Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phytomyza gymnostoma
(onion leaf miner)

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Datasheet

Phytomyza gymnostoma (onion leaf miner)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 17 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phytomyza gymnostoma
  • Preferred Common Name
  • onion leaf miner
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. gymnostoma was first described from Poland in 1858 (Loew, 1858). Other early records are from Spain (1905),...
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    Wallingford
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    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phytomyza gymnostoma Loew, 1858

Preferred Common Name

  • onion leaf miner

Other Scientific Names

  • Agromyza phytomyzina (Hering, 1933)
  • Napomyza gymnostoma (Loew, 1858)
  • Phytomyza algeciracensis (Strobl, 1906)
  • Phytomyza palpalis (Hendel, 1936)
  • Phytomyza palpata (Hendel, 1935)

International Common Names

  • English: leaf mining fly

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Lauchminierfliege
  • Italy: mosca del porro
  • Slovenia: porova zavrtalka
  • UK: Allium leaf miner; leek fly

EPPO code

  • NAPOGY (Napomyza gymnostoma)

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. gymnostoma was first described from Poland in 1858 (Loew, 1858). Other early records are from Spain (1905), Germany (1933) and Austria (1935) (Soos, 1984). P. gymnostoma appeared to spread within Europe in the late twentieth century although the mechanism of spread is unknown. P. gymnostoma has not been reported as a pest carried in horticultural trade. One can assume it has spread naturally.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Agromyzidae
  •                             Genus: Phytomyza
  •                                 Species: Phytomyza gymnostoma

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

TurkeyPresentIntroducedInvasive
TurkmenistanPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedInvasive

Europe

AustriaPresentNative
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent
CroatiaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
CzechiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
DenmarkPresentIntroducedInvasive
FinlandAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
FrancePresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
GermanyPresentNative
GreecePresent
HungaryPresentIntroduced1986Invasive
ItalyPresentIntroducedInvasive
NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
PolandPresentNative
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresentIntroduced1992Invasive
SlovakiaPresentIntroduced1990Invasive
SloveniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
SpainPresentNative
SwedenPresentIntroducedInvasive
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedInvasive
United KingdomPresentIntroduced2002Invasive

North America

United StatesPresent, Localized
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / internal feeding
Leaves / necrotic areas
Roots / internal feeding
Stems / internal feeding
Vegetative organs / internal feeding
Whole plant / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Halticoptera circulus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Agallou E, Cannon R, Cheek S, Coolins D, Matthews L, 2004. Allium leaf miner – Phytomyza gymnostoma. York, UK: Central Science Laboratory, Plant Pest Notice No. 35. http://www.defra.gov.uk/planth/pestnote/allium-notice.pdf

Billen W, 1999. A new pest of Allium spp.: Napomyza gymnostoma Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Mitteilungen der Entomologischen Gesellschaft Basel, 49(1):37

Bouchery Y, Martinez M, 2004. A new enemy of Allium in France: the leek mining fly Phytomyza gymnostoma. Phytoma, 574:5-7

Burghause F, 1998. The leek miner fly on onions and chives. Gemüse (München), 34(3):157-158

CABI/EPPO, 2005. Phytomyza gymnostoma. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 674. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Coceano PG, Donna ED, Pizza E, 2003. Leek mining fly. 1. Experiences from the 2002/2003 monitoring in Friuli Venezia Giulia. Notiziario ERSA. Gorizia, Italy: ERSA, 16(4):45-48

Collins DW, Lole M, 2005. Phytomyza gymnostoma Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), a leaf mining pest of leek and onion new to Britain. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine, 141(1694/96):131-138

Coman, M., Cean, M., 2009. Napomyza (Phytomyza) gymnostoma - a new pest of Allium plants in Romania. Lucrări Științifice - Universitatea de Științe Agronomice și Medicină Veterinară București. Seria B, Horticultură, (No.53), 83-85.

Coman, M., Roșca, I., 2011. Allium crops protection plant management for Napomyza gymnostoma Loew pest. Scientific Papers Series - Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development, 11(2), 26-29. http://www.managusamv.ro/fisiere/file/11_2_E.pdf

Cvelek HS, Deemng JC, Onder F, 2000. Some new records for Turkish leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) fauna from Izmir province. Turkiye Entomoloji Dergisi. Turkiye Entomoloji Dernegi, Bornova, Turkey, 24(1):17-26

Darvas B, Szarukan I, Papp L, 1988. Napomyza gymnostoma (Loew) (Dipt.: Agromyzidae), an agromyzid pest on leek in Hungary. Novenyvedelem, 24(10):450-455

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

IPPC, 2004. International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures. ISPM, No. 11. Pest Risk Analysis for Quarantine Pests, including Analysis of Environmental Risks and Living Modified Organisms. International Plant Protection Convention. Rome, Italy: FAO

Kahrer A, 1998. New pest of Allium species: the leek miner fly. Gemüse (München), 34(3):154-156; 4 ref

Kahrer A, 1999. Biology and control of the leek mining fly, Napomyza gymnostoma. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 22(5):205-211; 8 ref

Legutowska H, Klepacka K, 2001. Leek intercropped with different plant varieties and occurrence of injurious fauna. Progress in Plant Protection, 41(2):544-547; 3 ref

Loew H, 1858. Zwanzig neue Dipteren. Wien ent. Mschr., 2:57-62, 65-79

Mesic A, Baric JI, 2004. Diptera pests on onion vegetables in Croatia. Entomologia Croatica. Hrvatsko Entomolosko Drustvo, Zagreb, Croatia, 8(1/2):45-56

NAPPO, 2018. Phytosanitary Alert System: APHIS Approves California FRSMP Petition for Phytomyza gymnostoma (Allium Leafminer). NAPPO. https://www.pestalerts.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=771&keyword=phytomyza%20gymnostoma

Schrameyer K, 2001. Mining pests of Allium vegetable species. Gemüse (München), 37(3):17-20

Simoglou KB, Roditakis E, Martinez M, Roditakis NE, 2008. First record of Phytomyza gymnostoma Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae) a leaf mining pest of leeks in Greece. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 38(3):507-509. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/epp

Sionek R, 1999. Effect of leek planting dates on damage to plants by spring generation of the leek leaf miner (Napomyza gymnostoma Loew). Progress in Plant Protection, 39(2):500-502; 8 ref

Sionek R, Wiech K, 2004. Parasitoids Hymenoptera reared out from pupae of leek miner (Napomyza gymnostoma Loew.) (Diptera, Agromyzidae). Progress in Plant Protection. Instytut Ochrony Roslin, Poznan, Poland, 44(2):1089-1091

Soos A(Editor), 1984. Catalogue of Palparctic Diptera. Volume 9. Micropezidae - Agromyzidae. Amsterdam, Netherlands; Elsevier Science Publishers, 460 pp

Spasic R, Mihajlovic LJ, 1997. Napomyza gymnostoma Loew - a pest on bulbed vegetables in Serbia and its parasitoids. Quatrième Conférence Internationale sur les Ravageurs en Agriculture, 6-7-8 janvier 1997, le Corum, Montpellier, France. Tome 2., 549-552; 6 ref

Spencer KA, 1973. Agromyzidae (Diptera) of economic importance. Series Entomologica, Vol. 9. The Hague, The Netherlands: Dr W Junk BV

Spencer KA, 1976. The Agromyzidae (Diptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, 5:1-606

Talotti C, Sivilotti P, Barbina MT, 2003. Leek mining fly 2. Experiences of the fight against leek fly. Notiziario ERSA. ERSA, Gorizia, Italy, 16: 4, 49-52

Talotti C, Sivilotti P, Coceano PG, Donna ED, Pizza E, Barbina MT, 2004. Trials for control of the leek miner fly. Informatore Agrario, 60(13):83-86

Vlckova H, 1995. Napomyza gymnostoma - a pest of onions in the Slovak Republic. Ochrana Rostlin, 31(1):63-68

Zandigiacomo P, Monta LD, 2002. Occurrence in Northern Italy of the leek mining fly Napomyza gymnostoma (Loew) (Diptera, Agromyzidae). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura, 34(2):265-268; 10 ref

Zlobin VV, 1994. Review of mining flies of the genus Napomyza Westwood (Diptera: Agromyzidae) V. Phytomyza species currently placed in the Genus Napomyza Westwood. Dipterological Research, 5:289-311

Zlobin VV, Drugova EV, 2002. Miner flies of the Agromyzidae family. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.7:28-33

Distribution References

Barringer L E, Fleischer S J, Roberts D, Spichiger S E, Elkner T, 2018. The first North American record of the Allium Leafminer. Journal of Integrated Pest Management. 9 (1), 8. https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article/9/1/8/4913046

Bouchery Y, 2005. Leek Leaf Fly (Phytomyza gymnostoma): Biology and Control. (La Mouche Minueuse du Poireau (Phytomyza gymnostoma): Biologie et Lutte). Journées Techniques Fruits & Légumes et Viticulture Biologiques. 91-100. http://itab.asso.fr/downloads/actes/actes_jt_fl_05_beaune.pdf#page=92

CABI, EPPO, 2005. Phytomyza gymnostoma. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 674. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20066600674

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cerny M, 2005. Additonal notes on the fauna of Agromyzidae (Diptera) in Switzerland. 112 (4), 771-805. DOI:10.5962/bhl.part.80326

Černý M, 2011. Agromyzidae (Diptera) in the vicinity of the Kerkini Lake with descriptions of eight new species from Greece. Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae. 51 (1), 299-347. http://www.aemnp.eu

Cerný M, 2012. The fauna of Agromyzidae (Diptera) in the Gemer region (Central Slovakia), with descriptions of three new species from Slovakia. Časopis Slezského Zemského Muzea Opava. 49-76. https://content.sciendo.com/downloadpdf/journals/cszma/61/1/article-p49.pdf

Cıvelek H S, Deemıng J C, Önder F, 2000. Some new records for Turkish leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) fauna from Izmir province. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi. 24 (1), 17-26.

Collins D W, Lole M, 2005. Phytomyza gymnostoma Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), a leaf mining pest of leek and onion new to Britain. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. 141 (1694/96), 131-138.

Coman M, Cean M, 2009. Napomyza (Phytomyza) gymnostoma - a new pest of Allium plants in Romania. Lucrări Științifice - Universitatea de Științe Agronomice și Medicină Veterinară București. Seria B, Horticultură. 83-85.

Coman M, Roșca I, 2011. Allium crops protection plant management for Napomyza gymnostoma Loew pest. Scientific Papers Series - Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development. 11 (2), 26-29. http://www.managusamv.ro/fisiere/file/11_2_E.pdf

Coman M, Roșca I, 2011a. Research regarding morphological aspects of Napomyza gymnostoma Loew. Scientific Papers - Series A, Agronomy. 360-366. http://agronomyjournal.usamv.ro/pdf/issue2011.pdf

Coman M, Rosca I, 2011. Biology and life-cycle of leafminer Napomyza (Phytomyza) gymnostoma Loew., a new pest of Allium plants in Romania. South-Western Journal of Horticulture Biology and Environment. 2 (1), 57-64. http://anucraiova.3x.ro/swjhbe/v2n1/06.swjhbe.v2n1.Rosca.pdf

Cvelek HS, Deemng JC, Onder F, 2000. Some new records for Turkish leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) fauna from Izmir province. In: Turkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 24 (1) Bornova, Turkey: Turkiye Entomoloji Dernegi. 17-26.

Darvas B, Szarukán I, Papp L, 1988. Napomyza gymnostoma (Loew) (Dipt.: Agromyzidae), an agromyzid pest on leek in Hungary. (A póréhagymafej-aknázólégy, Napomyza gymnostoma Loew. (Dipt., Agromyzidae) károsítása Magyarországon.). Növényvédelem. 24 (10), 450-455.

Ðurić Z, Hrnčić S, 2014. Napomyza gymnostoma Loew. (Diptera, Agromyzidae) in Banja Luka region (Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina). (Napomyza gymnostoma Loew. (Diptera, Agromyzidae) na području Banja Luke (Republika Srpska, Bosna i Hercegovina).). Agroznanje - Agro-knowledge Journal. 15 (4), 383-392.

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Gil-Ortiz R, Martinez M, Falcó-Garí J V, Jiménez-Peydró R, 2010. Recorded Agromyzidae (Diptera) species from Andalusia. (Lista comentada de las especies de Agromyzidae (Diptera) citadas para Andalucía.). Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología. 34 (3/4), 307-321.

Kahrer A, 1999. Biology and control of the leek mining fly, Napomyza gymnostoma. In: Bulletin OILB/SROP [Integrated control in field vegetable crops. Proceedings of the meeting at Chania, Crete, 6-8 October, 1997.], 22 (5) [ed. by Finch S, Hartfield C, Brunel E]. 205-211.

Laznik Ž, Bohinc T, Vidrih M, Trdan S, 2012. Testing the suitability of three herbs as intercrops against the Allium leaf miner (Phytomyza gymnostoma Loew, Diptera, Agromyzidae) in onion production. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment. 10 (2 part 2), 751-755. http://www.isfae.org/scientificjournal.php

Mešić A, Dupor M, Barčić J I, 2009. Napomyza gymnostoma Loew (Agromyzidae: Diptera) biology in central Croatia. (Biologija vrste Phytomyza (Napomyza) gymnostoma Loew (Agromyzidae: Diptera) u središnjoj Hrvatskoj.). Entomologia Croatica. 13 (2), 45-54. http://www.agr.hr/hed

NAPPO, 2018. Phytosanitary Alert System: APHIS Approves California FRSMP Petition for Phytomyza gymnostoma (Allium Leafminer)., NAPPO. https://www.pestalerts.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=771&keyword=phytomyza%20gymnostoma

Simoglou K B, Roditakis E, Martinez M, Roditakis N E, 2008. First record of Phytomyza gymnostoma Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae) a leaf mining pest of leeks in Greece. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 38 (3), 507-509. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/epp DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2008.01270.x

Spasić R, Mihajlović L J, 1997. Napomyza gymnostoma Loew - a pest on bulbed vegetables in Serbia and its parasitoids. In: Quatrième Conférence Internationale sur les Ravageurs en Agriculture, 6-7-8 janvier 1997, le Corum, Montpellier, France. Tome 2. [Quatrième Conférence Internationale sur les Ravageurs en Agriculture, 6-7-8 janvier 1997, le Corum, Montpellier, France. Tome 2.], Paris, France: Association Nationale pour la Protection des Plantes (ANPP). 549-552.

Szwejda J, Wrzodak R, 2009. Phytophagous entomofauna occurring on onion plantations in Poland in years 1919-2007. Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin. 5-14. DOI:10.2478/v10032-009-0021-z

Talotti C, Sivilotti P, Coceano P G, Donna E D, Pizza E, Barbina M T, 2004. Trials for control of the leek miner fly. (Prove di lotta contro la mosca minatrice del porro.). Informatore Agrario. 60 (13), 83-86.

Vlčková H, 1995. Napomyza gymnostoma - a pest of onions in the Slovak Republic. (Napomyza gymnostoma - škodca cibul'ovín v Slovenskej Republike.). Ochrana Rostlin. 31 (1), 63-68.

Zlobin V V, Drugova E V, 2002. Miner flies of the Agromyzidae family. Zashchita i Karantin Rasteniĭ. 28-33.

Distribution Maps

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