Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phytophthora palmivora
(coconut budrot)

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Datasheet

Phytophthora palmivora (coconut budrot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phytophthora palmivora
  • Preferred Common Name
  • coconut budrot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Die back of developing Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pods caused by P. palmivora.
TitleSymptoms on pods
CaptionDie back of developing Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pods caused by P. palmivora.
Copyright©AgrEvo
Die back of developing Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pods caused by P. palmivora.
Symptoms on podsDie back of developing Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pods caused by P. palmivora.©AgrEvo
Wilt symptoms on pod.
TitleSymptoms on pod
CaptionWilt symptoms on pod.
Copyright©CABI BioScience/Chris Prior
Wilt symptoms on pod.
Symptoms on podWilt symptoms on pod.©CABI BioScience/Chris Prior
Pod rot.
TitleSymptoms on pods
CaptionPod rot.
Copyright©CABI BioScience/Mark Holderness
Pod rot.
Symptoms on podsPod rot.©CABI BioScience/Mark Holderness
Pod rot.
TitleSymptoms on pods
CaptionPod rot.
Copyright©CABI BioScience/Mark Holderness
Pod rot.
Symptoms on podsPod rot.©CABI BioScience/Mark Holderness
Pod rot.
TitleSymptoms on pods
CaptionPod rot.
Copyright©CABI BioScience/Mark Holderness
Pod rot.
Symptoms on podsPod rot.©CABI BioScience/Mark Holderness
Pod rot.
TitleSymptoms on pod
CaptionPod rot.
Copyright©CABI BioScience/Mark Holderness
Pod rot.
Symptoms on podPod rot.©CABI BioScience/Mark Holderness
A, Sporangia: B, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia and oospores, x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 594. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleSporangia and oogonia
CaptionA, Sporangia: B, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia and oospores, x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 594. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
CopyrightCAB International
A, Sporangia: B, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia and oospores, x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 594. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Sporangia and oogoniaA, Sporangia: B, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia and oospores, x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 594. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.CAB International
Canker in branch fork.
TitleSymptoms on branch fork
CaptionCanker in branch fork.
Copyright©CABI BioScience/Chris Prior
Canker in branch fork.
Symptoms on branch forkCanker in branch fork.©CABI BioScience/Chris Prior
A, sporangia: B, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia and oospores; C, chlamydospores, x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 831. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleSporangia, oogonia and chlamydospores
CaptionA, sporangia: B, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia and oospores; C, chlamydospores, x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 831. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
CopyrightCAB International
A, sporangia: B, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia and oospores; C, chlamydospores, x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 831. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Sporangia, oogonia and chlamydosporesA, sporangia: B, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia and oospores; C, chlamydospores, x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 831. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.CAB International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phytophthora palmivora (E. J. Butler) E. J. Butler

Preferred Common Name

  • coconut budrot

Other Scientific Names

  • Phytophthora arecae (L. C. Coleman) Pethybr.
  • Phytophthora cactorum var. arecae (L. C. Coleman) Sacc. & Trotter
  • Phytophthora faberi Maubl.
  • Phytophthora hevae A. W. Thomps.
  • Phytophthora omnivora var. arecae L. C. Coleman
  • Phytophthora palmivora var. heveae (A. W. Thomps.) Orellana
  • Phytophthora palmivora var. theobromae (L. C. Coleman) Orellana
  • Phytophthora theobromae L. C. Coleman

International Common Names

  • English: black pod rot of cocoa; black stripe; brown rot; cassava tuber rot; cocoa black pod; fruit and stem rot of pawpaw; gummosis of Citrus spp.; leaf fall; premature nutfall; stem canker; stem canker of cacao
  • Spanish: cáncer del tallo; cáncer del tronco; mazorca negra; pudricion de la mazorca del cacao; pudricion del cogollo de la palma de coco
  • French: bayoud du palmier-dattier; chancre à taches; chancre de l'hevea; chancre du cacaoyer; chute de noix; gommose des agrumes; koleroga de l'arequier; maladie de la pourriture des bourgeons des palmier; maladie des cabosses du cacaoyer; nécrose de l'écorce; pourriture brune des agrumes; pourriture brune des cabosses du cacaoyer; pourriture de l'écusson; pourriture du bourgeon des palmiers; pourriture du bout

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Kakao Braunfaeule; Kakao Krebs; Rindennekrose; Zitrus Gummifluss
  • Ghana: sanko nu wa abe
  • India: koleroga disease; mahli
  • Myanmar: ah-net-sinn roga; gaing-nu-chuak; thee-pok; ywet-kyway
  • Thailand: nar-greed-yang-nao
  • Vietnam: kho than cay; sung vet cao

EPPO code

  • PHYTPL (Phytophthora palmivora)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Peronosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Phytophthora
  •                             Species: Phytophthora palmivora

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Mar 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
CameroonPresent, WidespreadPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
Central African RepublicPresentPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, WidespreadPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
Congo, Republic of thePresent, WidespreadPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
Côte d'IvoirePresent, WidespreadPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
EgyptPresentAhmed et al. (2014)
Equatorial GuineaPresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1996)
GabonPresent, WidespreadPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
GhanaPresent, WidespreadPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
LiberiaPresentPrior (1985)
MadagascarPresentPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
MalawiPresentPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
MauritiusPresentPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
MoroccoPresent, Few occurrencesPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
NigeriaPresent, WidespreadPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
RéunionPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
São Tomé and PríncipePresentUK, CAB International (1996)
SenegalPresentPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
SeychellesPresentPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
Sierra LeonePresent, WidespreadPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
SomaliaPresentPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
TanzaniaPresentPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
TogoPresent, WidespreadPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
UgandaPresentPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
ZimbabwePresentPrior (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)

Asia

AfghanistanPresent, Few occurrencesLal (1973)
BruneiPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Peregrine & Kassim bin Ahmad, 1982
CambodiaPresentLitzenberger et al. (1962)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-BeijingPresentZhang et al. (2013)
-FujianPresentZheng and Lu (1989); Lan and Ruan (2016)
-GuangdongPresentZhan RuLin et al. (2005)
-HainanPresentGuo et al. (2012)
-JiangsuPresentZheng and Lu (1989)
-YunnanPresentHo et al. (1984)
-ZhejiangPresentZheng and Lu (1989)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-Andhra PradeshPresentKumar et al. (2006)
-GoaPresentPeter and Mohanan (2009)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Kumar & Hedge, 1987
-KeralaPresent, WidespreadRangaswami et al. (1970); Senthil @ Sankar et al. (2013)
-Madhya PradeshPresentNaqvi (2006); Peter and Mohanan (2009)
-MaharashtraPresentKamat et al. (1971); UK, CAB International (1996)
-OdishaPresentMishra et al. (1989)
-Tamil NaduPresent, WidespreadRangaswami et al. (1970); UK, CAB International (1996); Senthil @ Sankar et al. (2013)
-TripuraPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-West BengalPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
IndonesiaPresentSantoso et al. (2015)
-JavaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1975)
-Maluku IslandsPresentBlaha et al. (1994); UK, CAB International (1996)
-SulawesiPresent, WidespreadBlaha et al. (1994)
-SumatraPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1975)
IranPresent, Few occurrencesErshad (1977); UK, CAB International (1996)
JapanPresentCABI (Undated a)
-KyushuPresentTashiro et al. (2012)
-ShikokuPresentGappa-Adachi et al. (2012)
JordanPresentShtayeh and Abu-Ghdaib (1994)
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
MalaysiaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1996)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent, WidespreadThompson and Johnston (1953); Singh (1973); UK, CAB International (1996)
-SabahPresent, WidespreadThompson and Johnston (1953); Singh (1973); UK, CAB International (1996)
-SarawakPresent, WidespreadThompson and Johnston (1953); Singh (1973); UK, CAB International (1996)
MyanmarPresentButler and Bisby (1931)
PakistanPresentCABI (Undated a)
PhilippinesPresent, WidespreadQuimio and Capilit (1977); UK, CAB International (1996)
SingaporePresent, WidespreadLim (1988); Yik (1988)
Sri LankaPresent, WidespreadPetch and Bisby (1950); UK, CAB International (1996)
TaiwanPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1996); Ann (2000); CABI (Undated)
ThailandPresent, WidespreadCHANDRASRIKUL (1962); UK, CAB International (1996)
TurkeyPresentDervİs et al. (2011); Türkölmez et al. (2015); Türkölmez et al. (2016); CABI (Undated)
VietnamPresentMai Van Tri et al. (2015); Dau et al. (2008)

Europe

FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1996)
GreecePresent, Few occurrencesPantidou (1973)
ItalyPresentAiello et al. (2011); CABI (Undated)
-SicilyPresent, Few occurrencesLio et al. (1987); Cacciola et al. (2011)
NorwayPresentToppe et al. (2004)
PolandPresentOrlikowski and Szkuta (2006)
SpainPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Melero Vara & Jiminez Diaz, 1990
-Canary IslandsPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Hernandez Hernandez et al., 1985

North America

BelizePresentBlack (1991)
Cayman IslandsPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1970)
Costa RicaPresentMcGuire and Crandall (1967); UK, CAB International (1996)
CubaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1970)
DominicaPresent, WidespreadCiferri (1961); UK, CAB International (1996)
Dominican RepublicPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1970)
El SalvadorPresentMcGuire and Crandall (1967)
GrenadaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1970)
GuatemalaPresent, WidespreadMuller (1950); McGuire and Crandall (1967); UK, CAB International (1996)
HaitiPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1970)
HondurasPresentMcGuire and Crandall (1967)
JamaicaPresent, WidespreadLeather (1967); UK, CAB International (1996); CABI (Undated)
MexicoPresentRodriguez S. (1972); UK, CAB International (1996)
NicaraguaPresentMcGuire and Crandall (1967)
PanamaPresentMcGuire and Crandall (1967)
Puerto RicoPresent, WidespreadStevenson (1975); CABI (Undated)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1970)
Saint LuciaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1970)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1970)
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, WidespreadBaker and Dale (1951); UK, CAB International (1996); CABI (Undated)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1996)
-ArizonaPresent, Few occurrencesMatheron and Matejka (1990)
-CaliforniaPresentFarr et al. (1989); UK, CAB International (1996)
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1989); UK, CAB International (1996); Palmateer et al. (2012); CABI (Undated)
-HawaiiPresent, WidespreadMartin (1940); UK, CAB International (1996)
-North CarolinaPresentHwang and Benson (2005)
-TennesseePresentDonahoo and Lamour (2008)
-VirginiaPresentBush et al. (2006)

Oceania

American SamoaPresent, WidespreadDumbleton (1954); Graham (1971); UK, CAB International (1996)
AustraliaPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1996)
-Northern TerritoryPresentBlowes and Pitkethley (1981)
-QueenslandPresent, WidespreadSimmonds (1965); UK, CAB International (1996)
FijiPresent, WidespreadDumbleton (1954); Graham (1971)
French PolynesiaPresent, WidespreadGraham (1971)
New CaledoniaPresent, WidespreadGraham (1971)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent, WidespreadAdair (1971)
Papua New GuineaPresent, WidespreadDumbleton (1954); Graham (1971); UK, CAB International (1996)
SamoaPresent, WidespreadDumbleton (1954)
Solomon IslandsPresent, WidespreadBrown (1973); UK, CAB International (1996)
TongaPresent, WidespreadReddy (1973)
VanuatuPresent, WidespreadDumbleton (1954); Graham (1971)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
BoliviaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated a)
-AlagoasPresentCarnaúba et al. (2006)
-BahiaPresentCampelo and Luz (1981)
-Espirito SantoPresentCampelo and Luz (1981)
-MaranhaoPresentDoihara and Silva (2003)
-ParaPresentTrindade and Poltronieri (2002)
-ParanaPresentSantos et al. (2004)
-Sao PauloPresentPizzinatto et al. (2002)
ColombiaPresentNavarrette (1965); UK, CAB International (1996)
EcuadorPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
GuyanaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1970)
PeruPresentAnon (1959); YARINGANO (1967)
SurinamePresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1970)
VenezuelaPresentChardon and Tora (1934)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / mummification
Fruit / premature drop
Growing point / rot
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / distortion
Stems / ooze
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / dead heart

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aspergillus flavipes Antagonist
Aspergillus flavus oryzae Antagonist
Aspergillus niger Antagonist
Aspergillus terreus Antagonist
Cladobotryum amazonense Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Wood hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants

References

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1975. List of diseases of important economic crop plants already reported in Indonesia. Bulletin Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta, No.14:60 pp.

Adair CN, 1971. A review of fungi reported from the Mariana Islands. Micronesica, 7(1/2):79-83

Adomako B; Adu-Ampomah Y, 2000. Finding new female and male parents for the production of better hybrid cacao planting material for farmers in Ghana. INGENIC Newsletter, No. 5:15-19; 6 ref.

Ahmed Y; D'Onghia AM; Ippolito A; Yaseen T, 2014. First report of citrus root rot caused by Phytophthora palmivora in Egypt. Plant Disease, 98(1):155. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Aiello D; Faedda R; Vitale A; Pane A; Polizzi G, 2011. First report of Phytophthora foliar blight on Florida hopbush (Dodonaea viscosa) in Italy. Journal of Phytopathology, 159(10):697-699. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Alvarez AM; Nelson MG, 1982. Control of Phytophthora palmivora in papaya orchards with weekly sprays of chlorothalonil. Plant Disease, 66(1):37-39

Anderson RD; Guest DI, 1990. The control of black pod, canker and seedling blight of cocoa, caused by Phytophthora palmivora, with potassium phosphonate. Australasian Plant Pathology, 19(4):127-129

Ann PJ, 2000. New diseases and records of flowering potted plants caused by Phytophthora species in Taiwan. Plant-Pathology Bulletin 9(1):1-10.

Anon., 1959. Principales enfermedades de las plantas en el Per£. Ca_ete, Peru: Ing_ Agr_ Consuelo Baz n de Segura.

Anon., 1970. The major pests and diseases of economic crops in the Caribbean. FAO Caribbean Plant Protection Commission .

Anon., 1979. List of plant diseases in Taiwan. List of plant diseases in Taiwan. Plant Protection Society. Taichung Taiwan, 404 pp.

Appiah AA, 2001. Variability of Phytophthora species causing black pod disease of cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L.) and implications for assessment of host resistance. PhD Thesis, University of London, UK, 200 pp.

Appiah AA; Flood J; Archer SA; Bridge PD, 2002. Search for host resistance to Phytophthora pod rot disease of cocoa, the problem of pathogen variability. Proceedings of the 13th International Cocoa Research Conference, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, October, in press.

Appiah AA; Flood J; Archer SA; Bridge PD, 2004. Molecular analysis of the major Phytophthora species on cocoa. Plant Pathology, 53(2):209-219.

Babacauh KD, 1972. Interaction between Phytopththora palmivora(Butl) Butl and higher plants. II. Variability of the pathogenic capacity. Cah. ORSTOM ser. Biol., 16:17-29 (In French).

Baker RED; Dale WT, 1951. Fungi of Trinidad and Tobago. Mycological Papers, Commonwealth Mycological Institute, 33, 123 pp.

Bircher U; Hohl HR, 1997. Surface glycoproteins associated with appressorium formation and adhesion in Phytophthora palmivora. Mycological Research, 101(7):769-775; 27 ref.

Bissesar S, 1962. A revised list of diseases of economic plants in British Guiana. Georgetown, British Guiana: Agriculture and Information Division, Ministry of Agriculture.

Black R, 1991. Diseases of cultivated plants in Belize. Review of Plant Pathology, 70(7):469-477

Blaha G; Hall G; Warokka JS; Concibido E; Ortiz-Garcia C, 1994. Phytophthora isolates from coconut plantations in Indonesia and Ivory Coast: characterization and identification by morphology and isozyme analysis. Mycological Research, 98(12):1379-1389

Blowes WM; Pitkethley RN, 1981. The occurrence of Phytophthora spp. in the Northern Territory. Australasian Plant Pathology, 10(1):8-10

Brahmana J; Sipayung A; Purba P, 1993. Content of phenolic compounds as an index of resistance in coconut fruit to premature nutfall disease. Buletin Pusat Penelitian Kelapa Sawit, 1(1):81-87, 5

Brasier CM; Griffin MJ, 1979. Taxonomy of 'Phytophthora palmivora' on cocoa. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 72(1):111-143

Brown JF, 1973. Microorganisms associated with plant diseases in the British Solomon Islands protectorate. South Pacific Commission Information Document No. 32.

Bush EA; Stromberg EL; Hong CX; Richardson PA; Kong P, 2006. Illustration of key morphological characteristics of Phytophthora species identified in Virginia nursery irrigation water. Plant Health Progress, June:1-10. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/

BUTLER EJ; BISBY GR, 1931. Imper. Council of Agric. Res. xviii+237 pp.

Cacciola SO; Pane A; Faedda R; Rizza C; Badalà F; San Lio GMdi, 2011. Bud and root rot of windmill palm (Trachycarpus fortunei) caused by simultaneous infections of Phytophthora palmivora and P. nicotianae in Sicily. Plant Disease, 95(6):769. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Campelo AMFL; Luz EDMN, 1981. aetiology of brown rot of cacao in the States of Bahia and Espirito Santo, Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 6(3):313-321

Carnaúba JP; Sobral MF; Furtado DCde M; Silva IO; Silva KMMda; Amorim EPda R, 2006. Phytophthora palmivora, causal agent of root and fruit rots of papaya in the State of Alagoas, Brazil. (Phytophthora palmivora, agente da podridão de raiz e frutos de mamoeiro no Estado de Alagoas.) Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 28(1):134-135.

Chandrasrikul A, 1962. A preliminary list of plant diseases in Thailand. Tech. Bull. Dep. Agric. Bangkok, 6, 23 pp.

Chardon CE; Tora RA, 1934. Mycological explorations of Venezuela. Monograph University of Puerto Rico. Ser. B, Phys and Biol. Sci., 2, 353 pp.

Cheng-Jia Z; Wei-Xiao Y, 2000. Study on the occurrence of papaya epidemic disease and its pathogen identification. South China Fruits, 29:4, 28.

Chowdappa P; Brayford D; Smith J; Flood J, 2003. .

Ciferri R, 1961. Mycoflora Domingensis integrata. Quad. 1st bot. University of Pavia, 19, 539 pp.

Çiftçi O; Serçe ÇU; Türkölmez S; Dervis S, 2016. First report of Phytophthora palmivora causing crown and root rot of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) in Turkey. Plant Disease, 100(1):210-211. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Dau VT; Tran CV; Pham LT; Phan HT; Dang HL; Burgess LW, 2008. Stem and root rot of Telosma cordata caused by Phytophthora palmivora in Vietnam - a newly recognised disease. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 3(1):135-137. http://www.publish.csiro.au/view/journals/dsp_journal_fulltext.cfm?nid=208&f=DN08052

de-Oliveira ML; de-Almeida LCC, 1999. Chemical control of black pod disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) with emphasis on the reduction of inoculum of Phytophthora spp. from soil. Agrotropica, 11(1):19-24.

Dervis S; Arslan M; Serce CU; Soylu S; Uremis I, 2011. First report of a root rot caused by Phytophthora palmivora on Lavandula angustifolia in Turkey. Plant Disease, 95(8):1035. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Doihara IP; Silva GS, 2003. Fungi associated with fruit rots of papaya in the State of Maranhao, Brazil. (Fungos associados a podridões em frutos de mamão no estado do Maranhão.) Summa Phytopathologica, 29(4):365-366.

Donahoo RS; Lamour KH, 2008. Characterization of Phytophthora species from leaves of nursery woody ornamentals in Tennessee. HortScience, 43(6):1833-1837. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/

Donaldson SP; Deacon JW, 1992. Role of calcium in adhesion and germination of zoospore cysts of Pythium: a model to explain infection of host plants. Journal of General Microbiology, 138(10):2051-2059

Dumbleton LJ, 1954. A list of disease recorded in South Pacific territories. Tech. pap. Pacific Comm. 78.

Duniway JM, 1983. Role of physical factors in the development of Phytophthora diseases. In: Erwin DC, Bartnicki-Garcia, Tsao PH, eds. Phytophthora. Its Biology, Taxonomy, Ecology, and Pathology. St. Paul USA: APS Press, 175-187.

Elliott CG, 1983. Physiology of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora. In: Erwin DC, Bartnicki-Garcia, Tsao PH, eds. Phytophthora. Its Biology, Taxonomy, Ecology, and Pathology. St. Paul USA: APS Press, 71-80.

Ershad D, 1977. Fungi of Iran. Publication, Department of Botany, No. 10:277 pp.

Erwin DC; Ribeiro OK, 1996. Phytophthora Diseases Worldwide. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society Press.

Evans HC; Prior C, 1987. Cocoa pod diseases: causal agents and control. Outlook on Agriculture, 16:35-41.

Farr DF; Bills GF; Chamuris GP; Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp.

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