Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Reutealis trisperma
(Philippine tung)

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Datasheet

Reutealis trisperma (Philippine tung)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Reutealis trisperma
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Philippine tung
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • R. trisperma is a tree, endemic to the Philippines, which has been intentionally introduced elsewhere to be used as a timber species. It has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized into natural areas. To date, this species is list...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Reutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); habit. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionReutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); habit. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014.
Copyright©Forestowlet (Ajit)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Reutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); habit. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014.
HabitReutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); habit. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014.©Forestowlet (Ajit)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Reutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); leaf. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014.
TitleLeaf
CaptionReutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); leaf. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014.
Copyright©Forestowlet (Ajit)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Reutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); leaf. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014.
LeafReutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); leaf. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014.©Forestowlet (Ajit)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Reutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); close view of  leaf. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014.
TitleLeaf
CaptionReutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); close view of leaf. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014.
Copyright©Forestowlet (Ajit)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Reutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); close view of  leaf. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014.
LeafReutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); close view of leaf. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014.©Forestowlet (Ajit)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Reutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); fruit cluster. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014.
TitleFruit cluster
CaptionReutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); fruit cluster. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014.
Copyright©Forestowlet (Ajit)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Reutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); fruit cluster. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014.
Fruit clusterReutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); fruit cluster. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014.©Forestowlet (Ajit)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Reutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); close view of single fruit. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014
TitleSingle fruit
CaptionReutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); close view of single fruit. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014
Copyright©Forestowlet (Ajit)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Reutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); close view of single fruit. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014
Single fruitReutealis trisperma (Philippine tung); close view of single fruit. Cubbon Park, Bangalore, India. May, 2014©Forestowlet (Ajit)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw

Preferred Common Name

  • Philippine tung

Other Scientific Names

  • Aleurites saponarius Blanco
  • Aleurites trispermus Blanco
  • Camerium trispermum (Blanco) Kuntze

International Common Names

  • English: Philippine tung tree; Philippines tung; soft lumbang
  • Spanish: arbol de tung; javillio
  • Chinese: san zi tong

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: Aleurites
  • Philippines: baguilumbang; balokanad; banukalad; banunkalag; calumban; kalumbang; lumbang-banukalad; lumbang-gubat

EPPO code

  • ALETR (Aleurites trisperma)

Summary of Invasiveness

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R. trisperma is a tree, endemic to the Philippines, which has been intentionally introduced elsewhere to be used as a timber species. It has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized into natural areas. To date, this species is listed as invasive only in the Dominican Republic (Kairo et al., 2003).

Within its native distribution range, high rates of habitat loss through logging and shifting cultivation have led to considerable population declines of R. trisperma (IUCN, 2014). It is listed by the IUCN Red List as ‘vulnerable’

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Euphorbiales
  •                         Family: Euphorbiaceae
  •                             Genus: Aleurites
  •                                 Species: Reutealis trisperma

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Euphorbiaceae includes about 218 genera and 6745 species distributed worldwide (Stevens, 2012). Within this family, three closely related genera Aleurites, Reutealis and Vernicia, together constitute the tribe Aleuritideae (subfamily Crotonoideae). Reutealis is a monotypic plant genus and the single species, R. trisperma is endemic to the Philippines (Stuppy et al., 1999). R. trisperma can easily be distinguished from Aleurites and Vernicia by its five-angular or five-ribbed rather than terete twigs, the presence of rather persistent, hooded bracts, and spatulately flattened rather than terete stigmas (Stuppy et al., 1999). 

Description

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Trees to 15 m tall; trunk to 35 cm dbh. Petiole 14-15 cm; leaf blade ovate or ovate-cordate, 12-14 × 12-13 cm, abaxial surface with hair-tufts in many vein-axils, base usually deeply cordate with rounded lobes, sometimes rounded or obtuse on old trees, apex gland-tipped. Plants dioecious, sometimes monoecious. Male inflorescences flat-topped, with many cymelets. Male flowers: calyx cylindric, approximately 13 mm, 2- or 3-lobed, glabrous; petals 5, yellowish white, obovate, obovate-spatulate, or obovate-lanceolate, 8-16 × 3-5 mm; stamens 10-13, in 2 series; outer filaments free, inner ones connate at base. Female inflorescences flat-topped, racemose, or thyrsoid. Female flowers: ovary 3-celled, ovoid-globose-trigonous, densely appressed hairy; styles bifid. Capsule depressed globose to obtusely trigonous; pericarp 4-5 × 5-6.5 cm, longitudinally 3-angular, rugose, densely velutinous-pubescent (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). 

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree

Distribution

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R. trisperma is endemic to Philippines (Govaerts, 2014). It is cultivated in Indonesia, China, India, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic (Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated a)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-DelhiPresentIntroducedFlora of India (2014)
IndonesiaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Cultivated and naturalized
PhilippinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)Luzon, Mindanao, Negros. Listed as 'vulnerable' by IUCN (2014)

North America

CubaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2014)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasiveKairo et al. (2003)

History of Introduction and Spread

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R. trisperma has been intentionally introduced to be used as a timber species (IUCN, 2014). In the West Indies, this species first appears in herbarium collections made in Cuba in 1932 and the Dominican Republic in 1955 (US National Herbarium). 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of R. trisperma is moderate. This species has large and heavy seeds which are poorly suited to long-distance dispersal. Introductions into new habitats undoubtedly have to be mediated by humans. However, in areas where this species has been planted, there is a potential risk for it to escape into the wild. 

Habitat

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R. trisperma grows naturally in humid forests at low and medium altitudes. This species is also grown in towns, along roadsides, and in plantations as a cultivated tree.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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A fast-growing tree, it can be 5 metres or more tall when 5 years old. Trees commence fruiting within a few years.

R. trisperma trees are dioecious and sometimes monoecious. In Asia, this species flowers during April and flowers are principally pollinated by bees. Fruiting occurs in October (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).

Plants can be grown in subtropical to tropical areas. They can tolerate occasional short-lived frosts with temperatures falling to about -2°C

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall7002500mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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R. trisperma spreads by seeds. Within its native distribution range, the major dispersal agents of the fruits are birds. For this species, long-distance dispersal is mostly related to human-activities. 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
ForestryTimber species Yes Yes IUCN, 2014
Industrial purposesSeeds for oil production Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Timber trade Yes Yes IUCN, 2014

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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R. trisperma has escaped from cultivation and naturalized into natural forests causing the smothering of native species and interrupting the natural succession (Kairo et al., 2003).

Social Impact

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Fruits and seeds of R. trisperma are poisonous to humans (Flora of India, 2014).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Poisoning
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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R. trisperma is grown as a timber species. Wood is used for carving and to make furniture, small utensils, and matches. Seeds are used to extract oil and in traditional medicine (Holilah et al., 20014). Seeds are a strong purgative and the bark sap is used as a cure for scurf. The oil yielded by the seeds was formerly employed in the Philippines for the production of a weak soap which was in demand among sailors owing to its property of lathering in sea water (Stuppy et al., 1999). A recent study suggests the potential use of R. trisprema seeds as a new non-edible source for the production of biodiesel (Holilah et al., 20014). 

Uses List

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Materials

  • Lipids
  • Oils
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

References

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Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of India, 2014. Flowers of India, Online resources. http://www.flowersofindia.net/

Govaerts R, 2014. Family Euphorbiaceae - World Checklist of Euphorbiaceae. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Holilah H; Prasetyoko D; Oetami TP; Santosa EK; Muhammad Y; Bahruji H; Fansuri H; Ediati R; Juwari J, 2014. The potential of Reutealis trisperma seed as a new non-edible source for biodiesel production. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 5(4):347-353.

IUCN, 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org

Kairo M; Ali B; Cheesman O; Haysom K; Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Stuppy W; Welzen PCvan; Klinratana P; Posa MCT, 1999. Revision of the genera Aleurites, Reutealis and Vernicia (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea, 44(1):73-98.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of India, 2014. Flowers of India, Online resources., http://www.flowersofindia.net/

Govaerts R, 2014. Family Euphorbiaceae - World Checklist of Euphorbiaceae., London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. In: Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International. 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Links to Websites

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Contributors

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07/01/15 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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