Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Picea abies
(common spruce)

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Datasheet

Picea abies (common spruce)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Picea abies
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common spruce
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Gymnospermae
  •         Class: Pinopsida
  • Uses List
  • Agroforestry
  • Charcoal
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Religious
  • Revegetation

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
P. abies tree habit.  Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London.  March 2003.
TitleHabit
CaptionP. abies tree habit. Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London. March 2003.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
P. abies tree habit.  Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London.  March 2003.
HabitP. abies tree habit. Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London. March 2003.©A.R. Pittaway
P. abies foliage.  Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London.  March 2003.
TitleFoliage
CaptionP. abies foliage. Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London. March 2003.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
P. abies foliage.  Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London.  March 2003.
FoliageP. abies foliage. Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London. March 2003.©A.R. Pittaway
P. abies bark detail.  Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London.  March 2003.
TitleBark
CaptionP. abies bark detail. Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London. March 2003.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
P. abies bark detail.  Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London.  March 2003.
BarkP. abies bark detail. Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London. March 2003.©A.R. Pittaway

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.

Preferred Common Name

  • common spruce

Other Scientific Names

  • Picea excelsa (Lam.) Link
  • Pinus abies L.
  • Pinus viminalis Sparrm. ex Alstr.

International Common Names

  • English: European spruce; Norway spruce
  • Spanish: abeto falso; picea commun; pinabete de Noruega
  • French: épicéa commun

Local Common Names

  • Bulgaria: smurc
  • Canada: épinette de Norvège
  • Czechoslovakia (former): smrk
  • Denmark: grau
  • Finland: kinnsl
  • France: épicéa
  • Germany: europäische Fichte; Fichte; gemeine Fichte; Rottanne; Weissfichte
  • Italy: abete rosso
  • Netherlands: fijnspar; gewone spar; kerstspar
  • Norway: gran
  • Romania: molid
  • Sweden: gran; vanlig gran

EPPO code

  • PIEAB (Picea abies)

Trade name

  • spruce
  • white deal
  • whitewood

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Gymnospermae
  •                 Class: Pinopsida
  •                     Family: Pinaceae
  •                         Genus: Picea
  •                             Species: Picea abies

List of Pests

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Major host of:

Adelges abietis (eastern spruce gall aphid); Armillaria ostoyae (armillaria root rot); Chrysomyxa abietis (needle rust of fir); Dendroctonus micans (great spruce bark beetle); Diaporthe eres (apple leaf, branch and fruit fungus); Elatobium abietinum (green spruce aphid); Fomitopsis pinicola (brown crumbly rot); Gilpinia hercyniae (spruce sawfly); Gremmeniella abietina (Brunchorstia disease); Heterobasidion annosum; Heterobasidion parviporum; Hylobius abietis (large pine weevil); Hylurgops palliatus (lesser spruce shoot beetle); Ips amitinus (small spruce bark beetle); Ips duplicatus (double-spined bark beetle); Ips typographus (eight-toothed bark beetle); Lymantria monacha (nun moth); Megastigmus strobilobius (spruce seed chalcid); Monochamus saltuarius (Japanese pine sawyer); Monochamus sutor (small white-marmorated longicorn); Neonectria fuckeliana (flute canker of radiata pine); Ophiostoma piceae (vascular mycosis of oak); Otiorhynchus singularis (clay coloured weevil); Physokermes piceae; Pissodes strobi (Sitka spruce weevil); Pityogenes chalcographus (sixtoothed spruce bark beetls); Plemeliella abietina (spruce seed gall midge); Pristiphora abietina (lesser spruce sawfly); Sirex juvencus (steel-blue woodwasp); Sirococcus conigenus (sirococcus blight of conifers); Sphinx pinastri (pine hawkmoth); Tetropium castaneum (black spruce beetle); Tetropium fuscum (brown spruce longhorn beetle); Thekopsora areolata (cherry spruce rust); Trypodendron lineatum (striped ambrosia beetle); Xylosandrus germanus (black timber bark beetle)

Minor host of:

Arceuthobium campylopodum (western dwarf misletoe); Arceuthobium pusillum (eastern dwarf mistletoe); Armillaria mellea (armillaria root rot); Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wilt nematode); Choristoneura fumiferana (spruce budworm); Chrysomyxa arctostaphyli (spruce broom rust); Fomes fomentarius (hoof fungus); Ganoderma lucidum (basal stem rot: Hevea spp.); Gibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight); Globisporangium irregulare (dieback: carrot); Heterobasidion abietinum; Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato (Heterobasidion root rot); Leptographium procerum (white pine root decline); Megastigmus atedius (eastern white pine seed chalcid); Melolontha melolontha (white grub cockchafer); Monochamus alternatus (Japanese pine sawyer); Monochamus galloprovincialis (pine sawyer); Mycosphaerella pini (Dothistroma blight); Neodiprion sertifer (European pine sawfly); Operophtera brumata (winter moth); Orgyia antiqua (European tussock moth); Otiorhynchus armadillo (armadillo weevil); Phytophthora citrophthora (brown rot of citrus fruit); Pissodes castaneus (small banded pine weevil); Pissodes nemorensis (northern pine weevil); Pityokteines curvidens (fir engraver beetle); Rhyacionia buoliana (European pine shoot moth); Rosellinia necatrix (dematophora root rot); Sirex noctilio (woodwasp); Sphaeropsis sapinea (Sphaeropsis blight); Stereum sanguinolentum (bleeding conk fungus); Sydowia polyspora (dieback of pine); Tortrix viridana (green oak leaf-roller); Trichodorus (stubby root nematodes); Tylenchorhynchus claytoni (stunt nematode)

Wild host of:

Pratylenchus penetrans (nematode, northern root lesion); Xyleborinus saxesenii (fruit-tree pinhole borer)

Associated with (not a host):

Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore); Hypocrea rufa (green mould of narcissus)

Host of (source - data mining):

Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid); Alternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot); Bupalus piniarius (pine looper moth); Cephalcia abietis; Cephalcia arvensis; Cephalcia fallenii; Cephalcia isshikii; Ceratocystis polonica; Chrysomyxa pirolata; Chrysomyxa rhododendri (European Rhododendron rust); Cinara pilicornis; Clinodiplosis cilicrus; Contarinia baeri (European pineneedle midge); Crypturgus cinereus; Cydia pactolana; Cydia strobilella (spruce seed moth); Dendrolimus pini (pine-tree lappet); Dryocoetes autographus; Endocronartium harknessii (western gall rust); Epinotia nanana (European spruce needleminer); Epinotia tedella; Ernobius mollis (anobiid, pine bark); Euura mucronata (willow bud sawfly); Gaurax strobilum; Gilpinia pallida (sawfly); Herpotrichia juniperi (black: conifers Snow mould); Hylastes brunneus; Hylastes cunicularius; Hylecoetus dermestoides; Hylobius abies; Hylurgops glabratus (brown spruce bast borer); Ips typographus japonicus; Lirula macrospora (cone cast: spruce); Lophodermium piceae (needle cast: spruce); Molorchus minor; Neodiprion lecontei (redheaded pine sawfly); Neonectria radicicola (black root of strawberry); Oligonychus ununguis (red spidermite); Pachynematus montanus; Pachypappa tremulae; Pachypappa vesicalis (conifer root, aphid); Pestalotiopsis funerea (leaf spot of mango); Petrova albicapitana (northern pitch twig moth); Pissodes pini (weevil, larger pine); Pityogenes bidentatus (beetle, two-toothed pine); Pityohyphantes phrygianus; Pityophthorus pityographus; Polygraphus poligraphus; Pristiphora subarctica; Rhagium inquisitor; Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii (needle blight: pine); Sacchiphantes viridis (spruce pineapple gall adelges); Sharliphora nigella; Sirex cyaneus (blue horntail); Strobilomyia anthracina; Thelephora terrestris (ectomycorrhizal fungus: pine); Urocerus gigas (horntail, sawfly, banded); Xeris spectrum (long horntail); Xiphydria camelus (alder wood wasp); Xylechinus pilosus; Zeiraphera canadensis (spruce bud moth); Zeiraphera diniana (douglas fir cone moth (Japan)); Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana

Uses List

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Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Religious

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation

Fuels

  • Charcoal

General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Dye/tanning
  • Essential oils
  • Fibre
  • Gum/resin
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Boats

Charcoal

Containers

  • Boxes
  • Cases
  • Crates
  • Pallets

Furniture

Pulp

  • Long-fibre pulp

Roundwood

  • Building poles
  • Piles
  • Pit props
  • Posts
  • Roundwood structures
  • Stakes
  • Transmission poles

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Beams
  • Bridges
  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • Engineering structures
  • Exterior fittings
  • Fences
  • Flooring
  • For heavy construction
  • For light construction
  • Gates
  • Shingles
  • Wall panelling

Wood wool

Wood-based materials

  • Fibreboard
  • Laminated wood
  • Particleboard
  • Plywood

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Musical instruments
  • Pencils
  • Toys
  • Wood carvings