Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phytophthora palmivora
(coconut budrot)

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Datasheet

Phytophthora palmivora (coconut budrot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 April 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phytophthora palmivora
  • Preferred Common Name
  • coconut budrot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Die back of developing Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pods caused by P. palmivora.
TitleSymptoms on pods
CaptionDie back of developing Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pods caused by P. palmivora.
Copyright©AgrEvo
Die back of developing Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pods caused by P. palmivora.
Symptoms on podsDie back of developing Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pods caused by P. palmivora.©AgrEvo
Wilt symptoms on pod.
TitleSymptoms on pod
CaptionWilt symptoms on pod.
Copyright©CABI BioScience/Chris Prior
Wilt symptoms on pod.
Symptoms on podWilt symptoms on pod.©CABI BioScience/Chris Prior
Pod rot.
TitleSymptoms on pods
CaptionPod rot.
Copyright©CABI BioScience/Mark Holderness
Pod rot.
Symptoms on podsPod rot.©CABI BioScience/Mark Holderness
Pod rot.
TitleSymptoms on pods
CaptionPod rot.
Copyright©CABI BioScience/Mark Holderness
Pod rot.
Symptoms on podsPod rot.©CABI BioScience/Mark Holderness
Pod rot.
TitleSymptoms on pods
CaptionPod rot.
Copyright©CABI BioScience/Mark Holderness
Pod rot.
Symptoms on podsPod rot.©CABI BioScience/Mark Holderness
Pod rot.
TitleSymptoms on pod
CaptionPod rot.
Copyright©CABI BioScience/Mark Holderness
Pod rot.
Symptoms on podPod rot.©CABI BioScience/Mark Holderness
A, Sporangia: B, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia and oospores, x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 594. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleSporangia and oogonia
CaptionA, Sporangia: B, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia and oospores, x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 594. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
CopyrightCAB International
A, Sporangia: B, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia and oospores, x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 594. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Sporangia and oogoniaA, Sporangia: B, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia and oospores, x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 594. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.CAB International
Canker in branch fork.
TitleSymptoms on branch fork
CaptionCanker in branch fork.
Copyright©CABI BioScience/Chris Prior
Canker in branch fork.
Symptoms on branch forkCanker in branch fork.©CABI BioScience/Chris Prior
A, sporangia: B, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia and oospores; C, chlamydospores, x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 831. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleSporangia, oogonia and chlamydospores
CaptionA, sporangia: B, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia and oospores; C, chlamydospores, x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 831. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
CopyrightCAB International
A, sporangia: B, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia and oospores; C, chlamydospores, x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 831. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Sporangia, oogonia and chlamydosporesA, sporangia: B, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia and oospores; C, chlamydospores, x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 831. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.CAB International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phytophthora palmivora (E. J. Butler) E. J. Butler

Preferred Common Name

  • coconut budrot

Other Scientific Names

  • Phytophthora arecae (L. C. Coleman) Pethybr.
  • Phytophthora cactorum var. arecae (L. C. Coleman) Sacc. & Trotter
  • Phytophthora faberi Maubl.
  • Phytophthora hevae A. W. Thomps.
  • Phytophthora omnivora var. arecae L. C. Coleman
  • Phytophthora palmivora var. heveae (A. W. Thomps.) Orellana
  • Phytophthora palmivora var. theobromae (L. C. Coleman) Orellana
  • Phytophthora theobromae L. C. Coleman

International Common Names

  • English: black pod rot of cocoa; black stripe; brown rot; cassava tuber rot; cocoa black pod; fruit and stem rot of pawpaw; gummosis of Citrus spp.; leaf fall; premature nutfall; stem canker; stem canker of cacao
  • Spanish: cáncer del tallo; cáncer del tronco; mazorca negra; pudricion de la mazorca del cacao; pudricion del cogollo de la palma de coco
  • French: bayoud du palmier-dattier; chancre à taches; chancre de l'hevea; chancre du cacaoyer; chute de noix; gommose des agrumes; koleroga de l'arequier; maladie de la pourriture des bourgeons des palmier; maladie des cabosses du cacaoyer; nécrose de l'écorce; pourriture brune des agrumes; pourriture brune des cabosses du cacaoyer; pourriture de l'écusson; pourriture du bourgeon des palmiers; pourriture du bout

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Kakao Braunfaeule; Kakao Krebs; Rindennekrose; Zitrus Gummifluss
  • Ghana: sanko nu wa abe
  • India: koleroga disease; mahli
  • Myanmar: ah-net-sinn roga; gaing-nu-chuak; thee-pok; ywet-kyway
  • Thailand: nar-greed-yang-nao
  • Vietnam: kho than cay; sung vet cao

EPPO code

  • PHYTPL (Phytophthora palmivora)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Peronosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Phytophthora
  •                             Species: Phytophthora palmivora

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 29 Apr 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
CameroonPresent, Widespread
Central African RepublicPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, Widespread
Congo, Republic of thePresent, Widespread
Côte d'IvoirePresent, Widespread
EgyptPresent
Equatorial GuineaPresent, Few occurrences
GabonPresent, Widespread
GhanaPresent, Widespread
LiberiaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
MoroccoPresent, Few occurrences
NigeriaPresent, Widespread
RéunionPresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent
SenegalPresent
SeychellesPresent
Sierra LeonePresent, Widespread
SomaliaPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent, Widespread
UgandaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent, Few occurrences
BruneiPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Peregrine & Kassim bin Ahmad, 1982
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent
-BeijingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-HainanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-GoaPresent
-KarnatakaPresentOriginal citation: Kumar & Hedge, 1987
-KeralaPresent, Widespread
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-OdishaPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent, Widespread
-TripuraPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Anon. (1975)
-Maluku IslandsPresent
-SulawesiPresent, Widespread
-SumatraPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Anon. (1975)
IranPresent, Few occurrences
JapanPresent
-KyushuPresent
-ShikokuPresent
JordanPresent
LebanonPresent
MalaysiaPresent, Widespread
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent, Widespread
-SabahPresent, Widespread
-SarawakPresent, Widespread
MyanmarPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent, Widespread
SingaporePresent, Widespread
Sri LankaPresent, Widespread
TaiwanPresent, Widespread
ThailandPresent, Widespread
TurkeyPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

FrancePresent
GreecePresent, Few occurrences
ItalyPresent
-SicilyPresent, Few occurrences
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
SpainPresentOriginal citation: Melero Vara & Jiminez Diaz, 1990
-Canary IslandsPresentOriginal citation: Hernandez Hernandez et al., 1985

North America

BelizePresent
Cayman IslandsPresentOriginal citation: Anon. (1970)
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Anon. (1970)
DominicaPresent, Widespread
Dominican RepublicPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Anon. (1970)
El SalvadorPresent
GrenadaPresentOriginal citation: Anon. (1970)
GuatemalaPresent, Widespread
HaitiPresentOriginal citation: Anon. (1970)
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent, Widespread
MexicoPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent, Widespread
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentOriginal citation: Anon. (1970)
Saint LuciaPresentOriginal citation: Anon. (1970)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentOriginal citation: Anon. (1970)
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, Widespread
United StatesPresent, Localized
-ArizonaPresent, Few occurrences
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent, Widespread
-HawaiiPresent, Widespread
-North CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-VirginiaPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent, Widespread
AustraliaPresent, Localized
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent, Widespread
FijiPresent, Widespread
French PolynesiaPresent, Widespread
New CaledoniaPresent, Widespread
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent, Widespread
Papua New GuineaPresent, Widespread
SamoaPresent, Widespread
Solomon IslandsPresent, Widespread
TongaPresent, Widespread
VanuatuPresent, Widespread

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-AlagoasPresent
-BahiaPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-MaranhaoPresent
-ParaPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
GuyanaPresentOriginal citation: Anon. (1970)
PeruPresent
SurinamePresentOriginal citation: Anon. (1970)
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / mummification
Fruit / premature drop
Growing point / rot
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / distortion
Stems / ooze
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / dead heart

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aspergillus flavipes Antagonist
Aspergillus flavus oryzae Antagonist
Aspergillus niger Antagonist
Aspergillus terreus Antagonist
Cladobotryum amazonense Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Wood hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants

References

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1975. List of diseases of important economic crop plants already reported in Indonesia. Bulletin Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta, No.14:60 pp.

Adair CN, 1971. A review of fungi reported from the Mariana Islands. Micronesica, 7(1/2):79-83

Adomako B, Adu-Ampomah Y, 2000. Finding new female and male parents for the production of better hybrid cacao planting material for farmers in Ghana. INGENIC Newsletter, No. 5:15-19; 6 ref

Ahmed Y, D'Onghia AM, Ippolito A, Yaseen T, 2014. First report of citrus root rot caused by Phytophthora palmivora in Egypt. Plant Disease, 98(1):155. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Aiello D, Faedda R, Vitale A, Pane A, Polizzi G, 2011. First report of Phytophthora foliar blight on Florida hopbush (Dodonaea viscosa) in Italy. Journal of Phytopathology, 159(10):697-699. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Alvarez AM, Nelson MG, 1982. Control of Phytophthora palmivora in papaya orchards with weekly sprays of chlorothalonil. Plant Disease, 66(1):37-39

Anderson RD, Guest DI, 1990. The control of black pod, canker and seedling blight of cocoa, caused by Phytophthora palmivora, with potassium phosphonate. Australasian Plant Pathology, 19(4):127-129

Ann PJ, 2000. New diseases and records of flowering potted plants caused by Phytophthora species in Taiwan. Plant-Pathology Bulletin 9(1):1-10

Anon., 1959. Principales enfermedades de las plantas en el Per£. Ca_ete, Peru: Ing_ Agr_ Consuelo Baz n de Segura.

Anon., 1970. The major pests and diseases of economic crops in the Caribbean. FAO Caribbean Plant Protection Commission .

Anon., 1979. List of plant diseases in Taiwan. List of plant diseases in Taiwan. Plant Protection Society. Taichung Taiwan, 404 pp.

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Babacauh KD, 1972. Interaction between Phytopththora palmivora(Butl) Butl and higher plants. II. Variability of the pathogenic capacity. Cah. ORSTOM ser. Biol., 16:17-29 (In French)

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Bircher U, Hohl HR, 1997. Surface glycoproteins associated with appressorium formation and adhesion in Phytophthora palmivora. Mycological Research, 101(7):769-775; 27 ref

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Blaha G, Hall G, Warokka JS, Concibido E, Ortiz-Garcia C, 1994. Phytophthora isolates from coconut plantations in Indonesia and Ivory Coast: characterization and identification by morphology and isozyme analysis. Mycological Research, 98(12):1379-1389

Blowes WM, Pitkethley RN, 1981. The occurrence of Phytophthora spp. in the Northern Territory. Australasian Plant Pathology, 10(1):8-10

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Cacciola SO, Pane A, Faedda R, Rizza C, Badalà F, San Lio GMdi, 2011. Bud and root rot of windmill palm (Trachycarpus fortunei) caused by simultaneous infections of Phytophthora palmivora and P. nicotianae in Sicily. Plant Disease, 95(6):769. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Campelo AMFL, Luz EDMN, 1981. aetiology of brown rot of cacao in the States of Bahia and Espirito Santo, Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 6(3):313-321

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Çiftçi O, Serçe ÇU, Türkölmez S, Dervis S, 2016. First report of Phytophthora palmivora causing crown and root rot of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) in Turkey. Plant Disease, 100(1):210-211. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Dau VT, Tran CV, Pham LT, Phan HT, Dang HL, Burgess LW, 2008. Stem and root rot of Telosma cordata caused by Phytophthora palmivora in Vietnam - a newly recognised disease. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 3(1):135-137. http://www.publish.csiro.au/view/journals/dsp_journal_fulltext.cfm?nid=208&f=DN08052

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Gappa-Adachi R, Yano K, Takeuchi S, Morita Y, Uematsu S, 2012. Phytophthora blight of southern star (Oxypetalum caeruleum) caused by Phytophthora palmivora in Japan. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 78(1):39-42. http://www.springerlink.com/content/8607 l2w54rp1973 l/

Garofalo JF, McMillan RT Jr, 2000. Phytophthora bud-rot of palms in South Florida. Proceedings of the 112th Annual Meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society, Stuart, Florida, USA, 31 October - 2 November, 1999. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, No. 112:110-112

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Giudice Vlo, Raudino F, San Lio RMdi, Cacciola SO, Faedda R, Pane A, 2010. First report of a decline and wilt of young olive trees caused by simultaneous infections of Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora palmivora in Sicily. Plant Disease, 94(11):1372-1373. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

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Gow NAR, Campbell TA, Morris BM, Osbourne MC, Reid B, Shepherd SJ, van West P, 1999. Signals and interactions between pathogenic zoospores and plant roots. In: England R, Hobbs G, Bainton N, Roberts DM, eds. Society for General Microbiology Symposium 57: Microbial Signalling and Communication. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 285-305

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Gregory PH, Griffin MJ, Maddison AC, Ward MR, 1984. Cocoa black pod: a reinterpretation. Cocoa Growers' Bulletin, No. 35:5-22

Gregory PH, Maddison AC, ed. , 1981. Epidemiology of Phytophthora on cocoa in Nigeria. Final Report of the International Cocoa Black Pod Research Project. Phytopathological Papers, No. 25:188 pp

Griffith G, 2000. Application of the techniques of molecular biology to cocoa pathology. Cocoa Growers' Bulletin, No. 52:46-57

Guest DI, Anderson RD, Foard HJ, Phillips D, Worboys S, Middleton RM, 1994. Long-term control of Phytophthora diseases of cocoa using trunk-injected phosphonate. Plant Pathology, 43(3):479-492

Guo H, Li CP, Shi T, Fan CJ, Huang GX, 2012. First report of Phytophthora palmivora causing root rot of cassava in China. Plant Disease, 96(7):1072. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Hall GS, 1997. Examination of some morphologically unusual cultures of Phytophthora species using a mitochondrial DNA miniprep technique and a standardised sporangium caducity assessment. Mycopathologia, 140(3):141-147; 14 ref

Hardham AR, Hyde GJ, 1997. Asexual sporulation in the Oomycetes. Advances in Botanical Research incorporating Advances in Plant Pathology, 24:353-398

Harris DC, Cardon JA, Justin SHFW, Passey AJ, 1984. Phytophthora palmivora on cultured roots of coconut. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 82(2):249-255

Hemmes DE, Hohl HR, 1971. Ultrastructural aspect of encystation and cyst-germination in Phytophthora parasitica. Journal of Cell Science, 19:175-191

Hendrix JW, 1967. Light-cholestrol relationships in the morphogenesis of Phytophthora palmivora and P. capsici sporangia. Mycologia, 59:1107-1111

Hernandez Hernandez J, Gallo Llobet L, Jaizme Vega MC, 1985. A preliminary study of the fungal species associated with pineapple, papaya, and mango in the Canary Islands. Anales del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias, Agricola, 28(Suppl.):171-180; [Inst. Canario Invest. Agrarias., La Laguna, Tenerife]

Ho HH, Liang ZR, Zhuang WY, Yu YN, 1984. Phytophthora spp. from rubbertree plantations in Yunnan Province of China. Mycopathologia, 86(2):121-124

Holderness M, 1992. Comparison of metalaxyl/cuprous oxide sprays and potassium phosphonate as sprays and trunk injections for control of Phytophthora palmivora pod rot and canker of cocoa. Crop Protection, 11(2):141-147

Hwang J, Benson DM, 2005. Identification, mefenoxam sensitivity, and compatibility type of Phytophthora spp. attacking floriculture crops in North Carolina. Plant Disease, 89(2):185-190. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Iswanto A, Winarno H, 1992. Cocoa breeding at RIEC Jember and the role of planting material resistant to VSD and black pod. Cocoa pest and disease management in Southeast Asia and Australasia [edited by Keane, P. J.; Putter, C. A. J.] Rome, Italy; FAO, 163-169

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