Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Allamanda cathartica
(yellow allamanda)

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Datasheet

Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Allamanda cathartica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • yellow allamanda
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. cathartica is a vine-like woody shrub included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). This species...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda); flowers. Recycling Center Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
TitleFlowers
CaptionAllamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda); flowers. Recycling Center Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda); flowers. Recycling Center Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
FlowersAllamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda); flowers. Recycling Center Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Allamanda cathartica L.

Preferred Common Name

  • yellow allamanda

Other Scientific Names

  • Allamanda aubletii Pohl
  • Allamanda cathartica f. salicifolia (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Voss
  • Allamanda cathartica var. grandiflora L.H.Bailey & Raffill
  • Allamanda cathartica var. hendersonii (W. Bull ex Dombr.) L.H. Bailey & Raffill
  • Allamanda hendersonii W. Bull ex Dombr
  • Allamanda latifolia C. Presl.
  • Allamanda linnaei Pohl
  • Allamanda wardleyana Lebas
  • Allemanda cathartica
  • Echites salicifolius Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.
  • Echites verticillatus Sessé & Moc.

International Common Names

  • English: angel's trumpet; brown-bud allamanda; buttercup flower; buttercup vine; common trumpet vine; cup of gold; golden allamanda; golden cup; golden trumpet; Guinea herb; yellow bell; yellow trumpet vine
  • Spanish: campana de oro; canario; cautiva; copa de mantequilla; copa de oro
  • French: canari; liane à lait; liane jaune; liane s'aime; monette jaune
  • Chinese: ruan huang chan

Local Common Names

  • Australia: golden trumpet vine
  • Brazil: alamanda; alamanda-amarela; carolina; collazo; dedal-da-princesa; dedal-da-rainha; dedal-de-dama; margarida; orelia; santamaria
  • Cook Islands: aramena; puapua; tiare regarenga
  • Cuba: barber; barbera; cinco llagas; collazo; flor de barbero; jazmín de tierra; malasuegra
  • Dominican Republic: mantequilla
  • Germany: Allamande; Goldtrompete
  • Mexico: jazmín de Cuba; trompeta amrialla; trompetilla
  • Tonga: pua; pula
  • USA/Hawaii: lani ali'i; nani ali'i

EPPO code

  • ALWCA (Allamanda cathartica)

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. cathartica is a vine-like woody shrub included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). This species reproduces both sexually by seeds and vegetatively by cuttings (PIER, 2013). A. cathartica has been widely cultivated as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Individuals are fast-growing plants and spread rapidly by layering. In addition, trimmings and plant fragments discarded from gardens have the potential to root easily and start new colonies in vacant lots and wild land (Francis, 2000). Currently, this species is listed as invasive in China, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Samoa, Fiji and French Polynesia and as an environmental weed in Australia. Where invasive, A. cathartica has the potential to modify native plant communities by out-competing native understorey plants.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Apocynaceae
  •                             Genus: Allamanda
  •                                 Species: Allamanda cathartica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Apocynaceae includes about 415 genera and about 4555 species widely distributed around the world (Stevens, 2012). Members of this family are characterized by the presence of “milky latex” and include trees, shrubs, and vines and rarely subshrubs and herbs (Jussieu, 2011). The genus Allamanda is restricted to the Neotropics, where it is distributed from Mexico to Argentina (Hamilton-Brown, 2008). This genus honours the Swiss botanist Frederic L. Allamand, a correspondent of Linnaeus (Hamilton-Brown, 2008). The species A. cathartica (yellow flowers) and A. blanchetii (pink flowers) are commonly cultivated as ornamentals and are widely commercialized (Francis, 2000).

Description

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Shrub or woody vine, clambering or sometimes twining, much branched, 2-8 metres in length, with abundant milky latex. Stems grayish, cylindrical, glabrous or puberulous. Leaves in whorls of 3 or 4; blades 8-13 × 1.5-3.5 cm, oblong, elliptical, coriaceous, the apex acuminate, the base acute, the margins undulate and revolute; upper surface glabrous, dark green, shiny, with a prominent mid-vein; lower surface yellowish green, with the mid-vein thickened; petioles 5-10 mm long; stipules transformed into 4 small intrapetiolar glands. Flowers arranged in axillary cymes. Calyx greenish, 5 lanceolate sepals, 12-18 mm long; corolla infundibuliform, yellow, the tube 7-9 cm long, the limb approximately 8 cm in diameter, with five rounded, revolute lobes. Capsules ellipsoid, covered with numerous spines, infrequent; seeds numerous, oval, compressed, 1.2-1.5 cm long, with a discolorous, wing-like margin (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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A. cathartica is native to South America including Brazil, French Guyana, Guyana, Suriname, and Venezuela (USDA-ARS, 2013). Outside its native range, it is widely naturalized and cultivated as an ornamental in warm, tropical and subtropical climates around the world, including Australia, Africa, China, Central America, West Indies, and numerous islands in the Pacific Ocean (for details see distribution table; Broome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2013; PIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroducedPauwels (2012)
Congo, Republic of thePresentIntroducedPauwels (2012)
GabonPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013)
MadagascarPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013)
RéunionPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
RwandaPresentIntroducedPauwels (2012)
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013)
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013)

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresentIntroducedInvasiveeFloras (2013)
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedInvasiveeFloras (2013)
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedInvasiveeFloras (2013)
-HainanPresentIntroducedInvasiveeFloras (2013)
Hong KongPresentIntroducedInvasiveWu (2001)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013)
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013)
-SikkimPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013)
JapanPresentIntroducedKato (2007)Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013)
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasiveeFloras (2013)
ThailandPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013)

Europe

PortugalPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Silva Vieria RMda (2002)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
BelizePresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013)
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)Common in forest edges along the Atlantic Coast (i.e., Tortuguero; Morales, 2005)
CubaPresentIntroducedGonzález-Torres et al. (2012)Listed as “potential invasive”
DominicaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2013)
GrenadaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2013)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2013)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
MexicoPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)Campeche, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, Tabasco
MontserratPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)Saba, St. Barthelemy
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2013)
PanamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedGraveson (2012)Cultivated as ornamental
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedStaples and Herbst (2005)Cultivated

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: Space and Flynn (2000)
AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveCsurhes and Edwards (1998)Considered a weed
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedPIER (2013)
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Cultivated; Original citation: Space and Flynn (2002)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013)
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveSmith (1988)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlorence et al. (2013)
GuamPresentIntroducedFosberg et al. (1979)
KiribatiPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013)Gilbert Islands
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedVander (2003)Cultivated
NauruPresentIntroducedThaman et al. (1994)
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedMacKee (1994)
NiuePresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Space and Flynn (2000)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedWagner et al. (2013)
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace et al. (2003)
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedPeekel (1984)
PitcairnPresentIntroducedPIER (2013)
SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: Space and Flynn (2002)
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedHancock and Henderson (1988)
TongaPresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn (2001)
Wallis and FutunaPresentIntroducedMeyer (2007)Cultivated

South America

BrazilPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AmapaPresentNativeKoch et al. (2013)
-AmazonasPresentNativeKoch et al. (2013)
-BahiaPresentNativeKoch et al. (2013)
-GoiasPresentNativeKoch et al. (2013)
-MaranhaoPresentNativeKoch et al. (2013)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeKoch et al. (2013)
-ParaPresentNativeKoch et al. (2013)
-ParanaPresentNativeKoch et al. (2013)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeKoch et al. (2013)
-Sao PauloPresentNativeKoch et al. (2013)
-SergipePresentNativeKoch et al. (2013)
ColombiaPresentGovaerts (2013)
EcuadorPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedCharles Darwin Foundation (2008)Cultivated
French GuianaPresentNativeFunk et al. (2007)
GuyanaPresentNativeFunk et al. (2007)
PeruPresentGovaerts (2013)
SurinamePresentNativeFunk et al. (2007)
VenezuelaPresentNativeHokche et al. (2008)Aragua, Bolivar, Carabobo, Delta Amacuro, Miranda, Monagas, Zulia, Margarita Is

History of Introduction and Spread

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Herbarium collections and botanical surveys suggest that A. cathartica was introduced in the Caribbean region by at least the mid-nineteenth century. It was first reported as early as 1864 by A.H.R. Grisebach as a “cultivated plant” in Jamaica, St Kitts, St. Vincent, and Antigua (Grisebach, 1864). Later, in 1873, F.A. Sauvalle reported this species for Cuba and in 1879 H.F.A. Eggers reported it as a “cultivated plant” on the Virgin Islands (Eggers, 1879). In Puerto Rico, the oldest record of this species comes from Bello Espinosa (1881) where the species is regarded as cultivated and spontaneous. In 1888, Stahl reported this species as naturalized throughout the Antilles. At the start of the twentieth century this species is described as a “cultivated and escaped” by Ignaz Urban (Symbolae Antillanae vol. IV) for the islands of Cuba, Jamaica, St Thomas, St. Kitts, Antigua, Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Vicent, Barbados, Trinidad and Puerto Rico (Urban, 1905).

In Australia, A. cathartica was first recorded as naturalized in 1945, and by 1992 it was recognized as a weed in Queensland (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). In Costa Rica, the oldest record of A. cathartica comes from a herbarium collection made in 1900 in Nicoya (Guanacaste) and by 1938 this species is described as a common ornamental plant in gardens throughout the country (Standley, 1938). Later, in 2005, J.F. Morales described this species as “escaped from cultivation and naturalized” along the Atlantic Coast mainly in areas near Tortuguero National Park and in the rest of the country along forest edges in wet forests, secondary forests, and swampy areas near rivers and lagoons (Morales, 2005).

Risk of Introduction

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Since the nineteenth century, A. cathartica has been intentionally planted as an ornamental in many tropical and subtropical regions. It has escaped from gardens and spreads rapidly into disturbed areas and secondary forests (Francis, 2000). Considering that this species has the capability to spread both by seeds and vegetatively by cuttings, the probability of invasion remains high in areas near where it is cultivated (PIER, 2013).

Habitat

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A. cathartica can be found growing in a variety of habitats including disturbed areas, roadsides, forest edges, abandoned gardens and farms (Francis, 2000). It has also been recorded growing on riverbanks, and near lagoons and swamps (Morales, 2005). In Australia, this species grows in moist, well drained soils in tropical areas, along creeks, roadsides, disturbed sites, and waste areas (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). On islands in the Pacific such as Fiji, French Polynesia, and the Galápagos, this species has been recorded growing near sea level in arid lowlands as well as in moist uplands (PIER, 2013).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for A. cathartica is 2n = 18 (Balamani and Rao, 1981). 

Reproductive Biology

A. cathartica has hermaphroditic flowers which are probably pollinated by insects. Flowers appear to be self-incompatible and seeds are rarely produced by cultivated varieties (Francis, 2000). In Puerto Rico, it has been recorded flowering throughout the year and fruiting from April to May (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). 

Physiology and Phenology

A. cathartica is a perennial species and once established individuals grow rapidly, adding 1 to 3 m to extended length per year (Francis, 2000). This species flowers and grows best in full sunlight (Francis, 2000; PIER 2013). 

Environmental Requirements

A. cathartica grows in areas with warm temperatures between 0 and 700 m in elevation. In Puerto Rico, this species has become naturalized in areas receiving between 1000 and 2800 mm of mean annual precipitation. A. cathartica is intolerant to intermediate in tolerance to shade. It grows best in well drained, moist, sandy soils rich in organic matter (Barcellos, 2002). A. cathartica does not tolerate saline soils or highly alkaline conditions, and is killed by temperatures of -1°C (Francis, 2000).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -1

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall10002800mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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A. cathartica spreads by seeds and stem segments (cuttings). The main means of spread is probably in garden waste which is dumped along roadsides and in abandoned fields and wild land. Seeds are winged and can be dispersed by wind and water. Stem segments may also be spread by waterways during floods (Francis, 2000; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSpread by seeds and cuttings Yes Yes Francis, 2000
Garden waste disposalThis species may spread by cuttings Yes Yes Francis, 2000
Hedges and windbreaksCommonly used as ground cover and for hedges and screens Yes Yes Francis, 2000
Medicinal useLeaves and roots are used in traditional herbal medicine as a purgative Yes Yes Liogier, 1990
Ornamental purposesCommonly planted in parks, gardens, and yards Yes Yes Francis, 2000

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSpread by cuttings Yes Yes Francis, 2000
MailPlants and seeds sold online www.davesgarden.com Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Francis, 2000
WindWinged seeds Yes Yes Francis, 2000

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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A. cathartica is an invasive species with the potential to alter native vegetation by displacing native species. It is a fast-growing vine-like woody shrub and in just one or two growing seasons, it can form dense colonies and completely out-compete native vegetation (Francis, 2000; PIER, 2013). Plant parts are also toxic if ingested. All parts contain the toxic iridoid lactone, allamandin, which is toxic to livestock and humans, and the sticky milky sap can cause skin irritation (Francis, 2000; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Induces hypersensitivity
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Windbreak

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Poisonous to mammals

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Propagation material

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Allamanda schottii and Allamanda blanchetii  are also commonly cultivated as ornamentals: (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). These two species can be distinguished from A. cathartica by the following differences:

  1. A. cathartica has glabrous stems and leaves that contain milky latex. Frequently this species has a climbing habit and has relatively large yellow flowers (>10 cm long).
  2. A. schottii has glabrous stems and leaves that contain a clear sap. This species has an upright shrubby habit and relatively small yellow flowers (4-6 cm long and about 4 cm across).
  3. A. blanchetii has hairy stems and leaves. This species has a climbing habit and has relatively large pink or purple flowers (about 10 cm long and 10 cm across).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

A. cathartica has a very strong and extensive root system and therefore a combination of manual and chemical methods are recommended for its management. In the case of smaller infestations, plants should be removed manually and uprooted. All plant segments should be removed from infested areas to avoid re-sprouting. Larger infestations can be controlled by first digging out all plants. Later, all plant segments and re-sprouts should be sprayed with the herbicide triclopyr. Follow-up treatment and repeated applications of herbicide might be necessary to kill remaining plants and all re-sprouts (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Balamani GVA; Rao RS, 1981. Chromosome number reports LXXIII, Taxon 30:855-856.

Barcellos DC, 2002. Plantas ornamentais tóxicas: Allamanda cathartica ([English title not available]).

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chacón E; Saborío G, 2012. Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica ([English title not available]). San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp.

Csurhes S; Edwards R, 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: candidate species for preventive control. Canberra, Australia: Biodiversity Group, Environmental Australia, 202 pp. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/publications/books/pubs/potential.pdf

eFloras, 2013. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Eggers HFA, 1879. The Flora of St. Croix and the Virgin Islands. Washington, USA: Washington Government Printing Office, 148 pp.

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Fosberg FR; Sachet MH; Oliver RL, 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica, 15:222.

Francis JK, 2000. Wildland Shrubs of the United States and its Territories: Thamnic Descriptions. General Technical Report - International Institute of Tropical Forestry, IITF-WB-1. http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/wildland_shrubs.htm

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

González-Torres LR; Rankin R; Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140.

Govaerts R, 2013. World Checklist of Apocynaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Graveson R, 2012. Plants of Saint Lucia. http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Grisebach AHR, 1864. Flora of the British West Indian Islands. London, UK: Lovell Reeve & Co., 806 pp.

Hamilton-Brown S, 2008. Allamanda. FloraBase: The western Australian Flora. https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/21926

Hancock IR; Henderson CP, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin - Dodo Creek Research Station, No. 7. Honiara, Solomon Islands ii + 203 pp.

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Pauwels L, 2012. Plantes cultivées et/ou exotiques en Afrique Centrale: R.D. Congo-Rwanda-Burindi ([English title not available]). http://users.telenet.be/cr28796/CultAfrC.htm

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Space JC; Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu, 51.

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Space JC; Flynn T, 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on Invasive Plant Species of Environmental Concern. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 78 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/tonga_report.pdf

Space JC; Flynn T, 2002a. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service, 83 pp.

Space JC; Flynn T, 2002b. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 148 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/cook_islands_report.pdf

Space JC; Waterhouse BM; Miles JE; Tiobech J; Rengulbai K, 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service.

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Vander VN, 2003. The vascular plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin, 503:1-141.

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Distribution References

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Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

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Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos., Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore, Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

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eFloras, 2013. eFloras., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria .

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer JY, 2013. Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Fosberg F R, Sachet M H, Oliver R, 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica. 1-295.

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

Govaerts R, 2013. World Checklist of Apocynaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Graveson R, 2012. Plants of Saint Lucia., http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Hancock I R, Henderson C P, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. In: Research Bulletin - Dodo Creek Research Station, Honiara, Solomon Islands: ii + 203 pp.

Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2008. New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela. (Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela)., Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela. 860 pp.

Kato H, 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium., Tokyo Metropolitan University.

Koch I, Rapini A, Kinoshita LS, Simões AO, Spina AP, 2013. (Apocynaceae. Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB4508

MacKee H S, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. unpaginated.

Meyer JY, 2007. [English title not available]. (Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire)., Papeete, Tahiti, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche. 39 pp. http://www.li-an.fr/jyves/Meyer_2007_Rapport_Plantes_Introduites_Wallis.pdf

Pauwels L, 2012. [English title not available]. (Plantes cultivées et/ou exotiques en Afrique Centrale: R.D. Congo-Rwanda-Burindi)., http://users.telenet.be/cr28796/CultAfrC.htm

Peekel PG, 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists., Lae, Papua New Guinea: Office of Forests, Division of Botany. 638 pp.

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Smith A C, 1988. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Volume 4: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones, families 164-169. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. 377 pp.

Space JC, Flynn T, 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on Invasive Plant Species of Environmental Concern., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. 78 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/tonga_report.pdf

Space JC, Waterhouse BM, Miles JE, Tiobech J, Rengulbai K, 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern., Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service.

Staples GW, Herbst DR, 2005. A tropical garden flora: plants cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and other tropical places., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Bishop Museum Press.

Thaman RR, Fosberg FR, Manner HI, Hassall DC, 1994. The flora of Nauru. In: Atoll Research Bulletin, 392 1-223.

USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Vander VN, 2003. The vascular plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. In: Atoll Research Bulletin, 503 1-141.

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Weitzman A, Lorence DH, 2013. Flora of Micronesia., Washington, DC, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm

Wu T, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. In: Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Check List of Hong Kong Plants, 384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): Plant threats to Pacific ecosystemshttp://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Contributors

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15/01/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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