Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Picea mariana
(black spruce)

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Datasheet

Picea mariana (black spruce)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Picea mariana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black spruce
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Gymnospermae
  •         Class: Pinopsida
  • Uses List
  • Agroforestry
  • Essential oils
  • Fibre
  • Fuelwood
  • Ornamental

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
P. mariana is the characteristic species of the Canadian boreal forest. Extensive, nearly pure stands of P. mariana may develop after large-scale wildfires in northern British Columbia.
TitleForest stand, British Columbia
CaptionP. mariana is the characteristic species of the Canadian boreal forest. Extensive, nearly pure stands of P. mariana may develop after large-scale wildfires in northern British Columbia.
CopyrightK. Klinka
P. mariana is the characteristic species of the Canadian boreal forest. Extensive, nearly pure stands of P. mariana may develop after large-scale wildfires in northern British Columbia.
Forest stand, British ColumbiaP. mariana is the characteristic species of the Canadian boreal forest. Extensive, nearly pure stands of P. mariana may develop after large-scale wildfires in northern British Columbia. K. Klinka
P. mariana is the characteristic species of the Canadian boreal forest. Extensive, nearly pure stands of P. mariana may develop after large-scale wildfires in northern Ontario.
TitleForest stand, Ontario
CaptionP. mariana is the characteristic species of the Canadian boreal forest. Extensive, nearly pure stands of P. mariana may develop after large-scale wildfires in northern Ontario.
CopyrightK. Klinka
P. mariana is the characteristic species of the Canadian boreal forest. Extensive, nearly pure stands of P. mariana may develop after large-scale wildfires in northern Ontario.
Forest stand, OntarioP. mariana is the characteristic species of the Canadian boreal forest. Extensive, nearly pure stands of P. mariana may develop after large-scale wildfires in northern Ontario.K. Klinka
One of the most common associates of P. mariana is Pinus contorta. Both species have serotinuous cones; thus, they regenerate simultaneously after fire. The resulting stand structure will depend on the density of the faster growing Pinus contorta. If the density is too high, P. mariana will be suppressed and develop a distinctly lower, second storey; if the density is not too high, P. mariana will eventually develop into the upper storey, and become a dominant tree. Such mixtures are thought to be more productive than single-species stands of either species.
TitleMixed stand
CaptionOne of the most common associates of P. mariana is Pinus contorta. Both species have serotinuous cones; thus, they regenerate simultaneously after fire. The resulting stand structure will depend on the density of the faster growing Pinus contorta. If the density is too high, P. mariana will be suppressed and develop a distinctly lower, second storey; if the density is not too high, P. mariana will eventually develop into the upper storey, and become a dominant tree. Such mixtures are thought to be more productive than single-species stands of either species.
CopyrightK. Klinka
One of the most common associates of P. mariana is Pinus contorta. Both species have serotinuous cones; thus, they regenerate simultaneously after fire. The resulting stand structure will depend on the density of the faster growing Pinus contorta. If the density is too high, P. mariana will be suppressed and develop a distinctly lower, second storey; if the density is not too high, P. mariana will eventually develop into the upper storey, and become a dominant tree. Such mixtures are thought to be more productive than single-species stands of either species.
Mixed standOne of the most common associates of P. mariana is Pinus contorta. Both species have serotinuous cones; thus, they regenerate simultaneously after fire. The resulting stand structure will depend on the density of the faster growing Pinus contorta. If the density is too high, P. mariana will be suppressed and develop a distinctly lower, second storey; if the density is not too high, P. mariana will eventually develop into the upper storey, and become a dominant tree. Such mixtures are thought to be more productive than single-species stands of either species.K. Klinka
P. mariana is also the characteristic species of ombotrophic wetlands, which occupy a large area in Alaska and northern Canada.
TitleTrees on ombrotrophic wetland
CaptionP. mariana is also the characteristic species of ombotrophic wetlands, which occupy a large area in Alaska and northern Canada.
CopyrightK. Klinka
P. mariana is also the characteristic species of ombotrophic wetlands, which occupy a large area in Alaska and northern Canada.
Trees on ombrotrophic wetlandP. mariana is also the characteristic species of ombotrophic wetlands, which occupy a large area in Alaska and northern Canada. K. Klinka
P. mariana is a shade-tolerant species, which regenerates on organic substrates in forest understories. It may reproduce vegetatively by layering.
TitleNatural regeneration
CaptionP. mariana is a shade-tolerant species, which regenerates on organic substrates in forest understories. It may reproduce vegetatively by layering.
CopyrightK. Klinka
P. mariana is a shade-tolerant species, which regenerates on organic substrates in forest understories. It may reproduce vegetatively by layering.
Natural regenerationP. mariana is a shade-tolerant species, which regenerates on organic substrates in forest understories. It may reproduce vegetatively by layering.K. Klinka

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton et al.

Preferred Common Name

  • black spruce

Variety

  • Picea mariana f. beissneri (Rehder) Rehder
  • Picea mariana f. nana (Beissner) Rehder

Other Scientific Names

  • Abies mariana Mill.
  • Picea brevifolia Peck
  • Picea mariana var. brevifolia (Peck) Rehder
  • Picea nigra (Aiton) Link

International Common Names

  • Spanish: abeto negro
  • French: epicea noir; sapinette noire

Local Common Names

  • Canada: bog spruce; shortleaf black spruce; swamp spruce
  • Germany: Nordamerikanische Schwarz- Fichte; Schwarzfichte
  • Italy: abete nero; picea marina
  • Netherlands: zwarte spar
  • USA: bog spruce; shortleaf black spruce; swamp spruce

EPPO code

  • PIEMA (Picea mariana)

Trade name

  • eastern spruce
  • eastern spruce-balsam fir

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Gymnospermae
  •                 Class: Pinopsida
  •                     Family: Pinaceae
  •                         Genus: Picea
  •                             Species: Picea mariana

List of Pests

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Major host of:

Arceuthobium pusillum (eastern dwarf mistletoe); Armillaria ostoyae (armillaria root rot); Chrysomyxa arctostaphyli (spruce broom rust); Dendroctonus micans (great spruce bark beetle); Dendroctonus rufipennis (spruce beetle); Elatobium abietinum (green spruce aphid); Fomitopsis pinicola (brown crumbly rot); Gilpinia hercyniae (spruce sawfly); Lambdina fiscellaria (eastern hemlock looper); Megastigmus atedius (eastern white pine seed chalcid); Pissodes nemorensis (northern pine weevil); Sirococcus conigenus (sirococcus blight of conifers)

Minor host of:

Acleris variana (hemlock budworm); Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wilt nematode); Choristoneura fumiferana (spruce budworm); Choristoneura pinus pinus (jack-pine budworm); Gremmeniella abietina (Brunchorstia disease); Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth); Pissodes strobi (Sitka spruce weevil); Sphaeropsis sapinea (Sphaeropsis blight); Tetropium fuscum (brown spruce longhorn beetle)

Associated with (not a host):

Clonostachys rosea (mycoparasite of fungal pathogens)

Host of (source - data mining):

Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid); Calonectria kyotensis (root rot: peach); Chrysomyxa pirolata; Cydia strobilella (spruce seed moth); Dasineura rachiphaga; Dioryctria reniculelloides (spruce coneworm); Dryocoetes affaber; Dryocoetes autographus; Hylobius congener (seedling debarking weevil); Ips perturbatus (northern spruce engraver); Ochropleura fennica (black army cutworm); Polygraphus rufipennis (foureyed spruce bark beetle); Rabdophaga swainei (midge, spruce bud); Rhabdophaga swainei; Strobilomyia anthracina; Strobilomyia neanthracina (white spruce cone maggot)

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Agroforestry

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Essential oils
  • Fibre
  • Gum/resin
  • Wood/timber

Wood Products

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Containers

  • Crates
  • Pallets

Pulp

  • Long-fibre pulp

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • Flooring
  • For light construction

Wood-based materials

  • Particleboard