Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pineus boerneri
(pine woolly aphid)

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Datasheet

Pineus boerneri (pine woolly aphid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pineus boerneri
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pine woolly aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Heavy infestation of P. boerneri on Pinus patula.
TitleHeavy infestation
CaptionHeavy infestation of P. boerneri on Pinus patula.
CopyrightWilliam M. Ciesla
Heavy infestation of P. boerneri on Pinus patula.
Heavy infestationHeavy infestation of P. boerneri on Pinus patula.William M. Ciesla
Pineus boerneri adult progredientes and egg, with wax filaments removed.
TitleAdults and egg
CaptionPineus boerneri adult progredientes and egg, with wax filaments removed.
CopyrightGillian W. Watson
Pineus boerneri adult progredientes and egg, with wax filaments removed.
Adults and eggPineus boerneri adult progredientes and egg, with wax filaments removed.Gillian W. Watson
Colony of P. boerneri on Pinus patula.
TitleColony on stem
CaptionColony of P. boerneri on Pinus patula.
CopyrightWilliam M. Ciesla
Colony of P. boerneri on Pinus patula.
Colony on stemColony of P. boerneri on Pinus patula.William M. Ciesla
Pineus boerneri adult progredientes and earlier instar, with wax filaments removed.
TitleAdults and earlier instars
CaptionPineus boerneri adult progredientes and earlier instar, with wax filaments removed.
CopyrightGillian W. Watson
Pineus boerneri adult progredientes and earlier instar, with wax filaments removed.
Adults and earlier instarsPineus boerneri adult progredientes and earlier instar, with wax filaments removed.Gillian W. Watson
Infestation of P. boerneri on Pinus patula with accompanying stem distortion.
TitleInfestation
CaptionInfestation of P. boerneri on Pinus patula with accompanying stem distortion.
CopyrightWilliam M. Ciesla
Infestation of P. boerneri on Pinus patula with accompanying stem distortion.
InfestationInfestation of P. boerneri on Pinus patula with accompanying stem distortion.William M. Ciesla
Needlebases of Pinus oocarpa from Muguga, Kenya, infested by Pineus boerneri.
TitleInfestation
CaptionNeedlebases of Pinus oocarpa from Muguga, Kenya, infested by Pineus boerneri.
CopyrightGillian W. Watson
Needlebases of Pinus oocarpa from Muguga, Kenya, infested by Pineus boerneri.
InfestationNeedlebases of Pinus oocarpa from Muguga, Kenya, infested by Pineus boerneri.Gillian W. Watson
Pinus oocarpa sapling in Muguga, Kenya, heavily infested by Pineus boerneri.
TitleInfested sapling
CaptionPinus oocarpa sapling in Muguga, Kenya, heavily infested by Pineus boerneri.
CopyrightGillian W. Watson
Pinus oocarpa sapling in Muguga, Kenya, heavily infested by Pineus boerneri.
Infested saplingPinus oocarpa sapling in Muguga, Kenya, heavily infested by Pineus boerneri.Gillian W. Watson
Pinus kesiya in the Viphya Plateau, Malawi, damaged by two alien aphid pests, Pineus boerneri and Eulachnus rileyi.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionPinus kesiya in the Viphya Plateau, Malawi, damaged by two alien aphid pests, Pineus boerneri and Eulachnus rileyi.
CopyrightGillian W. Watson
Pinus kesiya in the Viphya Plateau, Malawi, damaged by two alien aphid pests, Pineus boerneri and Eulachnus rileyi.
Damage symptomsPinus kesiya in the Viphya Plateau, Malawi, damaged by two alien aphid pests, Pineus boerneri and Eulachnus rileyi.Gillian W. Watson

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pineus boerneri Annand

Preferred Common Name

  • pine woolly aphid

EPPO code

  • PINEBO (Pineus boerneri)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Family: Adelgidae
  •                                     Genus: Pineus
  •                                         Species: Pineus boerneri

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Africa

KenyaPresentIntroduced Invasive Barnes et al., 1976; Mills, 1990; Odera, 1974
MalawiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Chilima, 1991; Day et al., 2003; Mills, 1990
South AfricaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Zwolinski, 1989
TanzaniaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Chilima, 1991; Day et al., 2003
UgandaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Chilima, 1991; Day et al., 2003
ZimbabweWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Barnes et al., 1976; Chilima, 1991; Day et al., 2003; Mills, 1990

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentNativeAnnand, 1928; Blackman & Eastop, 1994; Eastop, 1966
-HawaiiPresentAnnand, 1928; Blackman & Eastop, 1994; McLure, 1989

South America

BrazilPresentLazzari and Cardoso, 2011
ChilePresent Invasive Zuniga, 1985
ColombiaPresentRodas et al., 2014

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedBlackman & Eastop, 1994
New ZealandPresentIntroducedAnnand, 1928; Blackman & Eastop, 1994; McLure, 1989

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cold lands / tundra Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Deserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Freshwater Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Marine Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Pinus arizonica (arizona pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus canariensis (Canary pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus clausa (sand pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus cooperiPinaceaeOther
Pinus densiflora (Japanese umbrella pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus douglasianaPinaceaeOther
Pinus durangensis (Durango pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus elliottii (slash pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus engelmannii (apache pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus glabra (spruce pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus greggii (Gregg's pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus hartwegii (Hartweg pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus kesiya (khasya pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus lawsoniiPinaceaeOther
Pinus leiophylla (smooth-leaved pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus massoniana (masson pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus maximinoi (thin-leaf pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus merkusii (Tenasserim pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus michoacana (Michoacan pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus montezumae (montezuma pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus occidentalis (Haitian pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus oocarpa (ocote pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus palustris (longleaf pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus patula (Mexican weeping pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus pinaster (maritime pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus pinea (stone pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus pseudostrobus (pseudostrobus pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus pungens (tabel Mountain pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus radiata (radiata pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus rigida (pitch pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus roxburghii (chir pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus serotina (pond pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus taiwanensis (Taiwan pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus teocote (twisted leaf pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus virginiana (scrub pine)PinaceaeOther

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / distortion
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cheilomenes aurora Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Diomus pumilio Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Exochomus flavipes Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Exochomus quadripustulatus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Leucopis atrifacies Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Leucopis manii Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Leucopis nigraluna Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Leucopis obscura Predator Adults/Nymphs Chile Pinus radiata
Leucopis tapiae Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Scymnus nigrinus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Scymnus suturalis Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Tetraphleps raoi Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Land vehicles Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark adults; eggs; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production None
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

References

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Annand PN, 1928. A contribution toward a monograph of the Adelginae (Phylloxeridae) of North America. Stanford University Publications, University Series, 6(1):1-146.

Barnes RD; Jarvis RF; Schweppenhauser MA; Mullin LJ, 1976. Introduction, spread and control of the pine woolly aphid, Pineus pini (L.), in Rhodesia. Suid-Afrikaanse Bosboutydskrif, No. 96:1-11

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 1994. Aphids on the world's trees: an identification and information guide. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Chilima CZ, 1991. The status and development of conifer aphid damage in Malawi. Workshop Proceedings. Exotic aphid pests of conifers: a crisis in African forestry, Muguga, Kenya: Kenya Forest Research Institute and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 64-67.

Day RK; Kairo MTK; Abraham Y; Kfir R; Murphy ST; Mutitu KE; Chilima CZ, 2003. Biological control of homopteran pests of conifers in Africa. In: Neuenschwander P, Borgemeister C, Langewald J, eds. Biological control in IPM systems in Africa. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 101-112.

Eastop VF, 1966. A taxonomic study of Australian Aphidoidea. Australian Journal of Zoology,14:399-592.

Lazzari SMN; Cardoso JT, 2011. Pineus boerneri Annand, 1928 (Hemiptera, Adelgidae) - a new species to Brazil: morphology of eggs, nymphs and adults. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 55(4):459-466. HTTP://www.scielo.br/rbent

McClure MS, 1989. Biology, population trends, and damage of Pineus boerneri and P. coloradensis (Homoptera: Adelgidae) on red pine. Environmental Entomology, 18(6):1066-1073

Mills NJ, 1990. Biological control of forest aphid pests in Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 80(1):31-36

Odera JA, 1974. The incidence and host trees of Pine woolly aphid, Pineus pini (L.), in East Africa. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 53(2):128-136; 10 ref.

Rodas CA; Serna R; Hurley BP; Bolaños MD; Granados GM; Wingfield MJ, 2014. Three new and important insect pests recorded for the first time in Colombian plantations. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science, 76(4):245-252. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tsfs20

Zunuga E, 1985. Ochenta anos de control biologico en Chile. Revision historica y evaluation de los proyectos desarrollados (1903-1983). Agricultura Technica (Chile), 45:175-183.

Zwolinski JB; Grey DC; Mather JA, 1989. Impact of pine woolly aphid, Pineus pini (Homoptera: Adelgidae) on cone development and seed production of Pinus pinaster in the Southern Cape. South African Forestry Journal, No. 148:1-6

Distribution Maps

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