Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Vernicia fordii
(tung-oil tree)

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Datasheet

Vernicia fordii (tung-oil tree)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Vernicia fordii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tung-oil tree
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • V. fordii is a competitive tree widely introduced in tropical and subtropical regions for its use in the tungoil industry. It has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized in natural habitats where it rep...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Hunan, China.
TitleYoung plantation
CaptionHunan, China.
CopyrightFang Jiaxing
Hunan, China.
Young plantationHunan, China.Fang Jiaxing
TitleFoliage
Caption
CopyrightFang Jiaxing
FoliageFang Jiaxing
TitleFoliage
Caption
CopyrightFang Jiaxing
FoliageFang Jiaxing
TitleFruit
Caption
CopyrightFang Jiaxing
FruitFang Jiaxing

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) Airy Shaw

Preferred Common Name

  • tung-oil tree

Other Scientific Names

  • Aleurites fordii Hemsl.

International Common Names

  • English: central China wood oil tree; Chinese wood-oil tree; tung nut; tung oil tree; tung tree
  • Spanish: aceite chino; aleurita; tung
  • French: aleurite; arbe a huile; tung
  • Chinese: guangtong; shanniantong; tongyoushu; tongzishu; you tong
  • Portuguese: tungue

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: arbol del tung; nuez de tung; tungera
  • Brazil: árvore-de-óleo-da-china; nogueira; tungue
  • Cuba: aceite de china
  • Dominican Republic: javilla extranjera
  • Germany: Holzoelbaum; Tungoelbaum
  • Netherlands: Chineese Olieboom

EPPO code

  • ALEFO (Aleurites fordii)

Trade name

  • tung

Summary of Invasiveness

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V. fordii is a competitive tree widely introduced in tropical and subtropical regions for its use in the tungoil industry. It has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized in natural habitats where it replaces native vegetation and competes for space, water, light, and nutrients (Wells et al., 1986; Langeland et al., 2008; Miller et al., 2010). V. fordii has the potential to grow very rapidly, principally in moist and well-drained soils, forming dense stands. Deliberate breeding of this species has yielded frost-hardy varieties, facilitating the expansion of the tree into new habitats (Miller et al., 2010). Currently, V. fordii is listed as a weed in South Africa, the USA and Australia and invasive in Florida and the Dominican Republic (Kairo et al., 2003; Wells et al., 1986; Randall, 2012; Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2014). 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Euphorbiales
  •                         Family: Euphorbiaceae
  •                             Genus: Vernicia
  •                                 Species: Vernicia fordii

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Euphorbiaceae is a family of plants including 2018 genera and more than 6745 species of trees, shrubs, herbs and succulents with Pan-tropical distribution (Stevens, 2012). Members of this family can be distinguished based on their small, and unisexual flowers. Vernicia is a small genus including just three species native to Asia (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014).

Description

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Description from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014): V. fordii is a deciduous tree, up to 10 m tall, monoecious; bark gray, nearly smooth; branches verticillate, stout, glabrous, prominently lenticellate. Petiole as long as leaf blade, glabrescent, with 2 compressed and sessile glands; leaf blade ovate, 5-18 × 3-15 cm, puberulent when young, dark green and glabrous adaxially, gray-green and pubescent abaxially at maturity, base truncate to shallowly cordate, margin entire, rarely shallowly 1-3-fid, apex acute; palmate veins 5(-7). Inflorescences flat-topped paniculate cymes, appearing generally before new leaves, usually bisexual; calyx ca. 10 mm, 2(or 3)-fid, densely brown puberulent outside; petals obovate, 2-3 × 1-1.5 cm, yellow at base, pink to purplish, pink-veined, base clawed, apex rounded; stamens 8-12; outer filaments free, inner filaments connate to below middle; ovary 3-5(-8)-locular, pubescent; styles 3-5(-8), bifid. Drupe subglobose, 4-6(-8) cm in diam.; exocarp smooth, not grooved, 3- or 4(-8)-seeded. Seed coat woody. 

Distribution

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V. fordii is native to China, Myanmar and Vietnam (Goaverts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). It has been widely cultivated in the tropics and can be found naturalized in Africa, tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, the USA, the West Indies and South America (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2014; PROTA, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

CambodiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AnhuiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-FujianPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuizhouPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HainanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HenanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HubeiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HunanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-JiangsuPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-JiangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-SichuanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
Georgia (Republic of)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
IndiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
JapanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
-HonshuPresent Planted
-KyushuPresent Planted
Korea, DPRPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
LaosPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
MyanmarPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
NepalPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
PakistanPresent Planted
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
TaiwanPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
ThailandPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
VietnamPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014

Africa

KenyaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
MadagascarPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
MalawiPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014
MozambiquePresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014
NigeriaPresent Planted
South AfricaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
SwazilandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive Kairo et al., 2003
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
BrazilPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
ParaguayPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014

Europe

FrancePresent Planted
ItalyPresent Planted
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russia (Europe)Present Planted
UKPresent Planted
UkrainePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
New ZealandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated

History of Introduction and Spread

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V. fordii was introduced across the tropics to be used in the tung oil industry. In the USA, it was introduced in 1859 as an oil crop species and is now extensively cultivated from Texas across the coastal plain to North Carolina and along the Gulf Coast States (i.e., Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida). In Florida this species was reported in 1906 and was largely cultivated until the 1950s when crop areas were abandoned (Langeland et al., 2008; Miller et al., 2010). In the West Indies, it was collected in Puerto Rico in 1930 and in Cuba in 1932 (NY Botanical Garden; US National Herbarium). In Argentina and Paraguay it was introduced at the beginning of the twentieth century for industrial purposes (Brown and Keeler, 2005; Keller et al., 2013).

Habitat

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V. fordii is usually cultivated on slopes below 800 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). It is grown as an ornamental tree in urban areas. V. fordii has escaped from cultivation and can be found naturalized in forest edges, urban green spaces, roadsides, open forests, and woodlands (Langeland et al., 2008; Miller et al., 2010). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for V. fordii is n = 22 (Huang et al., 1989).

Physiology and Phenology

V. fordii is a monoecious tree with individual flowers either male or female, but produced together in the inflorescence. In China, V. fordii flowers from March to April and produces fruits from August to November (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). In the USA, it has been recorded flowering from March to April and fruiting from September to November (Miller et al., 2010). Plants are self-compatible, but pollination is dependent on bees for pollen transfer (Langeland et al., 2008; Miller et al., 2010).

Fruits of V. fordii fall in early winter and germination takes place in the spring (Duke, 1983). Germination rate of 100% was attained with cold stratified or soaked seeds and 83% with untreated seeds (Langeland et al., 2008).

Longevity

In the USA, the average lifespan of V. fordii is 30 years, and fruit and viable seeds can be produced by the third year (Duke, 1983; Langeland et al., 2008; Miller et al., 2010).

Environmental Requirements

V. fordii grows best in open forests with full sunlight at elevations from 200 to 2000 m (Flora of China, 2014). This species has the capability to grow on acidic and alkaline soils (pH 4.5 - 7.5), in areas with mean annual temperature ranging from 18°C -28°C and mean annual rainfall from 650 mm to 3500 mm (Langeland et al., 2008; PROTA, 2014). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
35 20 200 2300

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -23
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 28
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 25 29
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 1 10

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration25number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall6503500mm; lower/upper limits

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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V. fordii spreads by seeds and vegetatively by the formation of suckers from underground stems. Seeds are dispersed by animal and water (Langeland et al., 2008; Miller et al., 2010; PROTA, 2014). 

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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V. fordii is a fast-growing invasive tree, principally invading open forests and disturbed sites in wet and humid habitats. It has escaped and naturalized in open areas and woodlands from southern Louisiana to north Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Puerto Rico (USDA-NRCS 2014), South Africa, Australia, and tropical Asia (Wells et al., 1986; Govaerts, 2014; PROTA, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). It has been listed as invasive in Florida and the Dominican Republic where it grows forming dense stands which displace and outcompete native vegetation for space, water, light, and nutrients (Wells et al., 1986; Kairo et al., 2003; Langeland et al., 2008; Miller et al., 2010). 

Social Impact

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Foliage, sap, fruits, and seeds of V. fordii are poisonous to humans and animals and may cause skin irritation (Wells et al., 1986). Seeds can be fatal and may produce severe purgative symptoms if consumed (Langeland et al., 2008; Miller et al., 2010).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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V. fordii is cultivated primarily for its seeds. The oils extracted from the seed are used in the manufacture of lacquers, varnishes, paints, linoleum, oilcloth, resins, artificial leather, felt-base floor coverings, and in greases, brake-linings and cleaning and polishing compounds. This tree species is also used as an ornamental landscape plant (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013; PROTA, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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This text is taken from Miller et al. (2010): Resembles paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera), southern catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides), northern catalpa (C. speciosa), and princesstree (Paulownia tomentosa), which have similar shaped leaves but are velvety or rough hairy and have no petiole glands. Also resembles Chinese parasoltree (Firmiana simplex), which has similar shaped leaves with sinuses but has no glands and no milky sap.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Infestations of V. fordii may be controlled by limiting the growth and expansion of this species within the landscape. Cutting down larger trees, and removal of seeds and seedlings, are recommended to prevent re-infestation (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013).

Biological Control

The flea beetle species Aphthona nigriscutis, is being studied as a potential biological control agent for V. fordii (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013). This insect is used for the biological control of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in the northern USA and western Canada.

Chemical Control

The herbicide triclopyr has been effective controlling infestations of V. fordii. In Florida, the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (2013) recommends the use of 25% solution with diesel fuel for basal bark treatments and applications of 50% triclopyr solution for cut stump treatments. Re-applications are often necessary (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013). 

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Brown K; Keeler W, 2005. The History of Tung Oil. Wildland Weeds, 2005(Winter):2-6.

Chen BZ, 1980. Preliminary studies on accumulation, transformation of oil in Aleurites fordii seeds. Subtropical Forest Science and Technology, 3:28-31.

Duke JA, 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. Unpublished. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Centre for New Crops and Plant Products. World Wide Web page at http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Indices/index_ab.html.

Fang X, 1981. Selfing and Performance of S1 in Aleurites fordii. Subtropical Forest Science and Technology, 4:1-10.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013. List of Invasive Plant Species., USA: Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. http://www.fleppc.org/list/list.htm

Govaerts R, 2014. Family Euphorbiaceae - World Checklist of Euphorbiaceae. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

He F, 1984. Studies on Cultivation Zone and Site Types of Aleurites fordii in Hunan Province. J. of Central South Forestry College, 4(1):28-45.

He F; Fang JX; Lin LS, 1985. Major Cultivators of Tung Oil Trees of China. Hunan, China: Hunan Science and Technology Press,

He F; Tang XR, 1989. Classification of Climatic Zones for Aleurites fordii of China. J. of Central South Forestry College, 9(2):103-113.

He F; Wang YQ, 1990. Studies on Biomass and Nutrient Cycling of Aleurites fordii. Economic Forest, 8(2):6-20.

Huang SF; Zhao ZF; Chen ZY; Chen SJ; Huang XX, 1989. Chromosome counts on one hundred species and infraspecific taxa. Acta Botanica Austro Sinica, No. 5:161-176.

Jia WL, 1957. Studies on Biology of China's Tung Oil Trees. Beijing, China: China Forestry Publishing House,

Kairo M; Ali B; Cheesman O; Haysom K; Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Keller HA; Stampella PC; Delucchi G; Hurrell JA, 2013. [English title not available]. (Vernicia fordii y Aleurites moluccanus (Euphorbiaceae) en la Argentina. Naturalización y etnobotánica.) Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica, 48:3-4.

Krussmann G; Epp ME; Daniels GS; eds, 1984. Manual of cultivated broad-leaved trees & shrubs. Vol. 1, A-D, iii + 448 pp. + 176 pl.; many pl.

Langeland KA; Cherry HM; McCormick CM; Craddock Burks KA, 2008. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas, 2nd edition. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida, 210 pp.

Lin LS; Duan YX, 1983. Silviculture of Tung Tree. Beijing, China: China Forestry Publishing House,

Lin LS; He F; Fang JX, 1993. An illustrated Monograph of Varieties of Tung Oil Trees in China. Beijing, China: China Forestry Publishing House,

Liu TS, 1960. Illustrations of native and introduced ligneous plants of Taiwan, Vol. 1. Taiwan: Taiwan University Press.

Liu XW; Fang JX, 1981. Heritability, Genetic Relationship of main economic traits in Aleurites fordii. Subtropical Forest Science and Technology, 4:10-18.

Miller JH; Chambliss EB; Loewenstein NJ, 2010. A field guide for the identification of invasive plants in southern forests. General Technical Report - Southern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, No.SRS-119:126 pp.

PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Qiu HX, 1996. Flora. Beijing , China: China Science Press, Tomus, 44(2):143.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Streets RJ, 1962. Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Wang SY; Qi CJ; Li ZK, 1991. Forestry in Hunan Province. Hunan, China: Hunan Science and Technology Press.

Wang WX, 1988. Pests & Diseases in Tung oil tree and their control methods. Beijing, China: China Forestry Publishing House.

Wells MJ; Balsinhas AA; Joffe H; Engelbrecht VM; Harding G; Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

Wu CC, 1985. Experiment of Aleurites fordii seed storage. Seed, 3:46-47.

Wu ZW, 1986. Preliminary studies on micro climate in Aleurites fordii plantations. Journal of Central South Forestry College, 6(1):41-51.

Xiao GG(Chief Editor), 1991. Forest insects of China. Beijing, China; China Forestry Publishing House, Ed. 2:vi + 1362 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plantshttp://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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05/02/15 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

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