Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Phytophthora cryptogea
(tomato foot rot)



Phytophthora cryptogea (tomato foot rot)


  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phytophthora cryptogea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tomato foot rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales

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Hyphal swellings (scale bar = 20 µm).
TitleHyphal swellings
CaptionHyphal swellings (scale bar = 20 µm).
CopyrightH.H. Ho
Hyphal swellings (scale bar = 20 µm).
Hyphal swellingsHyphal swellings (scale bar = 20 µm).H.H. Ho
Sporangia (scale bar = 20 µm).
CaptionSporangia (scale bar = 20 µm).
CopyrightH.H. Ho
Sporangia (scale bar = 20 µm).
SporangiaSporangia (scale bar = 20 µm).H.H. Ho
Sporangium, internal proliferation (scale bar = 20 µm).
CaptionSporangium, internal proliferation (scale bar = 20 µm).
CopyrightH.H. Ho
Sporangium, internal proliferation (scale bar = 20 µm).
SporangiumSporangium, internal proliferation (scale bar = 20 µm).H.H. Ho
Oogonium with oospore and amphigynous antheridium (scale bar = 20 µm).
TitleOogonium with oospore
CaptionOogonium with oospore and amphigynous antheridium (scale bar = 20 µm).
CopyrightH.H. Ho
Oogonium with oospore and amphigynous antheridium (scale bar = 20 µm).
Oogonium with oosporeOogonium with oospore and amphigynous antheridium (scale bar = 20 µm).H.H. Ho


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phytophthora cryptogea Pethybr. & Laff.

Preferred Common Name

  • tomato foot rot

International Common Names

  • English: black neck of chrysanthemum; blight; collar rot; corm, stem and leaf rot of gloxinia; crown rot; damping off; damping-off; damping-off; die-back; foot rot of ornamentals; foot rot of tomato; gerbera foot rot; ornamentals foot rot; pink rot of potato; root rot; stem rot; trunk canker; trunk rot; tulip shanking; wilt
  • Spanish: podredumbre del tallo; podredumbre del tomate
  • French: coeur rouge des racines du fraisier; pourriture de l'endive; pourriture du collet des plantes d'ornement

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Gerbera-Sterben; Wurzelfaeule: Tomate; Wurzelfaeule: Zierpflanzen

EPPO code

  • PHYTCR (Phytophthora cryptogea)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Peronosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Phytophthora
  •                             Species: Phytophthora cryptogea

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-HainanPresentEPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentHo & Lu, 1977; Zheng and Lu, 1989; Zheng and Lu, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-XinjiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-YunnanPresentHo & Lu, 1977; Li, 1958; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
IranWidespreadSharifnabi & Banihashemi, 1997; Ershad, 1971; Fatemi, 1980; Banihashemi, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
IsraelPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
JapanWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoPresentMatsumoto and Sato, 1979
-HonshuPresentKimshima & Goto, 1992
JordanPresentAli-Shtayeh and MacDonald, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2013
Korea, Republic ofPresentJee et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2013
PakistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
TaiwanWidespreadKao, 1978; Chang, 1983; Ann et al., 1990; Ann, 1995; Ho et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2013
TurkeyPresentÇakir and Demirci, 2012; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014


EgyptWidespreadSatiur & El Shinnawy, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentMarais, 1979; Wagner, 1940; Marais, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2013
ZimbabweWidespreadWhiteside, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-British ColumbiaPresentHamm et al., 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
MexicoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
USARestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-ArizonaPresentBrown and Evans, 1933; Linde et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-CaliforniaPresentWilcox & Mircetish, 1985; Standish et al., 1982; Falloon and Grogan, 1988; Conn et al., 1991; MacDonald et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentMitchell et al., 1978a; Mitchell et al., 1978b; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-GeorgiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-HawaiiPresentAnn et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-IllinoisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaPresentReese et al., 1991
-KentuckyPresentFlowers et al., 1973; Hendrix, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-MassachusettsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-MichiganPresentGranke et al., 2012; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-MississippiPresentEPPO, 2014
-New HampshirePresentCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyPresentWhite and Hamilton, 1935; White, 1937; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-New YorkPresentJeffers & Aldwinkle, 1984; Wilcox, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentAbad et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentRowe and Schmitthenner, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-OklahomaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-OregonPresentHansen et al., 1979; Hamm and Hansen, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentKim et al., 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-South CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-TexasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-VirginiaPresentBush et al., 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-WashingtonPresentPratt et al., 1976; Hansen et al., 1979; Hamm and Hansen, 1982; MacDonald, 1982; MacDonald, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentDrilias and Jeffers, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-WyomingPresentVincelli et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2013

South America

ArgentinaWidespreadMontis & Feldman, 1959; Frezzi, 1950; Frezzi, 1957; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
BrazilPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-Santa CatarinaPresentBoneti and Katsurayama, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2013
ChileWidespreadLatorre et al., 1991; Wilcox and Latorre, 1995; Latorre et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2013
EcuadorPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013


AustriaWidespreadVukovits, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentJamart and Bakonyi, 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2013
BulgariaWidespread****Ilieva, 1979; Ilieva et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaPresentCvjetkovic & Jurevic, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2013
Czech RepublicWidespreadDuskova, 1992; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)Widespread****Nicklova-Naoratilova, 1949; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkRestricted distributionThingaard & Andersen, 1995; Thingaard, 1995; Weber, 1922; Jorgensen et al., 1964; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
FinlandWidespreadMoreau and Moreau, 1957; Athanassiou et al., 1981
FranceWidespreadYoussef & Bergamini, 1989; Forlot et al., 1966; Bonnet et al., 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
GermanyWidespread1976Krober & Beckman, 1973; Pag, 1960; Krober, 1971; Krober, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
GreeceWidespreadChitzanidis and Kouyeas, 1970; Kouyeas and Chitzanidis, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
HungaryPresentJacob and Folk, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2013
IrelandWidespreadPethybridge and Lafferty, 1919; Shafizadeh and Kavanagh, 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
ItalyWidespreadMagnano di San Lio et al., 1987; Magnano di San Lio et al., 1992; Rumine & Infantino, 1994; Pasini et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2013; Bertetti et al., 2014; EPPO, 2014; Vettraino et al., 2016
-SardiniaPresentSechi et al., 2014
-SicilyPresentCacciola et al., 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2013; Pane et al., 2018
MacedoniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
NetherlandsWidespreadWegman, 1966; Rattink, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
NorwayPresentHerrero et al., 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2013
PolandWidespreadOrlikowski, 1978; Orlikowski et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2013; Orlikowski and Ptaszek, 2013; EPPO, 2014; Orlikowski et al., 2016
Russian FederationWidespreadKublibaba, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
SerbiaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
SloveniaPresentMunda et al., 2007
SpainWidespreadTuset-Barrachina, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
SwedenWidespreadLarson & Olofsson, 1994; Larson and Gerhardson, 1990; Larson, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2013
UKWidespread****Beaumont, 1950; Foister, 1961; Channon, 1972; Evans, 1979; Smith and Ousley, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Channel IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-England and WalesWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Northern IrelandWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-ScotlandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)WidespreadPettitt et al., 1998; Jones and Griffin, 1974


AustraliaRestricted distributionGerrettson-Cornell, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentAnon, 1958; Gerrettson-Cornell, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentStirling and Irwin, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentKerr, 1957; Davison and Bumbieris, 1973; Bumbieris, 1974; Wicks and Volle, 1976; Wicks and Bumbieris, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentHalsall, 1982a; Halsall, 1982b; Anon, 1953; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentRobinson, 1915; Cotton, 1921; Brittlebank and Fish, 1927; Washington, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentBayliss et al., 1998; Pettitt et al., 1998; MacNish, 1968; Hardy and Sivasithamparam, 1988; Kaewruang et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandWidespreadSay, 1963; Dance et al., 1975; Fletcher, 1975; Hawthorne, 1988; Stewart and McCarrison, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
Papua New GuineaWidespreadArentz, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / rot
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / cortex with lesions
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / rot of wood
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / mycelium present
Stems / wilt
Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration
Vegetative organs / mould growth
Vegetative organs / soft rot
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / seedling blight
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)


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Ali-Shtayeh MS, MacDonald JD, 1991. Occurrence of Phytophthora species in irrigation water in the Nablus area (West Bank of Jordan). Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 30(3):143-150

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Ann PaoJen, Wong InTin, Tsai JyhNong, Huang HungChang, 2012. New records of Phytophthora diseases of Chinese medicinal herbs in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 21(2):65-77.

Ann PJ, 1995. Phytophthora diseases of Compositae in Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taiwan), 5:146-159.

Ann PJ, Kunimoto R, Ko WH, 1990. Phytophthora wilt of carnation in Taiwan and Hawaii. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 32(2):145-157

Anon., 1953. Diseases of Antirrhinum. Tasmanian Journal of Agriculture, 24:366-369.

Anon., 1958. Report of the Department of Agriculture, N.S.W. for the year ended 30th June, 1957. New South Wales, New Zealand: Department of Agriculture, 110 pp.

Arentz F, 1986. A key to Phytophthora species found in Papua New Guinea with notes on their distribution and morphology. Papua New Guinea Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 34(1-4):9-18

Athanassiou I, Bonnet P, Ricci P, 1981. Expression of pathogenicity in the pair Phytophthora cryptogea-Gerbera. Agronomie, 1(6):495-502

Banihashemi Z, 1995. Identification of Phytophthora species associated with pistachio gummosis in southern Iran. Acta Horticulturae, No. 419:349-352; 21 ref.

Bayliss KL, Stukely MJ, Sivasithampara K, 1978. Lesion development of seedlings of Jarhah (Eucalyptus marizata) following stem inoculation with Phytophthora cinnamomi, P. citricola and P. cryptogea. Journal of Plant Pathology, 80:47-52.

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Bertetti D, Pensa P, Ortu G, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2014. First report of collar and root rot caused by Phytophthora cryptogea on Salvia officinalis grown in Italy. (Attacchi di Phytophthora cryptogea su Salvia officinalis L. in Italia.) Protezione delle Colture, No.5:19-22.

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Bielenin A, Jeffers SN, Wilcox WF, Jones AL, 1988. Separation by protein electrophoresis of six species of Phytophthora associated with deciduous fruit crops. Phytopathology, 78(11):1402-1408

Boneti JI da S, Katsurayama Y, 1993. Phytophthora species associated with apple collar rot in Santa Catarina State. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 18(2):206-212

Bonnet P, Ricci P, Mercier S, 1980. Gerbera wilt caused by Phytophthora cryptogea Pethybr. and Laff. Diagnosis by isolation and rapid determination from plant material. Annales de Phytopathologie, 12(2):109-118

Brittlebank CC, Fish S, 1927. A garden fungus disease. A wilt of tomatoes, Iceland poppies, and other gardera plants in Victoria caused by the fungus Phytophthora cryptogea (Pethyb. & Lafferty). Journal of Agriculture (Victoria), 25:380-381.

Brown JG, Evans MM, 1933. A Phytophthora rot of waternelon. Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, 51:45-65.

Bumbieris M, 1974. Characteristics of two Phytophthora species. Australian Journal of Botany, 22(4):655-660

Bumbieris M, 1978. Saprophytic colonization of dead organic matter by Phytophthora cryptogea. Australian Journal of Plant Pathology, 10:165.

Bumbieris M, 1979. Aspects of the biology of Phytophthora cryptogea. Australian Journal of Botany, 27(1):11-16

Bush EA, Hong CX, Stromberg EL, 2003. Fluctuations of Phytophthora and Pythium spp. in components of a recycling irrigation system. Plant Disease, 87(12):1500-1506.

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Cacciola SO, Magnano di san Lio G, Pane A, 1990. Electrohphoretic study of three related Phytophthora species. EPPO Bulletin/Bulletin OEPP, 29:47-58.

Cacciola SO, Pane A, Raudino F, Davino S, 2002. First report of root and crown rot of sage caused by Phytophthora cryptogea in Italy. Plant Disease, 86(10):1176.

Çakir E, Demirci F, 2012. First report of Phytophthora cryptogea on potato tubers in Turkey. Plant Disease, 96(8):1224-1225.

Chang HS, 1983. Crop diseases incited by Phytophthora fungi in Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 25(4):231-237

Chitzanidis A, Kouyeas H, 1970. Notes on Greek species of Phytophthora. II. Ann. Inst. Phytopathol. Benaki, N.S., 9:267-274.

CMI, 1985. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 99. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Conn KE, Gubler WD, Mircetich SM, Hasey JK, 1991. Pathogenicity and relative virulence of nine Phytophthora spp. from kiwifruit. Phytopathology, 81(9):974-979

Cooke DEL, Duncan JM, 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of Phytophthora species based on ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene repeat. Mycological Research, 101(6):667-677; 46 ref.

Cotton AD, 1921. Report of the occurrence of insect and fungus pests on plants in England and Wales for the year 1919. Ministry of Agric. Fish. Misc. Publ., 33:26-68.

Crawford AR, Bassam BJ, Drenth A, Maclean DJ, Irwin JAG, 1996. Evolutionary relationships among Phytophthora species deduced from rDNA sequence analysis. Mycological Research, 100(4):437-443; 44 ref.

Csinos A, Hendrix JW, 1977. Laminar necrosis, growth inhibition, and death of tobacco plants caused by toxic extracts of Phytophthora cryptogea. Phytopathology, 67(4):434-438

Csinos A, Hendrix JW, 1977. Nonparasitic stunting of tobacco plants by Phytophthora cryptogea. Canadian Journal of Botany, 55(1):26-29

Cvjetkovic B, Jurjevic Z, 1993. Occurrence of Phytophthora species in Croatia. Fragmenta Phytomedica et Herbologica, 21(1):45-56

Dance MH, Newhook FJ, Cole JS, 1975. Bioassay of Phytophthora spp. in soil. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(6):523-527

Davison EM, Bumbieris M, 1973. Phytophthora and Pythium spp. from Pine plantations in South Australia. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 26(1):163-169

Drilias MJ, Jeffers SN, 1991. Influence of flooding on pathogenicity of Phytophthora spp. to cranberrry. Phytopathology, 81:218.

Duniway IM, McKeen CD, 1987. Dispersal of Phytophthora cryptogea zoospores in soils and glass microbeads by water flow. Phytopathology, 72:1744.

Duniway JM, 1976. Movement of zoospores of Phytophthora cryptogea in soils of various textures and matric potentials. Phytopathology, 66(7):877-882

Duskova E, 1992. Efficacy of the biological fungicide Supresivit based on Trichoderma harzianum against Phytophthora cryptogea. Zahradnictvi, 19(3):223-230

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Ershad D, 1971. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Phytophthora Arten in Iran und ihrer Phytopathologischen Bedeutung. Mitt. Biol. Bundesanst. Land u. Forestw. (Berl. - Dahlem) 140.

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Evans SG, 1979. Susceptibility of plants to fungal pathogens when grown by the nutrient-film technique (NFT). Plant Pathology, 28(1):45-48

Falloon PG, Grogan RG, 1988. Isolation, distribution, pathogenicity and identification of Phytophthora spp. on asparagus in California. Plant Disease, 72(6):495-497

Fatemi J, 1980. The role of Phytophthora species in almond decline in Iran. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 99(2):97-100

Fletcher WA, 1975. Growing Tamarillos. N.Z. Minist. Agric. Fish. Bull., 306.

Flowers RA, Erwin DC, Hendrix JW, 1973. Isolation of Phytophthora cryptogea from bean in Kentucky. Plant Disease Reporter, 57:90-191.

Foister CE, 1961. The economic plant diseases of Scotland: a survey and check list covering the years 1924-1957. Technical Bulletin, Department of Agriculture Scotland, No. 1, 209 pp.

Forlot P, Harranger J, Payen J, Schwinn FJ, 1966. A new causal agent of heart rot of foliage of endives [Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum Hegi]. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 56:1-18.

Frezzi MJ, 1950. Las especies de `Phytophthora' en la Argentina. Revista de Investigaciones agrfcolas B., Bueno Aires, 4:47-133.

Frezzi MJ, 1957. Phytophthora cryptogea, cause of 'Populus simonii' in Mendoza [Argentina]. Rev. Argent. Agron., 24:136-143.

Gerettson-Cornell L, 1989. A compendium and classification of the species of the genus Phytophthora de Bary by the canons of traditional taxonomy. Technical Paper - Forestry Commission of NSW, No. 45:103 pp.

Gerrettson-Cornell L, 1979. Notes on the morphology of five isolates of Phytophthora cryptogea Pethyb. and Laff. from Australia. Phyton, Argentina, 37(2):105-118

Gerrettson-Cornell L, 1980. Notes on the morphology of some isolates of Phytophthora from Australia. Cryptogamie Mycologie, 1(2):139-154

Granke LL, Harlan BR, Naegele RP, Hausbeck MK, 2012. First report of root and crown rot of wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum.) caused by Phytophthora cryptogea in Michigan. Plant Disease, 96(9):1379.

Halsall DM, 1976. Specificity of cytoplasmic and cell-wall antigens from four species of Phytophthora. Journal of General Microbiology, 94(1):149-158

Halsall DM, 1982. A forest soil suppressive to Phytophthora cinnamomi and conducive to Phytophthora cryptogea. I. Survival, germination and infectivity of mycelium and chlamydospores. Australian Journal of Botany, 30(1):11-25

Halsall DM, 1982. A forest soil suppressive to Phytophthora cinnamomi and conducive to Phytophthora cryptogea. II. Suppression of sporulation. Australian Journal of Botany, 30(1):27-37

Hamm PB, Hansen EM, 1982. Pathogenicity of Phytophthora species to Pacific Northwest conifers. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 12(3):167-174

Hamm PB, Hansen EM, Sutherland JR, 1985. Phytophthora cryptogea and P. drechsleri associated with root-rotted Douglas-fir seedlings in British Columbia. Plant Disease, 69(4):361

Hansen EM, Hamm PB, Julis AJ, Roth LF, 1979. Isolation, incidence and management of Phytophthora in forest tree nurseries in the Pacific Northwest. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(7):607-611

Hardy GE, Sivasithamparam K, 1988. Phytophthora spp. associated with container-grown plants in nurseries in Western Australia. Plant Disease, 72(5):435-437

Hardy GEStJ, Sivasithamparam K, 1991. Suppression of Phytophthora root rot by a composted Eucalyptus bark mix. Australian Journal of Botany, 39(2):153-159

Hawthorne HT, 1988. Fungi causing storage rots of Cucurbita spp,. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 16:151-157.

Hendrix JW, 1976. Inhibition of growth of tobacco plants by Phytophthora cryptogea. Tob. Sci., 20:151-153.

Herrero ML, Hermansen A, Elen ON, 2003. Occurrence of Pythium spp. and Phytophthora spp. in Norwegian greenhouses and their pathogenicity on cucumber seedlings. Journal of Phytopathology, 151(1):36-41.

Hickman CJ, 1958. Phytophthora -Plant destroyer. Transactions British Mycological Society, 41:1-13.

Ho HH, Ann PJ, Chang HS, 1995. The genus Phytophthora in Taiwan. Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica (Taiwan), Monograph series 15.

Ho HH, Jong SC, 1986. A comparison between Phytophthora cryptogea and P. drechsleri. Mycotaxon, 27:289-319

Ho HH, Jong SC, 1991. Species concepts of Phytophthora cryptogea and P. drechsleri. Mycotaxon, 40:35-39

Ho HH, Lu JY, 1997. A synopsis of the occurrence and pathogenicity of Phytophthora species in mainland China. Mycopathologia, 138(3):143-161; 228 ref.

Hoitink HAJ, Powell CC Jr, 1990. Fighting Phytophthora - a guide to combating Phytophthora root rot and dieback in ericaceous crops. American Nurseryman, 171(10):67-73

Ilieva E, 1979. Phytophthora cryptogea Pethyb. et Laff., a new pathogen on tomato, pepper and cucumber in Bulgaria. Gradinarska i Lozarska Nauka, 16(4):58-64

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