Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Phytophthora fragariae
(strawberry red stele root rot)



Phytophthora fragariae (strawberry red stele root rot)


  • Last modified
  • 31 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phytophthora fragariae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • strawberry red stele root rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales

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TitleSymptoms on whole plant
Symptoms on whole plantAgrEvo


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phytophthora fragariae Hickman (1940)

Preferred Common Name

  • strawberry red stele root rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae Hickman

International Common Names

  • English: raspberry root rot; red core disease of strawberry; red core of strawberry; red stele disease of strawberry; red stele of strawberry
  • Spanish: corazon rojo (fresa); corazon rojo de la fresa; estela roja: fresa; mildiu (fresa); pudricion de la raiz de la fresa
  • French: coeur rouge des racines du fraisier; mildiou du fraisier; stele rouge du fraisier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Rote: Erdbeere Wurzelfaeule

EPPO code

  • PHYTFR (Phytophthora fragariae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Peronosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Phytophthora
  •                             Species: Phytophthora fragariae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


IndiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentEPPO, 2014
IsraelPresentZveibil and Freeman, 2009
JapanPresent1965CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
LebanonPresent1969CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014


EgyptPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaRestricted distribution1946CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
MexicoRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
USAWidespread1930CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-ArkansasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-DelawarePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-IowaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-KentuckyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-MainePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-New HampshirePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-OklahomaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Rhode IslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-TennesseePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-VermontPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-West VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014

South America

ChilePresentWilcox and Latorre, 2002
EcuadorRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014


AustriaRestricted distribution195*CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
CyprusRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicAbsent, invalid record1961CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkRestricted distribution1988Anon, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003; IPPC, 2013; EPPO, 2014; IPPC, 2014
EstoniaAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
FinlandRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
FranceRestricted distribution1980CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
GermanyRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
HungaryEradicated1982CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
IrelandRestricted distribution****CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
ItalyPresent, few occurrences1972CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
LuxembourgRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsRestricted distribution1969NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
NorwayRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationRestricted distribution1958CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentMilenkovic and Sretenovic, 2006
SlovakiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
SloveniaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
SpainAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
SwedenRestricted distribution1980CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandRestricted distribution198*CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
UKRestricted distribution1935IMI Herbarium, undated; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Channel IslandsAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014
-England and WalesWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-Northern IrelandPresentEPPO, 2014
-ScotlandRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
UkraineRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014


AustraliaRestricted distribution1957CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentMcGregor and Franz, 2002
New ZealandPresent, few occurrences1950CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / rot of wood

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Chaetomium globosum Hyphae
Gliocladium virens Antagonist Hyphae
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite Hyphae

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)


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Amouzou-Alladaye E, Dunez J, Clerjeau M, 1988. Immunoenzymatic detection of Phytophthora fragarip in infected strawberry plants. Phytopathology, 78(8):1022-1026

Anon., 1990. Guideline for the efficacy evaluation of fungicides. No. 147. Phytophthora fragariae. Bulletin OEPP, 20:501-508.

Anon., 1996. Guideline on good plant protection. No. 6. Vegetable brassicas. Bulletin OEPP, 26:311-347.

Bonants P, Hagenaar-de Weerdt M, Gent-Pelzer Mvan, Lacourt I, Cooke D, Duncan J, 1997. Detection and identification of Phytophthora fragariae Hickman by the polymerase chain reaction. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 103(4):345-355; 27 ref.

Bosshard E, Schwindt M, 1997. Reporting bacterial and fungal causal agents of diseases in strawberries. Obst- und Weinbau, 133(3):60-61; 3 ref.

Burns R, George E, 1995. The use of monoclonal antibodies for detection of fungi. EPPO conference on new methods of diagnosis in plant protection, Wageningen, Netherlands, 25-28 January, 1994. Bulletin OEPP, 25: 31-37.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 62. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cooke DEL, Duncan JM, Unkles S, 1995. Diagnosis and detection of Phytophthora fragariae in raspberry and strawberry. EPPO conference on new methods of diagnosis in plant protection, Wageningen, Netherlands, 25-28 Jan., 1994. Bulletin OEPP, 25:95-98.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 1994. Certification scheme: pathogen-tested strawberry. Bulletin OEPP, 24(4):875-889

European Plant Protection Organization, 1991. Outbreaks and new records. Denmark. Phytophthora fragariae now also present in Denmark. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 39(4):184

Galletta GJ, Maas JL, Enns JM, Scheerens JC, Rouse R, Heflebower RFJr, 1996. 'Primetime' strawberry. HortScience, 31(6):1038-1042; [1 pl.]; 9 ref.

Galletta GJ, Maas JL, Enns JM, Scheerens JC, Rouse RJ, Heflebower RFJr, 1996. 'Latestar' strawberry. HortScience, 31(7):1238-1242; 13 ref.

Harris DC, 1990. Control of Verticillium wilt and other soil-borne diseases of strawberry in Britain by chemical soil disinfestation. Journal of Horticultural Science, 65(4):401-408

Harris DC, 1991. A comparison of dazomet, chloropicrin and methyl bromide as soil disinfestants for strawberries. Journal of Horticultural Science, 66(1):51-58

Haymes KM, Henken B, Davis TM, Weg WEvan de, 1997. Identification of RAPD markers linked to a Phytophthora fragariae resistance gene (Rpf1) in the cultivated strawberry. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 94(8):1097-1101; 32 ref.

Heller WE, Theiler-Hedtrich R, 1994. Antagonism of Chaetomium globosum, Gliocladium virens and Trichoderma viride to four soil-borne Phytophthora species. Journal of Phytopathology, 141(4):390-394

IMI Herbarium, undated. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience.

IPPC, 2013. Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae of limited distribution in Denmark. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. DNK-12/1. Rome, Italy: FAO.

IPPC, 2014. Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae of limited distribution in Denmark. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. DNK-12/2. Rome, Italy: FAO.

Kavanagh T, Rath N, Ri PM, 1986. Plant pathology. Strawberry diseases. Research Report 1985, Horticulture Dublin, Irish Republic; An Foras Taluntais, 34

Kennedy DM, Duncan JM, 1993. European races of Phytophthora fragariae and resistance to them. Acta Horticulturae, 348:469-482

Khanizadeh S, Buszard D, 1992. Caution required in distribution of plants of red stele (Phytophthora fragariae Hickman)-resistant strawberries. HortScience, 27(8):870-871

Khanizadeh S, Buszard D, Carrise O, Thibodeau PO, 1996. 'Joliette' strawberry. HortScience, 31(6):1036-1037; [1 pl.]; 10 ref.

Kruger E, 1995. Promoting growth and yield of strawberries. Gemuse Munchen, 31:443-446.

Law TF, Milholland RD, 1991. Production of sporangia and oospores of Phytophthora fragariae in roots of strawberry plants. Plant Disease, 75(5):475-478

Maloney KE, Wilcox WF, Sanford JC, 1993. Raised beds and metalaxyl for controlling Phytophthora root rot of raspberry. HortScience, 28(11):1106-1108

Mark GL, Cassells AC, 1996. Genotype-dependence in the interaction between Glomus fistulosum, Phytophthora fragariae and the wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca). Plant and Soil, 185(2):233-239; 26 ref.

McGregor GR, Franz P, 2002. Field management of root rot in raspberries caused by Phytophthora spp. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Eighth International Rubus and Ribes Symposium, Invergowrie, Dundee, UK, 4-12 July 2001, volume 1.], No.585:293-297.

Milenkovic S, Sretenovic D, 2006. Monitoring of soft fruit mother plantings aimed at control of Phytophthora fragariae, causal agent of root rot. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (Poljoprivredna Znanstvena Smotra) [COST Action 863 joint meeting of the Working Groups 2&3 "Berry plant quality and sustainable production", Zagreb, Croatia, 19-22 April, 2006.], 71(4):141-144.

Milholland RD, 1994. A monograph of Phytophthora fragariae and the red stele disease of strawberry. Technical Bulletin - North Carolina Agricultural Research Service Raleigh, USA; North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, No. 306:35 pp.

Nickerson NL, Maas JL, 1991. Red stele in North America. The strawberry into the 21st century: Proceedings of the Third North American Strawberry Conference, Houston, Texas, 14-16 February 1990 [edited by Dale, A.; Luby, J. J.] Portland, Oregon, USA; Timber Press Inc., 195-201

Norman JR, Atkinson D, Hooker JE, 1996. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal-induced alteration to root architecture in strawberry and induced resistance to the root pathogen Phytophthora fragariae. Plant and Soil, 185(2):191-198; 20 ref.

O'Neill TM, Griffin GW, 1987. Effect of fosetyl aluminium and captafol on red core disease and fruit yield of established strawberries. Plant Pathology, 36(3):258-263

Seemuller E, Sun C, 1989. Occurrence of metalaxyl resistance in Phytophthora fragarip. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 41(5):71-73

Shteinberg ME, Zavelishko IA, Rotarenko AP, Andronaki LS, 1991. Gliocladium roseum Bainier and G. virens Miller, Giddens et Foster and their mycophilic properties. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 25(1):34-38; 14 ref.

Simpson D, Blanke M, 1996. Eros or Emily? The new strawberry varieties from HRI East Malling. Erwerbsobstbau, 38(2):55-57; 3 ref.

Tariq VN, 1990. Factors influencing zoosporangia formation by Phytophthora fragarip in vitro. Mycological Research, 94(2):205-210

Van de Weg WE, Giezen S, Maas JL, Galletta GJ, Maas JL (ed. ), Galletta GJ, 1993. Identification of genes for resistance to Phytophthora fragariae in strawberry. Second international strawberry symposium, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, 13-18 September, 1992. Acta-Horticulturae, 348:137-138.

Weg WEvan de, 1997. A gene-for-gene model to explain interactions between cultivars of strawberry and races of Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 94(3/4):445-451; 51 ref.

Weg WEvan de, 1997. Resistance to Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae in strawberry: the Rpf2 gene. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 94(8):1092-1096; 27 ref.

Wilcox WF, Latorre BA, 2002. Identities and geographic distributions of Phytophthora spp. causing root rot of red raspberry in Chile. Plant Disease, 86(12):1357-1362.

Zveibil A, Freeman S, 2009. Methods for detection of soilborne pathogens affecting strawberry in Israel. Acta Horticulturae [VI International Strawberry Symposium, Huelva, Spain, 3-7 March 2008.], No.842:191-194.

Distribution Maps

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