Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phytophthora citrophthora
(brown rot of citrus fruit)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Phytophthora citrophthora (brown rot of citrus fruit)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phytophthora citrophthora
  • Preferred Common Name
  • brown rot of citrus fruit
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Brown rot of fruit.
TitleP. citrophthora on lemon
CaptionBrown rot of fruit.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Brown rot of fruit.
P. citrophthora on lemonBrown rot of fruit.©Anna L. Snowdon

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phytophthora citrophthora (R.H. Sm. & E. Sm.) Leonian

Preferred Common Name

  • brown rot of citrus fruit

Other Scientific Names

  • Pythiacystis citrophthora R.E. Sm. & E.H. Sm.

International Common Names

  • English: cocoa black pod; foot rot of Citrus
  • Spanish: gomosis (ágrios); pudricion parda de los cítricos
  • French: gommose des citrus; mildiou des agrumes; pourriture brune des agrumes

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Braunfäule: Zitrus; Gummose: Zitrus; Wurzelfäule: Zitrus

EPPO code

  • PHYTCO (Phytophthora citrophthora)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Peronosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Phytophthora
  •                             Species: Phytophthora citrophthora

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Mar 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
AngolaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1995)
Côte d'IvoirePresentLiyanage and Wheeler (1989); UK, CAB International (1995)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1995)
SenegalPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1995); Meitz-Hopkins et al. (2014)
TunisiaPresentUK, CAB International (1995); CABI (Undated)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1995)

Asia

BangladeshPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-FujianPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-GuangdongPresentCheng JiaZhuang et al. (2004)
-HainanPresentZeng HuiCai et al. (2009)
-JiangsuPresentZheng and Lu (1989); UK, CAB International (1995)
-ShanghaiPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-SichuanPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-XinjiangPresentWang et al. (1986); UK, CAB International (1995)
-YunnanPresentHo et al. (1984)
-ZhejiangPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
GeorgiaPresentGulua (1989); UK, CAB International (1995)
Hong KongPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
IndiaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-GujaratPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-HaryanaPresentArushi Mehrotra and Mehrotra (2000)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-KarnatakaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-KeralaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-Madhya PradeshPresentNaqvi (2006)
-MaharashtraPresentNaqvi (2006)
-Uttar PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-West BengalPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
IndonesiaPresentMchau and Coffey (1994); UK, CAB International (1995)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1995); Taheri et al. (2012)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
JordanPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-SabahPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-SarawakPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1995); Kurbetlİ and Değİrmencİ (2010); Akıllı et al. (2012); Kurbetli et al. (2016)
VietnamPresentWhittle (1992); UK, CAB International (1995)
YemenPresentUK, CAB International (1995)

Europe

BulgariaPresentIlieva et al. (1995)
CyprusPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
CzechiaPresentHolub et al. (2010)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-CorsicaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1995)
HungaryPresentJózsa et al. (2011)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1995)
-SardiniaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-SicilyPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
PolandPresentOrlikowski and Ptaszek (2012); Orlikowski and Szkuta (2005); Orlikowski et al. (2009)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
RussiaPresentGulua (1989)
SloveniaPresentMunda et al. (2007)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
SwitzerlandPresentMchau and Coffey (1994)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentCABI (Undated a)
United KingdomPresentUK, CAB International (1995)

North America

BarbadosPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
Costa RicaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
Dominican RepublicPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
El SalvadorPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
GuadeloupePresentUK, CAB International (1995)
GuatemalaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
HaitiPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
MartiniquePresentUK, CAB International (1995)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
PanamaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
United StatesPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-ArizonaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1995)
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadFawcett (1936); UK, CAB International (1995)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-LouisianaPresent, WidespreadFawcett (1936); UK, CAB International (1995)
-MassachusettsPresentMchau and Coffey (1994)
-MinnesotaPresentSchwingle et al. (2007)
-OhioPresentGerlach et al. (1976); UK, CAB International (1995)
-OregonPresentWeiland (2015)
-TennesseePresentDonahoo and Lamour (2008)
-TexasPresentSmith and Teague (1989)
-VirginiaPresentBush et al. (2003)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1995)
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-South AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-TasmaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-Western AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
Cook IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
FijiPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
New CaledoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
New ZealandPresentMchau and Coffey (1994); UK, CAB International (1995)

South America

ArgentinaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1995)
BrazilPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-BahiaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1995)
-Espirito SantoPresentCampelo and Luz (1981)
-Minas GeraisPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
-Sao PauloPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
ChilePresentValencia et al. (2011); UK, CAB International (1995)
EcuadorPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
French GuianaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
GuyanaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
PeruPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
SurinamePresentUK, CAB International (1995)
UruguayPresentUK, CAB International (1995)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1995)

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Fruit / odour
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / unusual odour

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Actinoplanes missouriensis Pathogen
Cladobotryum amazonense Pathogen
Humicola fuscoatra Pathogen
Hyphochytrium catenoides Pathogen
Pythium monospermum Antagonist

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Wood

References

Top of page

Afek U; Sztejnberg A, 1983. Accumulation of fungitoxic compounds in citrus species following infection by Phytophthora citrophthora. Phytoparasitica, 11:225.

Afek U; Sztejnberg A, 1988. Accumulation of scoparone, a phytoalexin associated with resistance of citrus to Phytophthora citrophthora. Phytopathology, 78(12, II):1678-1682

Afek U; Sztejnberg A, 1989. Effects of fosetyl-Al and phosphorous acid on scoparone, a phytoalexin associated with resistance of citrus of Phytophthora citrophthora. Phytopathology, 79(7):736-739

Afek U; Sztejnberg A, 1993. Temperature and gamma irradiation effects on scoparone, a citrus phytoalexin conferring resistance to Phytophthora citrophthora. Phytopathology, 83(7):753-758

Afek U; Sztejnberg A; Solel Z, 1990. A rapid method for evaluating citrus seedlings for resistance to foot rot caused by Phytophthora citrophthora. Plant Disease, 74(1):66-68

Akilli S; Serçe ÇU; Katircioglu Y; Maden S, 2012. Phytophthora citrophthora, a new pathogen causing decline on horse chestnut in Turkey. Forest Pathology, 42(4):299-304. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0329

Ali-Shtayeh MS; MacDonald JD, 1991. Occurrence of Phytophthora species in irrigation water in the Nablus area (West Bank of Jordan). Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 30(3):143-150

Arek U; Sztejnberg A; Carmely S, 1986. 6,7-Dimethoxycoumarin, a citrus phytoalexin conferring resistance against Phytophthora gummosis. Phytochemistry, 25(8):1855-1856

Arushi Mehrotra; Mehrotra MD, 2000. Phythophthora leaf blight of some forest trees. Indian Journal of Forestry, 23(2):142-148; 6 ref.

Broadbent P; Fraser LR; Waterworth Y, 1971. The reaction of seedlings of Citrus spp. and related genera to Phytophthora citrophthora. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 96:119-127.

Broadbent P; Gollnow BI, 1993. Selecting disease-resistant citrus rootstocks. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 33(6):775-780

Brooks FE; Ferrin DM, 1995. First report of Phytophthora root and crown rot of Penstemon species. Plant Disease, 79(2):212

Burnett HC; Tucker DPH; Ridings WH, 1974. Phytophthora root and stem rot of milkweed vine. Plant Disease Reporter, 58:355-357.

Bush EA; Hong CX; Stromberg EL, 2003. Fluctuations of Phytophthora and Pythium spp. in components of a recycling irrigation system. Plant Disease, 87(12):1500-1506.

Cameron JW; Klotz LJ; DeWolfe TA; Soost RK, 1972. Estimates of the resistance of Citrus X Poncirus hybrids to feeder root infection by Phytophthora spp., by a greenhouse seedling test. Plant Disease Reporter, 56(11):927-931

Campelo AMFL; Luz EDMN, 1981. aetiology of brown rot of cacao in the States of Bahia and Espirito Santo, Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 6(3):313-321

Cevic B; Tuzcu O; Kaplankiran M; Yurdakal O; Tekinel O; Korkmaz S, 1993. Research on determination of the most suitable irrigation method for lemon under Cukurova conditions. Cukurova Universiti, Doga Turk Tarim ve Ormancilik Dergisi, 17:471-486.

Chang HS, 1988. Phytophthora species associated with strawberry fruit rot in Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, Taiwan, 29(1):61-67

Chatenet B; Mercer R; Paviot J, 1988. Summary of six year trials with fosetyl-Al for the control of Phytophthora diseases of citrus. Citriculture. Proceedings of the Sixth International Citrus Congress, Middle-East, Tel Aviv, Israel, 6-11 March 1988. Volume 2. Cultural practices, diseases and nematodes [edited by Goren, R.; Mendel, K.] Rehovot, Israel; Balaban Publishers, 761-766

Cheng JiaZhuang; Wei XiaoYan; Fan HuaiZhong, 2004. Phytophthora species infecting citrus in Guangdong Province. Journal of South China Agricultural University, 25(2):31-33.

Chitzanidis A; Argyri I, 1990. Spread of Phytophthora rot on stored citrus and its prevention by fungicide dips. Bulletin OEPP, 20(1):163-168

Christinizio G; Scala F; Noviello C, 1983. Differentiation of some Phytophthora species by means of two-dimensional electrophoresis. Annali della facoltà di Scienze della università di napoli, Portici, 17:77-89.

Cinar A; Goksedef M; Bicici M, 1990. Control of Phytophthora citrophthora by fentin acetate in laboratory experiments and by soil drench application in a lemon orchard. Bulletin OEPP, 20(1):149-152

Cinar A; Tuzcu O; Goksedef MO, 1976. Resistance study of the citrus rootstocks to Phytophthora citrophthora (Smith & Smith) Leonian I. A research on the resistance of 14 different rootstocks to P. citrophthora (Smith & Smith) Leonian. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 5(2/3):49-S9

Cohen E, 1982. Prevention of spread and contact infection of brown rot disease in citrus fruit by metalaxyl postharvest treatment. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 103(2):120-125

Davino M; Gamberini O; Areddia R; Aldaresi SF, 1990. Field effectiveness of fosetyl-Al against citrus foot rot and brown rot. Bulletin OEPP, 20(1):133-137

Donahoo RS; Lamour KH, 2008. Characterization of Phytophthora species from leaves of nursery woody ornamentals in Tennessee. HortScience, 43(6):1833-1837. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/

Erselius LJ; De Vallavielle C, 1984. Variation in protein profiles of Phytophthora: comparison of six species. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 83:463-472.

Farih A; Menge JA; Tsao PH; Ohr HD, 1981. Metalaxyl and efosite aluminium for control of Phytophthora gummosis and root rot on citrus. Plant Diseases, 65(8):654-657

FAWCETT HS, 1936. Citrus diseases and their control, Second edition. New York and London, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., xv+656 pp.

Feichtenberger E, 1990. Control of Phytophthora gummosis of citrus with systemic fungicides in Brazil. Bulletin OEPP, 20(1):139-148

Feichtenberger E; Zentmyer GA; Menge JA, 1984. Identity of Phytophthora isolated from milkweed vine. Phytopathology, 74(1):50-55

Frezzi MJ, 1950. Las especies de `Phytophthora' en la Argentina. Revista de Investigaciones agrfcolas B., Bueno Aires, 4:47-133.

Förster H; Oudemans P; Coffey MD, 1990. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA diversity within six species of Phytophthora. Experimental Mycology, 14:18-31.

Gerlach WWP; Hoitink HAJ; Schmitthenner AF, 1976. Survival and host range of Phytophthora citrophthora in Ohio nurseries. Phytopathology, 66(3):309-311

Goodwin PH; Kirkpatrick BC; Duniway JM, 1990. Identification of Phytophthora citrophthora with cloned DNA probes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 56(3):669-674

Grech NM; Rijkenberg FHJ, 1992. Injection of electrolytically generated chlorine into citrus microirrigation systems for the control of certain waterborne root pathogens. Plant Disease, 76(5):457-461; 21 ref.

Grosser JW; Gmitter FGJr, 1990. Somatic hybridization of Citrus with wild relatives for germplasm enhancement and cultivar development. HortScience, 25(2):147-151; 37 ref.

Gulua MK, 1989. Representatives of harmful mycoflora causing rot and drop of flowers and young fruit on Meyera lemons. Subtropicheskie Kul'tury, No. 3:109-113; 5 ref.

Hartmann G; Nienhaus F, 1974. The isolation of xanthoxylin from the bark of Phytophthora- and Hendersonula-infected Citrus limon and its fungitoxic effect. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 81(2):97-113

Hassan MS; El-Behadli AH; Alsaadawi IS, 1989. Citrus replant in Iraq. III. Interactive effect of soil fungi and allelopathy. Plant and Soil, 116(2):161-166; 12 ref.

Ho HH; Liang ZR; Zhuang WY; Yu YN, 1984. Phytophthora spp. from rubbertree plantations in Yunnan Province of China. Mycopathologia, 86(2):121-124

Hoitink HAJ; Schmitthenner AF, 1974. Relative prevalence and virulence of Phytophthora species involved in rhododendron root rot. Phytopathology, 64(10):1371-1374

Holliday P, 1995. Fungus Diseases of Tropical Crops, Dover edition. New York, USA: Dover Publications Inc.

Holub V; Cerný K; Strnadová V; Mrázková M; Gregorová B; Gabrielová ?, 2010. The survey of some factors affecting bark lesion development caused by Phytophthora cactorum on common beech and other broadleaved trees. Journal of Forest Science, 56(3):93-100. http://www.cazv.cz

Huang TC; Leu LH; Lee HL, 1991. Phytophthora fruit rot of Annona squamosa L. caused by Phytophthora citrophthora and P. nicotianae. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 33(1):103-112

Ilieva E; Arulappan FX; Pieters R, 1995. Phytophthora root and crown rot of raspberry in Bulgaria. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 101(6):623-626; 18 ref.

IMI, 1995. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 35. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Ippolito A; Cicco V de; Salerno M, 1992. Seasonal variation in root infections and population levels of Phytophthora spp. in citrus orchards of Apulia and Basilicata, Italy. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 2(2):57-65

Józsa A; Nagy ZÂ; Szigethy A; Fischl G; Bakonyi J, 2011. First report of Phytophthora citrophthora causing root and basal stem rot of woody ornamentals in Hungary. Plant Disease, 95(9):1193. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Kellam MK; Zentmyer GA, 1986. Morphological, physiological, ecological, and pathological comparisons of Phytophthora species isolated from Theobroma cacao. Phytopathology, 76(2):159-164

Klotz LJ; Fawcett HS, 1939. Isolation of Phytophthora spp. Phytopathology, 29:290-291.

Klotz LJ; Wolfe TA de; Roistacher CN; Carpenter JB, 1960. Heat treatments to destroy fungi in infected citrus seeds. California Citrogrower, 46:63-64.

Klotz LJ; Wolfe TA de; Wong P, 1957. Guard against introducing brown rot fungi. California Citrogrower, 42:258.

Knorr LC, 1974. Citrus diseases and disorders. Citrus diseases and disorders. University of Florida. Gainesville USA, 163 pp.

Kouyeas H, 1973. Pathogenicity of Phytophthora species to pistachio tree. Annales de l'Institut Phytopathologique Benaki, 10:333-341.

Kurbetli I; Degirmenci K, 2010. First report of root and crown rot of almond caused by Phytophthora spp. in Turkey. Plant Disease, 94(10):1261. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Kurbetli I; Sülü G; Aydogdu M; Özdemir M; Sülü SM; Polat I, 2016. First report of kumquat shoot blight caused by Phytophthora citrophthora in Turkey. Plant Disease, 100(5):1023. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Latorre BA; Alvarez C; Ribeiro OK, 1991. Phytophthora root rot of kiwifruit in Chile. Plant Disease, 75(9):949-952

Laville EY; Chalandon AJ, 1981. Control of Phytophthora gummosis in citrus with foliar sprays of fosetyl Al, a new systemic fungicide. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 1981. Volume I. Shimizu, Japan: Fruit Tree Research Station, 346-349 pp.

Leonian LH, 1934. Identification of Phytophthora species. West Virginia Agriculture Experiment Station Bulletin, 262:2-36.

Lio GM di S; Perrotta G; Cacciola SO; Tuttobene R, 1988. Factors affecting soil populations of Phytophthora in citrus orchards. Citriculture. Proceedings of the Sixth International Citrus Congress, Middle-East, Tel Aviv, Israel, 6-11 March 1988. Volume 2. Cultural practices, diseases and nematodes [edited by Goren, R.; Mendel, K.] Rehovot, Israel; Balaban Publishers, 767-774

Lio GM di San; Messina F; Greco G; Perotta G, 1990. Effect of irrigation on the dynamics of Phytophthora citrophthora populations in soil of citrus orchards. Bulletin OEPP, 20:59-65.

Lio GM di san; Pennisi AM, 1993. Spatial pattern of inoculum of Phytophthora in soil of citrus groves. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 16(7):142-152

Lio GMdi S; Pennisi AM, 1984. Joint attacks of snails and brown rot on sweet oranges. Informatore Fitopatologico, 34(11):34-36; [2 fig., 1 tab.].

Liyanage NIS; Wheeler BEJ, 1989. Comparative morphology of Phytophthora species on rubber. Plant Pathology, 38(4):592-597

Mabbett TH, 1986. The biology and application needs of Phytophthora pod rot of cocoa. Cocoa Growers' Bulletin, No. 37:24-25

MacDonald JD; Ali-Shtayeh MS; Kabashima J; Stites J, 1994. Occurrence of Phytophthora species in recirculated nursery irrigation effluents. Plant Disease, 78(6):607-611

Mahmood T, 1972. Use of Co60 gamma radiation against some postharvest decay pathogens of citrus fruit in Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 15:268-271.

Matheron ME; Matejka JC, 1988. Persistance of systemic activity for fungicides applied to citrus trunks to control Phytophthora gummosis. Plant Disease, 72(2):170-174

Matheron ME; Matejka JC, 1992. Effects of temperature on sporulation and growth of Phytophthora citrophthora and P. parasitica and development of foot rot on citrus. Plant Disease, 76(11):1103-1109

Matheron ME; Matejka JC, 1993. Seasonal differences in susceptibility of three citrus rootstocks to root lesions caused by Phytophthora citrophthora and P. parasitica. Plant Disease, 77(7):729-732

Matheron ME; Mircetich SM, 1985. Control of Phytophthora root and crown rot and trunk canker in walnut with metalaxyl and fosetyl Al. Plant Disease, 69(12):1042-1043

Matheron ME; Mircetich SM, 1985. Relative resistance of different rootstocks of English walnut to six Phytophthora spp. that cause root and crown rot in orchard trees. Plant Disease, 69(12):1039-1041

Mchau GRA; Coffey MD, 1994. An integrated study of morphological and isozyme patterns found within a worldwide collection of Phytophthora citrophthora and a redescription of the species. Mycological Research, 98(11):1291-1299

Meitz-Hopkins JC; Pretorius MC; Spies CFJ; Huisman L; Botha WJ; Langenhoven SD; McLeod A, 2014. Phytophthora species distribution in South African citrus production regions. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 138(4):733-749. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658

Mircetich SM; Matheron ME, 1983. Phytophthora root and crown rot of walnut trees. Phytopathology, 73(11):1481-1488

Munda A; Zerjav M; Schroers HJ, 2007. Phytophthora species infecting fruit trees in Slovenia. (Vrste iz rodu Phytophthora na sadnem drevju v sloveniji.) In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov, 8. Slovenskega postvetovanja o varstvu Rastlin, Radenci, Slovenija, 6-7 Marec, 2007 [ed. by Macek, J.]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Plant Protection Society of Slovenia, 281-284.

Musumeci MR; Oliveira AR, 1976. II. Accumulation of phenols and phytoalexins in citrus tissues following inoculation with P. citrophthora. Summa Phytopathologica, 2(1):27-31

Naqvi SAMH, 2006. Distribution of citrus Phytophthora spp. and mating types pathogenic to citrus in Central India. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 36(1):44-49.

Oren Y; Solel Z, 1978. Control of brown rot of citrus fruit by application of fungicides via sprinkler irrigation systems. Phytoparasitica, 6(2):65-70

Orlikowski LB; Oszako T; Szkuta G, 2009. Phytophthora citrophthora - a new pathogen of ornamental and forest plants in Poland. (Phytophthora citrophthora - nowy patogen roslin ozdobnych i lesnych w Polsce.) Progress in Plant Protection, 49(2):686-690. http://www.progress.plantprotection.pl/pliki/2009/49-2-53.pdf

Orlikowski LB; Ptaszek M, 2010. First notice of Phytophthora stem base rot on Syringa vulgaris in a Polish field nursery. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 50(4):442-445. http://versita.metapress.com/content/121051

Orlikowski LB; Ptaszek M, 2012. First notice of phytophthora root and stem base rot of Sciadopitys verticillata in Polish ornamental nurseries. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 52(2):298-300. http://versita.metapress.com/link.asp?target=contribution&id=23552H8MM6174L11

Orlikowski LB; Szkuta G, 2005. Occurrence of Phytophthora citrophthora on Syringa vulgaris in Poland. Acta Mycologica, 40(2):175-180.

Oudemans P; Coffey MD, 1991. A revised systematics of twelve papillate Phytophthora species based on isozyme analysis. Mycological Research, 95(9):1025-1046

Pereira JL, 1985. Chemical control of Phytophthora pod rot of cocoa in Brazil. Cocoa Growers' Bulletin, No.36:23-38

Pereira JL, 1988. Alternative stategies for the chemical control of Phytophthora pod rot of cocoa in Bahia, Brazil, Ph.D. Thesis. Bristol, UK: University of Bristol.

Phillips PA; O'Connell NV; Menge JA, 1990. Citrus skirt pruning a management technique for Phytophthora brown rot. California Agriculture, 44(6):6-7

Pitta GPB; Souza TMW de; Feichtenberger E, 1991. Black rot in inflorescences and leaves of Anthurium andraeanum caused by Phytophthora citrophthora. Summa Phytopathologica, 17(2):159-163

Pontikis KA, 1977. Contribution to studies on the resistance of some hybrids and species of the genus Pistacia (as rootstocks) to Phytophthora spp. Nea Agrotiki Epitheorisis, No.1:14-16

Ridings WH; Schoulties CL; El Gholl NE; Mitchell DJ, 1977. The milkweed vine pathotype of Phytophthora citrophthora as a biological control agent of Morrenia odorata [in citrus groves]. International Society of Citriculture: Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 1977, Volume 3. Lake Alfred, Florida, USA: International Society of Citriculture, 877-881 pp. [SOURCE: CAB ABSTRACTS]

San Lio GM di; Perrotta G, 1982. Quantitative determination in the soil of Phytophthora species pathogenic on citrus plants. Disease potential and inoculum density. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 21(2/3):59-65

Sandlin CM; Ferrin DM, 1993. Foliar blight and root rot of container-grown giant redwood caused by Phytophthora citrophthora. Plant Disease, 77(6):591-594

Schwingle BW; Smith JA; Blanchette RA, 2007. Phytophthora species associated with diseased woody ornamentals in Minnesota nurseries. Plant Disease, 91(1):97-102. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Smith GS; Teague PW, 1989. Economic thresholds for Phytophthora foot rot of citrus using estimates of value of tree loss and chemical control costs. Journal of Production Agriculture, 2(2):184-189

Smith RE; Smith EH, 1906. A new fungus of economic importance. Botanical Gazette, 42:215-221.

Sneh B; Katz DA, 1988. Behaviour of Phytophthora citrophthora and P. nicotianae var. parasitica in soil, and differences in their tolerance to antimicrobial components of selective media used for isolation of Phytophthora spp. Journal of Phytopathology, 122(3):208-221

Spiegel-Roy P; Vardi A; Elhanati A; Solel Z; Bar-Joseph M, 1988. Rootstock selections from a Poorman orange Poncirus trifoliata cross. Citriculture. Sixth international citrus congress, Middle-East, Tel Aviv, Israel, 6-11 March 1988. Volume 1., 195-200; 13 ref.

Stein B; Torres Leal G, 1991. Brown rot of citrus fruit. A serious problem at the start of harvesting. Avance Agroindustrial, 12(45):23-24

Sulistyowati L; Keane PJ, 1992. Effect of soil salinity and water content on stem rot caused by Phytophthora citrophthora and accumulation of phytoalexin in citrus rootstocks. Phytopathology, 82(7):771-777

Sulistyowati L; Keane PJ; Anderson JW, 1990. Accumulation of the phytoalexin, 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin, in roots and stems of citrus seedlings following inoculation with Phytophthora citrophthora. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 37(6):451-461

Taheri M; Mirabolfathy M; Rahnama K, 2012. Phytophthora root and crown rot of several field and orchard crops in Gorgan area. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 48(2):Pe249-Pe263, En85-En88. http://www.irjpp.ir/browse.php?a_id=582&sid=1&slc_lang=en

Thomson SV; Allen RM, 1974. Occurrence of Phytophthora species and other potential plant pathogens in recycled irrigation water. Plant Disease Reporter, 58(10):945-949

Timmer LW; Menge JA; Zitko SE; Pond E; Miller SA; Johnson ELV, 1993. Comparison of ELISA techniques and standard isolation methods for Phytophthora detection in citrus orchards in Florida and California. Plant Disease, 77(8):791-796

Tsao PH; Ocana G, 1969. Selective isolation of species of Phytophthora from natural soils on an improved antibiotic medium. Nature, 223:636-638.

Tuset JJ; Portilla MT, 1990. Control of Phytophthora brown rot of citrus fruits. Bulletin OEPP, 20(1):153-161

Tuzcu O; Cinar A; Goksedef MO; Ozsan M; Bicici M, 1984. Resistance of citrus rootstocks to Phytophthora citrophthora during winter dormancy. Plant Disease, 68(6):502-505

UK CAB International, 1984. Phytophthora citrophthora. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 5). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 35.

Valencia AL; Chorbadjian RA; Latorre BA, 2011. First report of Nothofagus macrocarpa Dieback caused by Phytophthora citrophthora and P. nicotianae in Chile. Plant Disease, 95(9):1193. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Vallavieille C de; Perrier X, 1981. Study of the pathogenicity of Phytophthora citrophthora (Sm. & Sm.) Leonian on certain citrus rootstocks by two methods of multidimensional analysis. Agronomie, 1(7):527-533

Vanderweyen A, 1983. Contribution to the study of citrus gummosis due to Phytophthora in Morocco. Third part. Fruits, 38(3):161-182

Wang ZT; Ma ZY; Li SE; Tang T, 1986. Occurrence and control of the watermelon stem and fruit rot. Plant Protection, 12(3):37

Waterhouse GM; Waterston JM, 1964. Phytophthora citrophthora. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 33. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Weiland JE, 2015. First report of Phytophthora cactorum and P. citrophthora causing root rot of Ribes lobbii in Oregon. Plant Disease, 99(1):157. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Whittle AM, 1992. Diseases and pests of citrus in Vietnam. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 40(3):75-81

Wicks T; Lee TC, 1986. Phytophthora crown rot of almond trees. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 37(3):277-287

Zeng HuiCai; Ho HH; Zheng FuyCong, 2009. A survey of Phytophthora species on Hainan Island of South China. Journal of Phytopathology, 157(1):33-39. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jph

Zentmyer GA, 1987. Taxonomic relationships and distribution of species of Phytophthora causing black pod of cocoa. Proceedings of the Tenth International Cocoa Research Conference, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 17-23 May 1987. London, UK: Cocoa Producers' Alliance, 391-395.

Zheng XB; Lu JY, 1989. Studies on Phytophthora species in Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangsu provinces and Shanghai, China. Acta Mycologica Sinica, 8(3):161-168

Distribution References

Akıllı S, Serçe Ç U, Katırcıoğlu Y, Maden S, 2012. Phytophthora citrophthora, a new pathogen causing decline on horse chestnut in Turkey. Forest Pathology. 42 (4), 299-304. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0329 DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00754.x

Arushi Mehrotra, Mehrotra M D, 2000. Phythophthora leaf blight of some forest trees. Indian Journal of Forestry. 23 (2), 142-148.

Bush E A, Hong C X, Stromberg E L, 2003. Fluctuations of Phytophthora and Pythium spp. in components of a recycling irrigation system. Plant Disease. 87 (12), 1500-1506. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.12.1500

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Campelo A M F L, Luz E D M N, 1981. Aetiology of brown rot of cacao in the States of Bahia and Espirito Santo, Brazil. (Etiologia da podridao parda do cacaueiro nos Estados da Bahia e Espirito Santo, Brazil.). Fitopatologia Brasileira. 6 (3), 313-321.

Cheng JiaZhuang, Wei XiaoYan, Fan HuaiZhong, 2004. Phytophthora species infecting citrus in Guangdong Province. Journal of South China Agricultural University. 25 (2), 31-33.

Donahoo R S, Lamour K H, 2008. Characterization of Phytophthora species from leaves of nursery woody ornamentals in Tennessee. HortScience. 43 (6), 1833-1837. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/

Fawcett H S, 1936. Citrus diseases and their control. New York and London, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. xv+656 pp.

Gerlach W W P, Hoitink H A J, Schmitthenner A F, 1976. Survival and host range of Phytophthora citrophthora in Ohio nurseries. Phytopathology. 66 (3), 309-311. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-66-309

Gulua M K, 1989. Representatives of harmful mycoflora causing rot and drop of flowers and young fruit on Meyera lemons. Subtropicheskie Kul'tury. 109-113.

Ho H H, Liang Z R, Zhuang W Y, Yu Y N, 1984. Phytophthora spp. from rubbertree plantations in Yunnan Province of China. Mycopathologia. 86 (2), 121-124. DOI:10.1007/BF00436497

Holub V, Černý K, Strnadová V, Mrázková M, Gregorová B, Gabrielová Š, 2010. The survey of some factors affecting bark lesion development caused by Phytophthora cactorum on common beech and other broadleaved trees. Journal of Forest Science. 56 (3), 93-100. http://www.cazv.cz

Ilieva E, Arulappan F X, Pieters R, 1995. Phytophthora root and crown rot of raspberry in Bulgaria. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 101 (6), 623-626. DOI:10.1007/BF01874866

Józsa A, Nagy Z Á, Szigethy A, Fischl G, Bakonyi J, 2011. First report of Phytophthora citrophthora causing root and basal stem rot of woody ornamentals in Hungary. Plant Disease. 95 (9), 1193. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-11-0226

Kurbetlİ İ, Değİrmencİ K, 2010. First report of root and crown rot of almond caused by Phytophthora spp. in Turkey. Plant Disease. 94 (10), 1261. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-10-0411

Kurbetli İ, Sülü G, Aydoğdu M, Özdemİr M, Sülü S M, Polat İ, 2016. First report of kumquat shoot blight caused by Phytophthora citrophthora in Turkey. Plant Disease. 100 (5), 1023. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-15-1154-PDN

Liyanage N I S, Wheeler B E J, 1989. Comparative morphology of Phytophthora species on rubber. Plant Pathology. 38 (4), 592-597. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.1989.tb01456.x

Mchau G R A, Coffey M D, 1994. An integrated study of morphological and isozyme patterns found within a worldwide collection of Phytophthora citrophthora and a redescription of the species. Mycological Research. 98 (11), 1291-1299. DOI:10.1016/S0953-7562(09)80301-8

Meitz-Hopkins J C, Pretorius M C, Spies C F J, Huisman L, Botha W J, Langenhoven S D, McLeod A, 2014. Phytophthora species distribution in South African citrus production regions. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 138 (4), 733-749. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658 DOI:10.1007/s10658-013-0346-9

Munda A, Žerjav M, Schroers H J, 2007. Phytophthora species infecting fruit trees in Slovenia. (Vrste iz rodu Phytophthora na sadnem drevju v sloveniji.). In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov, 8. Slovenskega postvetovanja o varstvu Rastlin, Radenci, Slovenija, 6-7 Marec, 2007 [Zbornik predavanj in referatov, 8. Slovenskega postvetovanja o varstvu Rastlin, Radenci, Slovenija, 6-7 Marec, 2007.], [ed. by Maček J]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Plant Protection Society of Slovenia. 281-284.

Naqvi S A M H, 2006. Distribution of citrus Phytophthora spp. and mating types pathogenic to citrus in Central India. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 36 (1), 44-49.

Orlikowski L B, Oszako T, Szkuta G, 2009. Phytophthora citrophthora - a new pathogen of ornamental and forest plants in Poland. (Phytophthora citrophthora - nowy patogen roślin ozdobnych i leśnych w Polsce.). Progress in Plant Protection. 49 (2), 686-690. http://www.progress.plantprotection.pl/pliki/2009/49-2-53.pdf

Orlikowski L B, Ptaszek M, 2012. First notice of phytophthora root and stem base rot of Sciadopitys verticillata in Polish ornamental nurseries. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 52 (2), 298-300. http://versita.metapress.com/link.asp?target=contribution&id=23552H8MM6174L11 DOI:10.2478/v10045-012-0048-x

Orlikowski L B, Szkuta G, 2005. Occurrence of Phytophthora citrophthora on Syringa vulgaris in Poland. Acta Mycologica. 40 (2), 175-180. DOI:10.5586/am.2005.015

Schwingle B W, Smith J A, Blanchette R A, 2007. Phytophthora species associated with diseased woody ornamentals in Minnesota nurseries. Plant Disease. 91 (1), 97-102. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PD-91-0097

Smith G S, Teague P W, 1989. Economic thresholds for Phytophthora foot rot of citrus using estimates of value of tree loss and chemical control costs. Journal of Production Agriculture. 2 (2), 184-189.

Taheri M, Mirabolfathy M, Rahnama K, 2012. Phytophthora root and crown rot of several field and orchard crops in Gorgan area. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 48 (2), Pe249-Pe263, En85-En. http://www.irjpp.ir/browse.php?a_id=582&sid=1&slc_lang=en

UK, CAB International, 1995. Phytophthora citrophthora. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 35.

Valencia A L, Chorbadjian R A, Latorre B A, 2011. First report of Nothofagus macrocarpa Dieback caused by Phytophthora citrophthora and P. nicotianae in Chile. Plant Disease. 95 (9), 1193. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-11-0258

Wang Z T, Ma Z Y, Li S E, Tang T, 1986. Occurrence and control of the watermelon stem and fruit rot. Plant Protection. 12 (3), 37.

Weiland J E, 2015. First report of Phytophthora cactorum and P. citrophthora causing root rot of Ribes lobbii in Oregon. Plant Disease. 99 (1), 157. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-14-0691-PDN

Whittle A M, 1992. Diseases and pests of citrus in Vietnam. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. 40 (3), 75-81.

Zeng HuiCai, Ho H H, Zheng FuyCong, 2009. A survey of Phytophthora species on Hainan Island of South China. Journal of Phytopathology. 157 (1), 33-39. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jph DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2008.01441.x

Zheng X B, Lu J Y, 1989. Studies on Phytophthora species in Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangsu provinces and Shanghai, China. Acta Mycologica Sinica. 8 (3), 161-168.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map