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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Phytophthora kernoviae Brasier et al., 2005
Other Scientific Names
- Phytophthora taxon C
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Chromista
- Phylum: Oomycota
- Class: Oomycetes
- Order: Peronosporales
- Family: Peronosporaceae
- Genus: Phytophthora
- Species: Phytophthora kernoviae
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Chile||Present, few occurrences||EPPO, 2016; Sanfuentes et al., 2016|
|Denmark||Absent, confirmed by survey||EPPO, 2014|
|Estonia||Absent, confirmed by survey||EPPO, 2014|
|Ireland||Present, few occurrences||EPPO, 2014|
|Netherlands||Absent, confirmed by survey||NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; EPPO, 2014||Based on ongoing long-term monitoring for plant passport system and annual surveys, 336 survey observations in 2011.|
|UK||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|-England and Wales||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|-Scotland||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
|New Zealand||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014|
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Leaves / abnormal leaf fall|
|Leaves / necrotic areas|
|Stems / canker on woody stem|
|Whole plant / plant dead; dieback|
DiagnosisTop of page
A duplexPCR detection method, based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the ribosomal DNA, was developed by Schlenzig (2011) to enable sensitive detection of P. kernoviaeand to distinguish it from the similar P. ramorum.
OEPP/EPPO (2013) have published a diagnostic protocol for P. kernoviae, which involves (i) detection of symptoms in shrub and tree hosts, as well as in soil and water samples, and (ii) identification at the species level either by its growth characteristics in culture and morphology, or by molecular methods (PCR and real-time PCR tests).
ReferencesTop of page
Beales PA; Lane CR; Barton VC; Giltrap PM, 2006. Phytophthpra kernoviae on ornamentals in the UK. EPPO Bulletin, 36(2):377-379.
Brasier C, 2005. Preventing invasive pathogens: deficiencies in the system. Plantsman, 4(1): 54-57.
Brasier CM; Beales PA; Kirk SA; Denman S; Rose J, 2005. Phytophthora kernoviae sp. nov., an invasive pathogen causing bleeding stem lesions on forest trees and foliar necrosis of ornamentals in the UK. Mycological Research, 109(8): 853-859.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
EPPO, 2016. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/
Sanfuentes E; Fajardo S; Sabag M; Hansen E; González M, 2016. Phytophthora kernoviae isolated from fallen leaves of Drymis winteri in native forest of southern Chile. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 11(1):19. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-016-0205-6
Schena L; Hughes KJD; Cooke DEL, 2006. Detection and quantification of Phytophthora ramorum, P. kernoviae, P. citricola and P. quercina in symptomatic leaves by multiplex real-time PCR. Molecular Plant Pathology, 7(5): 365-379.
Schlenzig A, 2011. A duplex PCR method for the simultaneous identification of Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora kernoviae. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 41(1):27-29. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338
Widmer TL, 2010. Differentiating Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae from other species isolated from foliage of rhododendrons. Plant Health Progress, No.March:PHP-2010-0317-01-RS. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum2.aspx?id=8677
Distribution MapsTop of page
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