and Agriculture.

Mamet R, 1954. Notes on the Coccoidea of Madagascar, III. Memoires de L'Institut Scientifiquede Madagascar, Serie E.

Merrill G B, 1953. A revision of the scale insects of Florida. Florida State Plant Board Bulletin. 1-143.

Miller D R, 1996. Checklist of the scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 98 (1), 68-86.

Moghaddam M, 2000. The first record of Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley) (Coccoidea: Diaspididae) in Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran. 19 (1/2), 105-106.

Mosquera Paris F, 1973. Some scale insects that attack plants cultivated in Colombia. (Algunos piojos blancos que afectan las plantas cultivadas en Colombia.). Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomia Medellin. 28 (2), 57-64.

NHM, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Paik W H, 1972. Scale insects found in the greenhouses in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Protection. 11 (1), 1-4.

Reiderné S K, Kozár F, 1994. Recently appeared scale insect species (Homoptera, Coccoidea: Diaspididae) on glasshouse ornamentals in Hungary. (Újabban megjelent, üvegházi dísznövényeken károsító pajzstetű fajok (Homoptera, Coccoidea: Diaspididae) Magyarországon.). Növényvédelem. 30 (9), 423-427.

Schotman C Y L, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. In: RLAC-PROVEG, 80 pp.

Williams D J, Watson G W, 1988. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific Region. Part 1. The armoured scales (Diaspididae). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 290pp.

Wolff V R dos S, 2014. Diaspididae ( Hemiptera : Coccoidea ) in olive tree, Olea europaea L. ( Oleaceae ) , in Brazil. (Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) en olivo, Olea europaea Linnaeus (Oleaceae), en Brasil.). Insecta Mundi. 1-6. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2014

Distribution Maps

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