Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phytophthora capsici
(stem and fruit rot of Capsicum)

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Datasheet

Phytophthora capsici (stem and fruit rot of Capsicum)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phytophthora capsici
  • Preferred Common Name
  • stem and fruit rot of Capsicum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleSymptoms on chilli fruit
Caption
Copyright©AgrEvo
Symptoms on chilli fruit©AgrEvo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phytophthora capsici Leonian

Preferred Common Name

  • stem and fruit rot of Capsicum

International Common Names

  • English: blight of pepper; brown rot of watermelon; fruit decay of squash; fruit rot of Capsicum; leaf blight of cucumber; leaf blight of tomato; pepper blight; pepper root rot; Phytophthora blight; root rot of cucumber; root rot of pepper; root rot of tomato; soft rot of cucurbit fruits; soft rot of tomato; soft rot of tomato and cucurbits
  • Spanish: pudricion del pie: pimiento; tristeza del Chile
  • French: mildiou du poivron; pourriture du fruit

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Faeule: Gurkengewaechse; Faeule: Paprika; Faeule: Tomate; Wurzelbrand: Pfeffer; Wurzelbrand: Tomate

EPPO code

  • PHYTCP (Phytophthora capsici)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Peronosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Phytophthora
  •                             Species: Phytophthora capsici

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BotswanaPresentLabuschagne et al. (2003)
EgyptPresentMosa et al. (2002)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020); Herb IMI (Undated)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020); Herb IMI (Undated)
South AfricaPresentThompson et al. (1994)

Asia

ChinaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-AnhuiPresentQian ZhongHai et al. (2006)
-BeijingPresentGui XiaoLan et al. (2009)
-FujianPresentSun et al. (2008)
-GuangdongPresentSun WenXiu et al. (2004); Cheng et al. (2014)
-HainanPresentZeng HuiCai et al. (2009)
-HebeiPresentGui XiaoLan et al. (2009)
-JiangsuPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
-LiaoningPresentZhu Hui et al. (2007)
-ShandongPresentSun et al. (2008)
-ShanxiPresentGui XiaoLan et al. (2009)
-YunnanPresentSun Yan et al. (2006)
-ZhejiangPresentSun WenXiu et al. (2004)
IndiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Andhra PradeshPresentKumar and Kumar (2004)
-Himachal PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020); Herb IMI (Undated)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentDar et al. (2004)
-KarnatakaPresentHerb IMI (Undated)
-KeralaPresentHerb IMI (Undated)
-West BengalPresentSit et al. (2002)
IndonesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020); Herb IMI (Undated)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020); Herb IMI (Undated)
IsraelAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)UK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020); Herb IMI (Undated)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
LaosPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Callaghan et al. (2016)
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
MalaysiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020); Herb IMI (Undated)
-SabahPresentHerb IMI (Undated)
-SarawakPresentHerb IMI (Undated)
MongoliaPresentGui XiaoLan et al. (2009)
North KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentChaudhry et al. (1995)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020); Herb IMI (Undated)
VietnamPresentTruong et al. (2008)

Europe

BulgariaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)First reported: 197*
FrancePresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1990); Garibaldi et al. (2012); EPPO (2020); Herb IMI (Undated)
-SardiniaPresentEPPO (2020)
-SicilyPresentTurtulici (2006)
NorwayPresentHerrero et al. (2008)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Russia (Europe)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Southern RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1990)
SerbiaPresentEPPO (2020)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentUK, CAB International (1990)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1990); Gómez et al. (2013); EPPO (2020)

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-British ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentAnderson and Garton (2000)
Costa RicaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
Dominican RepublicPresentMatsuda et al. (1994)
El SalvadorPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
GuatemalaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020); Herb IMI (Undated)
PanamaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020); Herb IMI (Undated)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1990); Ali et al. (2017); EPPO (2020); Herb IMI (Undated)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020); Herb IMI (Undated)
-ArkansasPresentWasilwa et al. (1995)
-CaliforniaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
-ColoradoPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
-ConnecticutPresentLaMondia et al. (2010)
-DelawarePresentDavidson et al. (2002)
-FloridaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
-GeorgiaPresentCandole et al. (2007); EPPO (2020)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
-IllinoisPresentTian and Babadoost (2004)
-LouisianaPresentEPPO (2020)
-MarylandPresentDavidson et al. (2002)
-MichiganPresentLamour and Hausbeck (2003)
-MississippiPresentEPPO (2020)
-MissouriPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
-New JerseyPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
-New MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentEPPO (2020); McGrath et al. (2011)
-North CarolinaPresentParra and Ristaino (2001); EPPO (2020)
-OhioPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
-South CarolinaPresentKeinath (2007); Kousik et al. (2015); EPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
-VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

Federated States of MicronesiaPresentEPPO (2020)
PalauPresentEPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020); Herb IMI (Undated)
BoliviaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-BahiaPresentLuz et al. (2003)
-Espirito SantoPresentLuz et al. (2003)
-Minas GeraisPresentLuz et al. (2003)
-ParaPresentHerb IMI (Undated)
-Santa CatarinaPresentBlum et al. (2002)
-Sao PauloPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
ChilePresentBesoain et al. (1996)
ColombiaPresentEPPO (2020)
PeruPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Stems / dieback
Stems / ooze

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus polymyxa Pathogen
Burkholderia cepacia Antagonist Korea Republic
Cladobotryum amazonense Pathogen
Pantoea agglomerans Antagonist
Trichoderma hamatum Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist Korea Republic

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Ali, N., Ramdass, A. C., Latchoo, R. K., Rampersad, S. N., 2017. First report of Phytophthora capsici associated with phytophthora blight of papaya in Trinidad., 101(10), 1827. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/pdis-05-17-0706-pdn

Anandaraj M, Ramana KV, Sarma YR, 1996. Sequential inoculation of Phytophthora capsici, Radopholus similis and Meloidogyne incognita in causing slow decline of black pepper. Indian Phytopathology, 49(3):297-299; 9 ref.

Anandaraj M, Sarma YR, 1994. Biological control of black pepper diseases. Indian Cocoa, Arecanut and Spices Journal, 18(1):22-23

Anderson TR, Garton R, 2000. First report of blight of field peppers caused by Phytophthora capsici in Ontario. Plant Disease, 84(6):705.

Appiah AA, Flood J, Archer SA, Bridge PD, 2004. Molecular analysis of the major Phytophthora species on cocoa. Plant Pathology, 53(2):209-219.

Besoain X, Gonzßles M, Latorre BA, Wilcox WF, 1996. Phytophthora capsici associated with crown rot and blight of zucchini in Chile. Fitopatologi^acute~a, 31(2):148-151; 16 ref.

Blum LEB, Kothe DM, Simmler AO, Prado Gdo, Amarante CVTdo, 2002. Management of cucumber damping-off by chicken manure and pine bark as soil amendments. (Manejo do tombamento em pepino pela adição ao solo de cama de aviário e casca de pinus.) Revista de Ciencias Agroveterinarias , 1(1):33-40. http://www.cav.udesc.br

Bowers JH, Martin FN, Tooley PW, Luz EDMN, 2007. Genetic and morphological diversity of temperate and tropical isolates of Phytophthora capsici. Phytopathology, 97(4):492-503.

Bracy RP, Hobbs HA, Dufresne D, 1996. Phytophthora blight in bell pepper - can it be controlled?. Louisiana Agriculture, 39(3):18-19.

Cafe-Filho AC, Duniway JM, Davis RM, 1995. Effects of the frequency of furrow irrigation on root and fruit rots of squash caused by Phytophthora capsici. Plant Disease, 79(1):44-48

CafT-Filho AC, Duniway JM, 1996. Effect of location of drip irrigation emitters and position of Phytophthora capsici infections in roots on Phytophthora root rot of pepper. Phytopathology, 86(12):1364-1369; 24 ref.

Candole BL, Csinos AS, Wang D, 2007. Concentrations in soil and efficacy of drip-applied 1,3-D+chloropicrin and metam sodium in plastic-mulched sandy soil beds. Crop Protection, 26(12):1801-1809. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

Chaudhry MNA, Akhtar AS, Khan RAA, 1995. Phytophthora problem on chillies and its control. Capsicum & Eggplant Newsletter, No. 14:62-64.

Chávez-Alfaro JJ, Zavaleta-Mejía E, Téliz Ortiz D, 1995. Integrated control of blight in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by the fungus Phytophthora capsici Leo., in the Valsequillo region, Puebla, Mexico. Fitopatología, 30(1):47-55; 30 ref.

Cheng BP, Lu LM, Peng AT, Song XB, Ling JF, Chen X, 2014. First report of foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici on Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Nian Ju in Guangdong, China. Plant Disease, 98(6):845. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Chowdappa P, Brayford D, Smith J, Flood J, 2003. .

Chowdappa P, Chandramohanan R, 1995. Electrophoretic protein patterns of three species of Phytophthora associated with black pod disease of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). Journal of Biosciences, 20(5):637-644; 22 ref.

Chowdappa P, Chandramohanan R, 1997. Occurrence and distribution of mating types of Phytophthora species causing black pod disease of cocoa. Indian Phytopathology, 50(2):256-260; 18 ref.

Daniell IR, Falk CL, 1994. Economic comparison of Phytophthora root rot control methods. Crop Protection, 13(5):331-336

Dar GM, Dar GH, Baba RA, Munshi NA, 2004. Causes and management of tomato fruit rots in Kashmir. Applied Biological Research, 6(1/2):22-26. http://www.indianjournals.com

Davidson CR, Carroll RB, Evans TA, Mulrooney RP, Kim SH, 2002. First report of Phytophthora capsici infecting lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) in the Mid-Atlantic Region. Plant Disease, 86(9):1049.

Divinagracia GG, 1969. Sporangial and oospore formation by Phytophthora capsici. Further studies on infection and pathogenicity by Phytophthora capsici. Philippine Agriculture, 53:148-165.

Egea C, Alcßzar MD, Candela ME, 1996. Capsidiol: its role in the resistance of Capsicum annuum to Phytophthora capsici. Physiologia Plantarum, 98(4):737-742; 13 ref.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Garibaldi A, Gilardi G, Baudino M, Ortu G, Gullino ML, 2012. Phytophthora capsici: a soilborne pathogen dangerous on grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum × S. hirsutum) in Italy. Plant Disease, 96(12):1830-1831. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Gómez J, Pérez A, Serrano Y, Aguilar MI, Gómez R, 2013. Phytophthora crown and root rot of zucchini squash in Almería, Spain. Plant Disease, 97(9):1249. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Gui XiaoLan, Meng QingXiao, Bi Yang, Wu PengFei, Liu XiLi, 2009. Baseline sensitivity and laboratory mutants of Phytophthora capsici resistant to dimethomorph. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 39(6):630-637. http://zwblxb.periodicals.net.cn/default.html

Hassan F, Khan M, Jan M, 1994. Isolation techniques for chillies root rot pathogen. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 10(5):581-587; 18 ref.

Henz GP, Lima MF, 1994. Evaluation of factors affecting the reaction of Cucurbita spp. to Phytophthora capsici. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 19(4):560-565; 16 ref.

Herrero ML, Brurberg MB, Hermansen A, 2008. First report of crown and root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici on hydroponically grown cucumbers in Norway. Plant Disease, 92(7):1138-1139. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

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Jones JP, McGovern RJ, 1994. Effect of temperature and fungicides on the development of Phytophthora blight and fruit rot of squash. 107th Annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society, Orlando, Florida, USA, 30 October-1 November, 1994. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 107:147-150.

Keinath AP, 2007. Sensitivity of populations of Phytophthora capsici from South Carolina to mefenoxam, dimethomorph, zoxamide, and cymoxanil. Plant Disease, 91(6):743-748. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Kim KD, Nemec S, Musson G, 1997. Effects of composts and soil amendments on soil microflora and Phytophthora root and crown rot of bell pepper. Crop Protection, 16(2):165-172; 35 ref.

Ko WH, Kunimoto RK, 1994. Quick decline of macadamia trees: association with Phytophthora capsici. Journal of Phytopathology, 141(4):386-389

Kousik CS, Parada C, Quesada-Ocampo L, 2015. First report of phytophthora fruit rot on bitter gourd (Mormodica charantia) and sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) caused by Phytophthora capsici. Plant Health Progress, No.May:PHP-BR-15-0005. https://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/sub/php/volume16/number2/PHP-BR-15-0005.pdf

Kreutzer WA, Bodine EW, Durrell LW, 1940. A sexual phenomenon exhibited by certain isolates of Phytophthora capsici. Phytopathology, 30:951-957.

Kumar CPC, Kumar CSK, 2004. Epidemiological studies on phytophthora foot rot disease of betelvine. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 32(2):100-101.

Labuschagne N, Thompson AH, Botha WJ, 2003. First report of stem and root rot of tomato caused by Phytophthora capsici in South Africa. Plant Disease, 87(12):1540.

LaMondia JA, Li DW, Vossbrinck CR, 2010. First report of blight of common bean caused by Phytophthora capsici in Connecticut. Plant Disease, 94(1):134. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Lamour KH, Hausbeck MK, 2003. Effect of crop rotation on the survival of Phytophthora capsici in Michigan. Plant Disease, 87(7):841-845.

Larkin RP, Ristaino JB, Campbell CL, 1995. Detection and quantification of Phytophthora capsici in soil. Phytopathology, 85(10):1057-1063

Luz EDMN, Cerqueira AO, Faleiro FG, Dantas Neto A, Matsuoka K, Marques JRB, 2003. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora capsici isolates from different hosts based on RAPD markers, pathogenicity and morphology. (Diversidade genética de isolados de Phytophthora capsici de diferentes hospedeiros com base em marcadores RAPD patogenicidade e morfologia.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 28(5):559-564. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v28n5/17674.pdf

Luz EDMN, Silva SDVM, Yamada MM, Lopes UV, Braga MCT, Brugnerotto MIB, 1996. Selection of cacao genotypes resistant to Phytophthora capsici, P. palmivora and P. citrophthora in Bahia, Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 21(1):71-79; 31 ref.

Maia N, Venard P, Lavrut F, 1976. Etude des divisions mitotiques et meiotiques du cycle de Phytophthora capsici. Annales de Phytopathologie, 8:141-146.

Matheron ME, Matejka JC, 1995. Comparative activities of sodium tetrathiocarbonate and metalaxyl on Phytophthora capsici and root and crown rot on chile pepper. Plant Disease, 79(1):56-59

Matsuda A, Hamada M, Gonzalez JL, 1994. Outbreak and control of foot rot on black peppers in Dominican Republic. Agrochemicals Japan, No. 64:23-26

McGrath MT, Strauss J, Dillard HR, 2011. First report of Phytophthora blight caused by Phytophthora capsici on snap bean in New York. Plant Disease, 95(8):1028. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Mchau GRA, Coffey MD, 1995. Evidence for the existence of two subpopulations in Phytophthora capsici and a redescription of the species. Mycological Research, 99(1):89-102

Mosa AA, Zaki KI, El-Sherbeiny SN, 2002. Phytophthora root and crown rot of pepper in Egypt. Annals of Agricultural Science (Cairo), 47(3):975-991.

Nemec S, Datnoff LE, Strandberg J, 1996. Efficacy of biocontrol agents in planting mixes to colonize plant roots and control root diseases of vegetables and citrus. Crop Protection, 15(8):735-742; 30 ref.

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Parra G, Ristaino JB, 2001. Resistance to mefenoxam and metalaxyl among field isolates of Phytophthora capsici causing Phytophthora blight of bell pepper. Plant Disease, 85(10):1069-1075.

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Qian ZhongHai, Chen ChangJun, Wang JianXin, Zhou MingGuo, 2006. Baseline sensitivity of different morpha of Phytophthora capsici Leonian to azoxystrobin. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 36(4):322-327.

Quesada-Ocampo LM, Granke LL, Mercier MR, Olsen J, Hausbeck MK, 2011. Investigating the genetic structure of Phytophthora capsici populations. Phytopathology, 101(9):1061-1073.

Rista LM, Sillon M, Fornasero L, 1995. Effect of different irrigation strategies on the mortality of pepper by Phytophthora capsici Leonian in greenhouses. Horticultura Argentina, 14(37):44-51; 42 ref.

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Sun WenXiu, Jia YongJian, Qin NaiHua, Zhang XiuQuo, 2004. Isolation and quantification of soilborne Phytophthora capsici Leonian. Journal of Fungal Research, 2(2):22-25.

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Sun Yan, Zhou TianFu, Wang YunYue, Chen JianBin, He XiaHong, Li ChengYun, Zhu YouYong, 2006. Effect of intercropping on disease management and yield of chilli pepper and maize. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 33(5):995-1000.

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