Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Chromatomyia horticola
(pea leaf miner)

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Datasheet

Chromatomyia horticola (pea leaf miner)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 June 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Chromatomyia horticola
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pea leaf miner
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pupae or exuviae may be present at the end of the mines. Frass occurs at short intervals along the mines in irregular, well-separated grains.
TitleLeaf mines on Pisum sp.
CaptionPupae or exuviae may be present at the end of the mines. Frass occurs at short intervals along the mines in irregular, well-separated grains.
Copyright©K.A. Spencer
Pupae or exuviae may be present at the end of the mines. Frass occurs at short intervals along the mines in irregular, well-separated grains.
Leaf mines on Pisum sp.Pupae or exuviae may be present at the end of the mines. Frass occurs at short intervals along the mines in irregular, well-separated grains. ©K.A. Spencer
C. horticola mines on Sonchus arvensis approximately 4-5 days after initial larval activity.
TitleLeaf mines on Sonchus arvensis
CaptionC. horticola mines on Sonchus arvensis approximately 4-5 days after initial larval activity.
CopyrightD.J. Henshaw
C. horticola mines on Sonchus arvensis approximately 4-5 days after initial larval activity.
Leaf mines on Sonchus arvensisC. horticola mines on Sonchus arvensis approximately 4-5 days after initial larval activity.D.J. Henshaw
C. horticola mines on Sonchus arvensis approximately 10-12 days after initial larval activity.
TitleLeaf mines on Sonchus arvensis
CaptionC. horticola mines on Sonchus arvensis approximately 10-12 days after initial larval activity.
CopyrightD.J. Henshaw
C. horticola mines on Sonchus arvensis approximately 10-12 days after initial larval activity.
Leaf mines on Sonchus arvensisC. horticola mines on Sonchus arvensis approximately 10-12 days after initial larval activity.D.J. Henshaw
C. horticola makes small punctures in the leaf epidermis and whitish, irregularly linear mines.
TitleLeaf mines
CaptionC. horticola makes small punctures in the leaf epidermis and whitish, irregularly linear mines.
Copyright©K.A. Spencer
C. horticola makes small punctures in the leaf epidermis and whitish, irregularly linear mines.
Leaf minesC. horticola makes small punctures in the leaf epidermis and whitish, irregularly linear mines.©K.A. Spencer

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Chromatomyia horticola Goureau, 1851

Preferred Common Name

  • pea leaf miner

Other Scientific Names

  • Agromyza atricornis
  • Chromatomyia atricornis
  • Phytomyza atricornis (partim.) Meigen, 1838 (Palaearctic)
  • Phytomyza bidensivora Séguy, 1951 (African)
  • Phytomyza fediae Kaltenbach, 1860 (Palaearctic)
  • Phytomyza horticola Goureau
  • Phytomyza lactucae Vimmer, 1928 (Palaearctic)
  • Phytomyza linariae Kaltenbach, 1862 (Palaearctic)
  • Phytomyza nainiensis Garg, 1971 (Oriental)
  • Phytomyza pisi Kaltenbach, 1864 (Palaearctic)
  • Phytomyza subaffinis Malloch, 1914 Oriental
  • Phytomyza tropaeoli Dufour, 1857 (Palaearctic)

International Common Names

  • English: cruciferous leaf miner; mustard leaf miner

Local Common Names

  • Japan: Na-moguri-bae

EPPO code

  • PHYYHO (Chromatomyia horticola)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Agromyzidae
  •                             Genus: Chromatomyia
  •                                 Species: Chromatomyia horticola

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 19 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Cabo VerdePresent
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, Widespread
EgyptPresent
EritreaPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GabonPresent
GambiaPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MoroccoPresent
RwandaPresent
SenegalPresent
South AfricaPresent, Widespread
UgandaPresent, Widespread
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresent, Widespread
-GansuPresent, Widespread
-GuangdongPresent, Widespread
-GuangxiPresent, Widespread
-HainanPresent, Widespread
-HebeiPresent, Widespread
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent, Widespread
-Inner MongoliaPresent, Widespread
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent, Widespread
-LiaoningPresent
-ShaanxiPresent, Widespread
-ShanxiPresent, Widespread
-TibetPresent, Widespread
-XinjiangPresent, Widespread
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-ChandigarhPresent, Widespread
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresentOriginal citation: Tomar et al. (2004, publ. 2005)
-ManipurPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent, Widespread
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent, Widespread
JordanPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
MongoliaPresent
NepalPresent, Widespread
North KoreaPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent, Widespread
South KoreaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

BelgiumPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: De Bryun & von Tschirnhaus, 1991
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresentOriginal citation: Mesic Baric (2004)
CzechiaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
DenmarkPresent
Faroe IslandsPresent
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent, Widespread
-CorsicaPresent
GermanyPresent
HungaryPresent
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresent
LithuaniaPresent, Widespread
MaltaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
North MacedoniaPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
-AzoresPresent
-MadeiraPresent
RussiaPresent, Widespread
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SpainPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent, Widespread

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / internal feeding
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Stems / wilt

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphidius ervi Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Aprostocetus flavifrons Parasite Gençer (2005)
Aprostocetus strobilanae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Chorebus anasella Parasite
Chorebus canariensis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Chorebus misellus Parasite
Chorebus satici Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Chrysocharis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Chrysocharis crassiscapus Parasite Gençer (2005)
Chrysocharis horticola Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Chrysocharis pentheus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Chrysocharis pubicornis Parasite
Chrysonotomyia lyonetiae Parasite
Cirrospilus cyanops Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Cirrospilus vittatus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Closterocerus agromyzae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Closterocerus ruforum Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Closterocerus trifasciatus Parasite Yefremova et al. (2015)
Dacnusa areolaris Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Dacnusa nipponica Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Dacnusa sibirica Parasite
Dapsilarthra rufiventris Parasite
Derostenus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Diglyphus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Diglyphus chabrias Parasite Sweden peas
Diglyphus crassinervis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Diglyphus horticola Parasite
Diglyphus isaea Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Yefremova et al. (2015)
Diglyphus minoeus Parasite Sweden peas
Diglyphus pachyneurus Parasite Gençer (2005)
Diglyphus pusztensis Parasite Yefremova et al. (2015)
Entedon Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Euderus agromyzae Parasite
Halticoptera andriescui Parasite Ranji et al. (2016)
Halticoptera circulus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Hemiptarsenus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Hemiptarsenus indicus Parasite
Hemiptarsenus zilahisebessi Parasite Gençer (2009)
Merismus Parasite Gençer (2005)
Minotetrastichus frontalis Parasite Yefremova et al. (2015)
Neochrysocharis aratus Parasite Yefremova et al. (2015)
Neochrysocharis clara Parasite Gençer (2009)
Neochrysocharis formosa Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Omphale stigma Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Opius Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Opius bulgaricus Parasite
Opius exiguus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae India; Uttar Pradesh peas; sarson
Opius sp. nr parvulus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Opius turcicus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae India; Uttar Pradesh peas; sarson
Pediobius Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Pediobius acantha Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Pediobius indicus Parasite
Pediobius metallicus Parasite Gençer (2005)
Pediobius metallicus Parasite Yefremova et al. (2015)
Pnigalio pectinicornis Parasite Yefremova et al. (2015)
Pnigalio soemius Parasite Sweden
Pseudopezomachus masii Parasite
Sphegigaster Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Sphegigaster orobanchiae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Tetrastichus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Thinodytes cyzicus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsAir/road. Yes
Land vehiclesRoad transport/air/sea as commercial flowers/crops. Yes
MailAir/road. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Ahmad MJ, Iram Khursheed, Azim MN, 2013. A new species of Diglyphus walker (Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) on mustard leaf miner Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau) from Kashmir, India. Journal of Entomological Research, 37(2):163-166. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:jer&type=home

Ahmed T, Gupta RL, 1941. The pea leaf-miner, Phytomyza atricornis (Meigen), in India. Indian Journal of Entomology, 3(1):37-49

Al-Ghabeish I, Allawi TF, 2001. Agromyzid leafminers and their parasitoids in Jordan. Dirasat. Agricultural Sciences, 28(2/3):172-177

Allen P, 1956. Observations on the biology of some Agromyzidae (Diptera). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London, Series A, 31(7-9):117-131

Allen P, 1957a. The Larval Morphology of Agromyzidae (Diptera). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London, Series A. 32(4-6):59-56

Allen P, 1957b. Larval Morphology of some species of Phytomyza Fallén (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London, Series A, 32(10-12):171-181

Allen P, 1958. Larval Morphology of different genera of Agromyzidae (Diptera). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London, Series A, 33(7-9):123-135

Barroga SF, Barreras AB, 1969. Evaluation of pesticides for the control of pea leaf miner (Phytomyza atricornis Meigen) and other insect pests attacking sweet pea (Pisum sativum l.). Philippine Journal of Plant Industry, 34(3/4):123-130

Bene Gdel, 1989. Natural enemies of Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau) and Chromatomyia syngenesip Hardy (Diptera Agromyzidae) in Tuscany. Redia, 72(2):529-544

Bhat DM, Bhagat RC, 2010. Record of some Hymenopterous parasitoids of leafminer on vegetables in Kashmir Valley. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 18(1):237-238. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Chen XueXin, Lang FaYong, Xu ZhiHong, He JunHua, Ma Yun, 2003. The occurrence of leafminers and their parasitoids on vegetables and weeds in Hangzhou area, Southeast China. BioControl, 48(5):515-527

CIE, 1987. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 374. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Cikman, E., 2012. Parasitoids of the leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Elazyo Province, Turkey. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(12), 1937-1943. doi: 10.5897/AJAR11.1796

Civelek HS, 2002. A new record for the parasitoid fauna of Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) (Diptera: Agromyzidae): Pediobius metallicus (Nees, 1834) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). (Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) parazitoit faunasI için yeni bir kayIt: Pediobius metallicus (Nees, 1834) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).) Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 26(2):155-159

De Bryun L, von Tschirnhaus M, 1991. Agromyzidae. In: Grootaert P, De Bryun L, De Meyer M, eds. Catalogue of the Diptera of Belgium, 29 November, 1991:151-154

de Meijere JCH, 1926. Die Larven der Agromyzinen (Fortsetzung und Schluss). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 69:227-317

de Meijere JCH, 1940. Die Larven der Agromyzinen. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 83:180-181

Frey R, 1945. Tiergeographische Studien über die Dipterenfauna der Azoren. 1. Verseichnis der bisher von den Azoren bekannten Dipteren. Commentationes Biologicae, 8(10):1-114

Frey R, 1949. Die Dipterenfauna der Insel Madeira (unter Mitwirkung von H Schmitz, R Stra und L Tiensuu). Commentationes Biologicae, 8(16):1-47

Gençer L, 2005. Chalcidoid parasitoids of Chromatomyia horticola (Gour.) (Dip. Agromyzidae) in Sivas Province, Turkey. Journal of Pest Science, 78(1):41-43. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=110826

Gençer L, 2009. Contribution to the knowledge of the chalcid parasitoid complex (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of agromyzid leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Turkey, with new hosts and records. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 49(2):158-161. http://www.plantprotection.pl

Gill CK, Dhoorja MS, Hari Singh, Gill SS, 1979. Incidence of pea leaf-miner, Phytomyza atricornis (Meign.), under different agronomic practices. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 16(3):309-311

Griffiths GCD, 1964. The Agromyzid Fauna of Iceland and the Faroes, with Appendices on the Phytomyza milii and robustella Group (Diptera, Agromyzidae). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 32:393-450

Griffiths GCD, 1967. Revision of the Phytomyza syngenesiae group (Diptera, Agromyzidae), including species hitherto known as "Phytomyza atricornis Meigen". Stuttgarter BeitrSge zur Naturkunde, 177:1-28

Gu XiaoPing, Fan ZiDe, 1991. Records of Agromyzidae (Diptera) from Fujian Province, China. Wuyi Science Journal, 8C:47-49

Han GuiZhong, Li ZiChao, Liu ShunTong (et al), 2001. The ecological niche of two leafminers and their natural enemies in bean field. Entomological Knowledge, 38(1):39-43

Harris KM, 1976. Biological control under glass in the United Kingdom. Scientific Horticulture, 27(3):83-86

Heinz KM, Parella MP, 1990. Biological control of insect pests on greenhouse marigolds. Environmental Entomology, 19(4):825-835; 25 ref

Hendel F, 1920. Die PalSarktischen Agromyziden (Prodomus einer Monographie). Archiv fnr Naturgeschichte, 1918 84A(7):109-174

Hendel F, 1934. Agromyzidae 59. In: Lindner, ed. Die Fleigen der Palaearktischen Region 1931-1936. 6(2):1-570

Hu SC, 1987. A preliminary report on the main pest insects on leguminous crops in Tibet. Plant Protection, 13(6)2-3

Ipe IM, 1978. Leaf-mining Agromyzidae as ecological indicators of changes in mountain vegetation under the impact of recent human activities. Memoirs of the School of Entomology, St. John's College, Agra, No. 6:53-58

Ipe IM, 1987. Biosystematic studies on Agromyzidae from India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Animal Sciences, 96(5):573-581

Iwasaki A, Miyake N, Takezawa Y, Mizukoshi T, Iwaizumi R, Uebori T, 2008. Wind-dependant spring migration of Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Hokkaido, the northern island of Japan. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 52(3):129-137. http://odokon.ac.affrc.go.jp

Jandial VK, Anil Kumar, 2007. Insect pest status of vegetable crops in Western Uttar Pradesh. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(1):148-150. http://www.hindagrihorticulturalsociety.com

Kato S, 1949. A preliminary report on a survey of agricultural pests in Chahar, Suiyuan and northern Shansi. Peking Natural History Bulletin,18(1):11-36

KATO S, 1961. Taxonomic studies on soy bean leaf and stem mining flies (Diptera, Agromyzidae) of economic importance in Japan, with descriptions of three new species. Bull. natn. Inst. agric. Sci., Tokyo, 13. Tokyo, 171-206 pp

Kaurava AS, Odak SC, Dhamdhere SV, 1970. Studies on the biology of Phytomyza atricornis Meigen (Agromyzidae: Diptera). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 67(3):597-601

Kaya N, Hincal P, 1991. Survey studies on Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) and Phytomyza horticola Goureau (Diptera, Agromyzidae) found on leguminous plants in the Aegean Region. Turkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 15(4):241-246

Khan MA, 1985. Eulophid parasites (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of Agromyzidae in India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 82(1):149-159

Kumar A, 1989. Variations in the incidence of parasitism of Chromatomyia horticola (Gour.) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) during the different parts of the year. Entomon, 14(12):67-70

Lal OP, Naji AH, 1979. Observations on some new insect pests and parasites from the Socialist Peoples Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Rivista di Agricoltura Subtropicale e Tropicale, 73(3/4):219-232

Ledieu MS, Bartlett PW, 1983. Leaf miners of chrysanthemum. Leaflet, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, UK, No. 550:8 pp

Mesic A, Baric JI, 2004. Diptera pests on onion vegetables in Croatia. Entomologia Croatica. Hrvatsko Entomolosko Drustvo, Zagreb, Croatia, 8(1/2):45-56

Mitsuhiro S, Fan ZD, 1985. Preliminary list of Chinese Agromyzidae (Diptera) with descriptions of four new species. Contributions from Shanghai Institute of Entomology, 5:275-294

Mohammad Saeed, Falak Naz, Sajjad Ahmed, Mohammad Aaqeel, 2003. Studies on level of infestation of pea leaf miner Chromatomyia horticola Goureau (Agromyzidae: Diptera) on pea crop in selected areas of NWFP, Pakistan. Pakistan Entomologist, 25(2):227-230

Okrouhla M, 1991. Leaf miners - dangerous pests of greenhouse crops (review). Vedeckotechnicky Rozvoj v Zemedelstvi, No. 5:36 pp

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Pakal'nishkis SA, 1984. Mining flies pests of plants in the Lithuanian SSR. Trudy Akademii Nauk Litovskoi SSR, B (Biologicheskie Nauki), No. 4:88-97

Pakalniskis, S., 2000. New Data on the Bionomics and Distribution of Agromyzidae (Diptera) with the Description of a New Species. Acta Zoologica Lituanica, 10(1), 59-62. doi: 10.1080/13921657.2000.10512317

Papp L, 1984. Family Agromyzidae. In: Soós A, Papp L, eds. Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera, 9:263-343

Patel RK, Thakur BS, 2005. Insect pest complex and seasonal incidence in linseed with particular reference to bud fly (Dasineura lini Barnes). Journal of Plant Protection and Environment, 2(2):102-107

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Ranji H, Karimpur Y, Lotfalizadeh H, 2016. Halticoptera andriescui Mitroiu (Hym.: Pteromalidae) a new parasitoid of Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau) (Dip.: Agromyzidae). Entomologia Generalis, 36(2):91-95. http://www.schweizerbart.de/papers/entomologia/detail/36/87110/Halticoptera_andriescui_Mitroiu_Hym_Pteromalidae_a_new_parasitoid_of_Chromatomyia_horticola_Goureau_Dip_Agromyzidae

Rauf A, Shepard BM, Johnson MW, 2000. Leafminers in vegetables, ornamental plants and weeds in Indonesia: surveys of host crops, species composition and parasitoids. International Journal of Pest Management, 46(4):257-266; 40 ref

Robb KL, Parella MP, 1984. Leafminers: The effects of systemic insecticides on Liriomyza trifolii. Florist's Review, 26:20-21

S_ss L, 1996. Agromyzidae. In: Minelli A, Ruffo S, La Posta S, eds. Diptera Opomozoidea, Carnoidea, Sphaeroceroidea, Checklist delle specie fauna italiana. Fascicolo 75, Bologna: Calderini

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Saroj Singh, Surender Kumar, Nasim Ahmad, 2003. Synthesis and validation of IPM module for mustard crop under Haryana agro-climatic conditions. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 11(2):373-376

Sasakawa M, 1961. A study of the Japanese Agromyzidae (Diptera) Part 2. Pacific Insects, 3(2-3):307-472

Sasakawa M, 1979. Agromyzidae and Clusiidae of Nepal (Diptera). Akitu, No. 25:10 pp

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Scheffer, S. J., Lonsdale, O., 2018. A survey of Agromyzidae (Diptera) reared from leafmines on Long Island, New York; host associations, distribution data, and the description and host association of a new species. Zootaxa, 4450(1), 77-90. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4450.1.5

Shantibala T, Singh TK, Shah MAS, 2007. Insect pest complex of pea crop (Pisum sativum Linn.) and their succession in agro-ecosystem of Manipur. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology, 27(1):75-81

Sharma PL, Kumar R, 2017. New record of Quadrastichus plaquoi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as parasitoid of Chromatomyia horticola (Diptera: Agromyzidae). National Academy Science Letters, 40(1):9-11. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40009-016-0508-3

Sheng JK, Zhong L, Wu Q, 1989. Studies on the parasite complex of garden pea leaf-miner, Phytomyza horticola (Dip.: Agromyzidae) in Nanchang area. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 5(4):164-167

Shurovenkov BG, 1983. Phytophages of yellow sowthistle. Zashchita Rasteni, No. 11:22-23

Singh AP, Singh PP, Singh YP, 2006. Pest complex of Indian mustard, Brassica juncea, in eastern Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Entomology, 68(2):148-149

Singh KM, Singh RN, 1977. Succession of insect-pests in green gram and black gram under dryland conditions at Delhi. Indian Journal of Entomology, 39(4):365-370

Singh KM, Singh RN, Kailashnathan K, Rao GGSN, 1974. Succession of pests in cowpea (Vigna sinensis Savi) under dryland conditions at Delhi. Indian Journal of Entomology, 36(1):69-72

Spencer KA, 1972. Agromyzidae (Diptera) of economic importance. Agromyzidae (Diptera) of economic importance. The Hague, The, Dr. W. Junk B.V. Netherlands, xi + 418 pp

Spencer KA, 1972. Some Agromyzidae (Diptera) from the Maltese islands. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 108(1298/1300):190-192

Spencer KA, 1976. The Agromyzidae (Diptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, 5:1-606

Spencer KA, 1985. East African Agromyzidae (Diptera): further descriptions, revisionary notes and new records. Journal of Natural History, 19(5):969-1027

Spencer KA, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 444 pp

Srivastava AS, Singh YP, 1972. Bionomics and control of pea leaf miner, Phytomyza atricornis Mieg. (Agromyzidae: Dipt.). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 70(4):437-440

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Tran Dang Hoa, Tran Thi Thien An, Takagi M, 2005. Agromyzid leafminers in Central and Southern Vietnam: surveys of host crops, species composition and parasitoids. Bulletin of the Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kyushu University [Towards establishment of management practices for sustainable agricultural development. Proceedings of the joint symposium between Hanoi Agricultural University, Vietnam and Kyushu University, Japan, 8-9 December 2005, Hanoi, Vietnam.], 28(1):35-41

Trehan, Seghal, 1963. Range of Plants and larval feeding in Phytomyza atricornis Meigen (Diptera: Agromyzidae). The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 99:1-3

Wang LiPing, Du YuZhou, He YaTing, Ji Yi, Ren LiChao, 2006. Occurrence and chemical control of Chromatomyia horticola in the vegetables at the Yangzhou area. Journal of Yangzhou University, Agricultural and Life Sciences Edition, 27(1):77-80

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp

Yefremova Z, Strakhova I, Kravchenko V, Tschirnhaus Mvon, Yegorenkova E, 2015. Parasitoid complex (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of the leaf-mining fly Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Russia. Phytoparasitica, 43(1):125-134. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12600-014-0426-1

Yoshida A, Sasakawa M, 1975. Observations on the feeding and oviposition behaviour of the pea leaf-miner, Phytomyza horticola Gourea (Diptera, Agromyzidae). Scientific Reports of the Kyoto Prefectural University, Agriculture, No. 27:37-45

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Zong LB, Zhong CZ, Lei ZL, Zhu ZP, 1986. Studies on natural enemies of rape pests in Wuchang. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 2(3):118-120, 134

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