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Phytophthora cinnamomi
(Phytophthora dieback)

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Datasheet

Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phytophthora cinnamomi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Phytophthora dieback
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. cinnamomi is a soilborne pathogen that is now widely established in many parts of the world. Initial long-range spread is likely to have been on infected nursery plants (e.g.,

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); heath landscape, with a Eucalyptus dieback-infested valley in the mid-ground. Stirling Range, Western Australia. January, 2005.
TitleHeath landscape, with a Eucalyptus dieback-infested valley
CaptionPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); heath landscape, with a Eucalyptus dieback-infested valley in the mid-ground. Stirling Range, Western Australia. January, 2005.
Copyright©Gnangarra - CC BY 2.5 AU (from wikimedia)
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); heath landscape, with a Eucalyptus dieback-infested valley in the mid-ground. Stirling Range, Western Australia. January, 2005.
Heath landscape, with a Eucalyptus dieback-infested valleyPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); heath landscape, with a Eucalyptus dieback-infested valley in the mid-ground. Stirling Range, Western Australia. January, 2005.©Gnangarra - CC BY 2.5 AU (from wikimedia)
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); warning sign, advising to keep vehicles out of dieback affected areas, to prevent the spread of Phytophthora cinnamomi. Nr. Mount Dale, Western Australia.
TitleOfficial warning sign
CaptionPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); warning sign, advising to keep vehicles out of dieback affected areas, to prevent the spread of Phytophthora cinnamomi. Nr. Mount Dale, Western Australia.
Copyright©Gnangarra - CC BY 2.5 AU (from wikimedia)
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); warning sign, advising to keep vehicles out of dieback affected areas, to prevent the spread of Phytophthora cinnamomi. Nr. Mount Dale, Western Australia.
Official warning signPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); warning sign, advising to keep vehicles out of dieback affected areas, to prevent the spread of Phytophthora cinnamomi. Nr. Mount Dale, Western Australia.©Gnangarra - CC BY 2.5 AU (from wikimedia)
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on 13 year-old sand pine trees (Pinus clausa) - fading tree (a), dead tree (b), healthy tree (c).
TitleSymptoms on 13 year-old sand pine trees
CaptionPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on 13 year-old sand pine trees (Pinus clausa) - fading tree (a), dead tree (b), healthy tree (c).
Copyright©Edward L. Barnard/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on 13 year-old sand pine trees (Pinus clausa) - fading tree (a), dead tree (b), healthy tree (c).
Symptoms on 13 year-old sand pine treesPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on 13 year-old sand pine trees (Pinus clausa) - fading tree (a), dead tree (b), healthy tree (c).©Edward L. Barnard/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on sand pine saplings (Pinus clausa) - healthy tree (a), infected tree (b).
TitleSymptoms on sand pine saplings
CaptionPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on sand pine saplings (Pinus clausa) - healthy tree (a), infected tree (b).
Copyright©Edward L. Barnard/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on sand pine saplings (Pinus clausa) - healthy tree (a), infected tree (b).
Symptoms on sand pine saplingsPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on sand pine saplings (Pinus clausa) - healthy tree (a), infected tree (b).©Edward L. Barnard/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on sand pine (Pinus clausa) - yellowing foliage of infected tree. Florida, USA.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on sand pine (Pinus clausa) - yellowing foliage of infected tree. Florida, USA.
Copyright©Edward L. Barnard/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on sand pine (Pinus clausa) - yellowing foliage of infected tree. Florida, USA.
SymptomsPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on sand pine (Pinus clausa) - yellowing foliage of infected tree. Florida, USA.©Edward L. Barnard/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on sand pine (Pinus clausa) - mortality of 2-0 bareroot stock in Munson Forest Nursery, Florida, USA.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on sand pine (Pinus clausa) - mortality of 2-0 bareroot stock in Munson Forest Nursery, Florida, USA.
Copyright©Edward L. Barnard/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on sand pine (Pinus clausa) - mortality of 2-0 bareroot stock in Munson Forest Nursery, Florida, USA.
SymptomsPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on sand pine (Pinus clausa) - mortality of 2-0 bareroot stock in Munson Forest Nursery, Florida, USA.©Edward L. Barnard/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); cankers on an oak. Arryanal, Mexico.
TitleCankers on an oak
CaptionPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); cankers on an oak. Arryanal, Mexico.
Copyright©Joseph O'Brien/USDA Forest Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); cankers on an oak. Arryanal, Mexico.
Cankers on an oakPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); cankers on an oak. Arryanal, Mexico.©Joseph O'Brien/USDA Forest Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); canker on an oak. Mexico.
TitleCanker on an oak
CaptionPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); canker on an oak. Mexico.
Copyright©Joseph O'Brien/USDA Forest Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); canker on an oak. Mexico.
Canker on an oakPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); canker on an oak. Mexico.©Joseph O'Brien/USDA Forest Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); zone lines around a canker on oak. Mexico.
TitleCanker on oak
CaptionPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); zone lines around a canker on oak. Mexico.
Copyright©Joseph O'Brien/USDA Forest Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); zone lines around a canker on oak. Mexico.
Canker on oakPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); zone lines around a canker on oak. Mexico.©Joseph O'Brien/USDA Forest Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on sand pine (Pinus clausa) - resin soaked tissue.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on sand pine (Pinus clausa) - resin soaked tissue.
Copyright©Edward L. Barnard/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on sand pine (Pinus clausa) - resin soaked tissue.
SymptomsPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); symptoms on sand pine (Pinus clausa) - resin soaked tissue.©Edward L. Barnard/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); sporangia, asexual spore from American holly (Ilex opaca). Virginia, USA.
TitleSporangia, asexual spore
CaptionPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); sporangia, asexual spore from American holly (Ilex opaca). Virginia, USA.
Copyright©Elizabeth Bush/Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); sporangia, asexual spore from American holly (Ilex opaca). Virginia, USA.
Sporangia, asexual sporePhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); sporangia, asexual spore from American holly (Ilex opaca). Virginia, USA.©Elizabeth Bush/Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); sexual spore - microscopic view of oogonia and antheridia. USA.
TitleSexual spore, oogonia and antheridia
CaptionPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); sexual spore - microscopic view of oogonia and antheridia. USA.
Copyright©Mary Ann Hansen/Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); sexual spore - microscopic view of oogonia and antheridia. USA.
Sexual spore, oogonia and antheridiaPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); sexual spore - microscopic view of oogonia and antheridia. USA.©Mary Ann Hansen/Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands

Preferred Common Name

  • Phytophthora dieback

International Common Names

  • English: crown and root rot of blueberry; heart rot of pineapple; ink disease (of chestnut); jarrah dieback (of eucalypts); little leaf disease of short leaf pine; lupine root rot; Phytophthora root rot; Phytophthora root rot of banksias; root rot; root rot and dieback; root rot and stem canker of macadamia; root rot of avocado; root rot of Azalea spp.; root rot of camellias; root rot of cloves; root rot of daodar cedar; root rot of eucalypts; root rot of Fraser fir; root rot of grape; root rot of heather; root rot of kiwi fruit; root rot of Lawson cypress; root rot of ohia; root rot of peach; root rot of Pelargonium; root rot of pine; root rot of proteas; root rot of rhododendron; root rot of Taxus; root rot of walnut; stem canker and ink disease of oaks; stripe canker (of cinnamon); top rot of pineapple
  • Spanish: pudrición de la raíz
  • French: pourriture des racines de l'avocatier; pourriture des racines des ericacees; pourriture des racines du pecher; pourriture du coeur de l'ananas; pourriture du collet

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Erikasterben; Herzfaeule: Ananas; Wurzelfaeule; Wurzelfaeule: Avocado; Wurzelfaeule: Azalee; Wurzelfaeule: Heidelbeere; Wurzelfaeule: Pfirsich

EPPO code

  • PHYTCN (Phytophthora cinnamomi)

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. cinnamomi is a soilborne pathogen that is now widely established in many parts of the world. Initial long-range spread is likely to have been on infected nursery plants (e.g., Kenerley and Bruck, 1983; Benson and Campbell, 1985; Davison et al., 2006), and still occurs in this way. Additional long-range spread is by movement of soil and gravel infested with chlamydospores (e.g., Batini, 1977; Colquhoun and Petersen, 1994). Short-range spread is also by zoospores in drainage, seepage and irrigation water (Kinal et al., 1993; MacDonald et al., 1994). It has a very wide host range (Zentmyer, 1980) so that, once introduced into an area, it can persist on the roots of many different plants without necessarily causing symptoms on the foliage. It is a major pathogen of horticultural crops, in forestry and in natural vegetation, especially in southern Australia (Natural Resource Management Western Australia, 2013 - see http://www.dieback.net.au/pages/1382/susceptible-species). It is regarded as a key threatening process in the Australian environment (Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, 1999), affecting both plant communities by reducing diversity, and the animal communities that depend on them. 

It is considered by ISSG (2012) to be one of the 100 worst invasive species worldwide.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Peronosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Phytophthora
  •                             Species: Phytophthora cinnamomi

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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There are two subspecies: P. cinnamomi var. cinnamomiRands (1922) and P. cinnamomi var. parvisporaKröber and Marwitz (1993). According to Gallegly and Hong (2008) these subspecies differ in the size of the sporangia (ovoid sporangia: 60 x 34 µm, ellipsoidal sporangia: 85 x 35 µm in P. cinnamomi var. cinnamomi and 47 x 35 µm (range 37–56 x 29-41 µm) in P. cinnamomi var. parvispora, and in their single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) fingerprint. 

Description

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Hyphae with frequent nodules, up to 8 µm wide, hyphal swellings in clusters, typically spherical, average 42 µm diameter. Sporangiophores thin (3 µm wide), proliferating through the empty sporangium or occasionally branched. Sporangia broadly ellipsoid to ovoid, 57 x 33 µm (up to 100 x 40 µm), no papilla, slight apical thickening, not shed. Oogonia average 40 µm diameter, wall smooth, becoming yellowish with age. Antheridia amphigynous, 21-23 x 17 µm. A full description is given in Waterhouse & Waterston (1966).

Identification by a DNA finger printing protocol (single-strand conformational polymorphism of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed space 1 amplified with primers ITS6 and ITS7) is given in Gallegly and Hong (2008). Methods for DNA sequencing of the ITS region using primers ITS6 and ITS4 is given in Cooke et al. (2000).

Distribution

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The geographical origin of P. cinnamomi is not clearly established. It was first described in Sumatra (Indonesia) and this suggests that it is indigenous to tropical and subtropical countries and has spread to other countries.

See IMI (1991), Distribution Map No. 302 and CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 231).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 05 Aug 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiPresent
CameroonPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Congo, Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
GabonPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MoroccoPresent
RéunionPresent
RwandaPresent
South AfricaPresent, WidespreadInvasive
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent, Localized

Asia

ChinaPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresentOriginal citation: Huang and Qi (1998)
-GuangxiPresentOriginal citation: Yang and RongYang Zhou Chang (1998)
-JiangsuPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresent, Localized
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresentOriginal citation: Lal and Singh Lakhanpal (2000)
-Tamil NaduPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SumatraPresent
IsraelPresent, Localized
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
MalaysiaPresent, Few occurrences
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
South KoreaPresent
TaiwanPresent, Few occurrences
TurkeyPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroduced
CroatiaPresent
CzechiaPresentIntroduced
DenmarkPresent
FrancePresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-CorsicaPresent
GermanyPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
GreecePresent, Few occurrences
-CreteAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
IrelandPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
ItalyPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-SardiniaPresent
-SicilyPresent
NetherlandsPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
NorwayPresent, Localized
PolandPresentIntroduced
PortugalPresentIntroducedInvasive
-AzoresPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
-Southern RussiaPresent, Localized
SerbiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresentIntroduced
SlovakiaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
SpainPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-Balearic IslandsPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwitzerlandPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
United KingdomPresent, Widespread
-EnglandPresent, Widespread
-ScotlandPresent

North America

BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent
CanadaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-British ColumbiaPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent, Widespread
MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, Widespread
United StatesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-AlabamaPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-DelawarePresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IndianaPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-MontanaPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-West VirginiaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-TasmaniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Cook IslandsPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
FijiPresent
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasive
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-BahiaPresent
-GoiasPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent, Localized
GuyanaPresent
PeruPresent
VenezuelaPresent

History of Introduction and Spread

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It is thought to have been introduced to Europe several centuries ago possibly as early as the 15th Century but more likely in the 18th Century based on the appearance of chestnut root disease (DAISIE, 2013). It was first isolated in the USA in the 1930s from dying American chestnuts (Castanea dentata) and rhododendrons (Balci and Bienapfl, 2013). In Australia the most likely method of introduction would have been on cryptically infected nursery plants. Subsequent spread is likely to have been on both infected plants and in contaminated soil (e.g. Batini, 1977; Colquhoun and Petersen, 1994; O’Gara et al., 2005).

Risk of Introduction

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RISK CRITERIA CATEGORY

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE High
DISTRIBUTION Widespread
SEEDBORNE INCIDENCE Not recorded
SEED TRANSMITTED Not recorded
SEED TREATMENT None

Notes on Phytosanitary Risk

The pathogen is already present in much of the EPPO region, and it is not clear that there are any whole countries or large areas within countries where P. cinnamomi is known not to occur. As for other Phytophthora spp. on woody plants, low levels of infestation may be difficult to recognize (Tsao, 1990). P. cinnamomi has not been listed as a quarantine pest by EPPO or by any other regional plant protection organization. In a recent survey of possible new quarantine pests for the EPPO region, it was rated as doubtful. Enterprises growing susceptible species (e.g. nurseries producing ornamental conifers and Ericaceae, and avocado plantations) should certainly seek to exclude P. cinnamomi or keep populations down to low levels, by operating strict hygienic measures. However, it is not clear that imported material requires special measures, different from those taken domestically.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
FreshwaterIrrigation channels Present, no further details Natural
FreshwaterRivers / streams Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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The host range is very wide and P. cinnamomi is the most widely distributed species of Phytophthora. Zentmyer (1983) stated there were nearly 1000 host species but, as research continues, the Project Dieback website (Natural Resource Management Western Australia, 2013) reports that over 2000 native plants are susceptible to Phytophthora dieback in Western Australia. The principal food crop hosts are avocados (root rot) and pineapples (root and heart rot); it also attacks Castanea, Cinnamomum, conifers, Ericaceae (including Rhododendron), Eucalyptus, Fagus, Juglans, Quercus and many ornamental trees and shrubs. Its recorded host range includes most of the temperate fruit trees, but these are not important hosts in practice. The impact of infection on hosts varies from symptomless infection restricted to root tissue to complete invasion of the root and stem storage tissue causing plant death (Environment Australia, 2001).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abies fraseri (Fraser fir)PinaceaeUnknown
Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)ActinidiaceaeMain
AdenanthosProteaceaeWild host
Allium fistulosum (Welsh onion)LiliaceaeHabitat/association
Ananas comosus (pineapple)BromeliaceaeMain
Andersonia axillifloraEricaceaeWild host
Araucaria angustifolia (Paraná pine)AraucariaceaeOther
Arctostaphylos myrtifolia (Ione manzanita)EricaceaeOther
Arctostaphylos viscida (whiteleaf manzanita)EricaceaeOther
Aulax pallasiaProteaceaeUnknown
BanksiaProteaceaeWild host
BegoniaBegoniaceaeOther
Byrsonima crassifolia (wild cherry)MalpighiaceaeOther
CamelliaTheaceaeOther
Camellia japonica (camellia)TheaceaeOther
Castanea (chestnuts)FagaceaeOther
Castanea dentata (American chestnut)FagaceaeMain
Castanea sativa (chestnut)FagaceaeMain
Cedrus deodara (Himalayan cedar)PinaceaeWild host
Chamaecyparis (false cypress)CupressaceaeWild host
CinnamomumLauraceaeMain
Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon)LauraceaeMain
Cliffortia grandifoliaUnknown
Cupressus (cypresses)CupressaceaeWild host
DarwiniaMyrtaceaeWild host
Daviesia megacalyxFabaceaeWild host
Daviesia pseudaphyllaFabaceaeWild host
DryandraProteaceaeWild host
Erica (heaths)EricaceaeUnknown
Erica umbellataEricaceaeWild host
EricaceaeEricaceaeOther
Etlingera elatior (torch ginger)ZingiberaceaeHabitat/association
EucalyptusMyrtaceaeOther
Eucalyptus calophyllaMyrtaceaeOther
Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah)MyrtaceaeOther
Fagus (beeches)FagaceaeWild host
Gastrolobium papilioFabaceaeWild host
Hedera helix (ivy)AraliaceaeUnknown
Heliconia bihai (macaw flower)HeliconiaceaeHabitat/association
Hypericum formosumClusiaceaeOther
Ilex glabra (Gallberry)AquifoliaceaeOther
Isopogon uncinatusProteaceaeWild host
Juglans (walnuts)JuglandaceaeOther
Juglans regia (walnut)JuglandaceaeOther
Kalmia latifolia (Mountain laurel)EricaceaeOther
Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeHabitat/association
LambertiaProteaceaeWild host
Laurus nobilis (sweet bay)LauraceaeMain
Lavandula angustifolia (lavender)LamiaceaeOther
LeucadendronProteaceaeOther
Leucadendron argenteumProteaceaeUnknown
Leucadendron gandogeriUnknown
Leucadendron laureolumProteaceaeUnknown
Leucadendron rubrumProteaceaeUnknown
Leucadendron salicifoliumUnknown
Leucadendron salignumProteaceaeUnknown
Leucothoe (Plantae)Wild host
Lupinus luteus (yellow lupin)FabaceaeOther
Macadamia integrifolia (macadamia nut)ProteaceaeMain
Magnolia virginiana (sweet bay)MagnoliaceaeWild host
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
Mimetes argenteusUnknown
Mimetes hottentoticusUnknown
Mimetes splendidusUnknown
Orothamnus zeyheriUnknown
Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeMain
Pinopsida (conifers)Other
Pinus clausa (sand pine)PinaceaeUnknown
Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine)PinaceaeUnknown
Pinus radiata (radiata pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine)PinaceaeUnknown
Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)PinaceaeUnknown
Platanus acerifolia (London planetree)PlatanaceaeOther
PriestleyaUnknown
ProteaProteaceaeUnknown
Protea nitidaProteaceaeUnknown
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain
Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeMain
Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir)PinaceaeOther
Quercus (oaks)FagaceaeOther
Quercus agrifolia (California live oak)FagaceaeUnknown
Quercus cerris (European Turkey oak)FagaceaeOther
Quercus ellipticaFagaceaeOther
Quercus glaucoidesUnknown
Quercus ilex (holm oak)FagaceaeUnknown
Quercus laceyiFagaceaeOther
Quercus magnoliifoliaFagaceaeOther
Quercus peduncularisFagaceaeOther
Quercus robur (common oak)FagaceaeOther
Quercus salicifoliaUnknown
Quercus suber (cork oak)FagaceaeOther
Rhododendron (Azalea)EricaceaeOther
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)FabaceaeUnknown
Sciadopitys verticillata (parasol pine)TaxodiaceaeUnknown
Secale cereale (rye)PoaceaeUnknown
Serruria kraussiiUnknown
Taxus baccata (English yew)TaxaceaeWild host
Taxus cuspidata (Japanese yew)TaxaceaeUnknown
Taxus mediaTaxaceaeUnknown
Trifolium incarnatum (Crimson clover)FabaceaeUnknown
Vaccinium corymbosum (blueberry)EricaceaeOther
Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry)EricaceaeUnknown
ViburnumCaprifoliaceaeOther
Widdringtonia cedarbergensisCupressaceaeUnknown
Xanthorrhoea (grass tree)XanthorrhoeaceaeWild host

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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P. cinnamomi causes a rot of fine feeder roots, and root cankers in some species, leading to dieback and death of host plants. Other symptoms include wilt, stem cankers (with sudden death of tree), decline in yield, decreased fruit size, gum exudation, collar rot (if infected through grafts near soil level) and heart rot (e.g. pineapple). A symptomless invasion of the sapwood has been reported in some species (Davison, 2011).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / reduced size
Growing point / rot
Leaves / wilting
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / wilt
Whole plant / dead heart
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

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Sporangia release motile zoospores into water in the soil, and these swim to small roots (a chemotactic response to root exudates), encyst and germinate on the root surface. Penetration occurs within 24 h of germination (Zentmyer, 1961). The fungus then spreads in the young feeder roots causing a rot which may extend into the base of the stem. Propagules may also be splashed onto and infect aerial parts of the plant. Temperature, moisture and pH all influence growth and reproduction of the fungus. Effects of these factors have been reviewed by Weste (1983).

P. cinnamomi survives in dead plant material (survival influenced by soil matric potential) and can survive for long periods in this substratum (Shea et al., 1980). This saprophytic phase can allow an increase in the population of the pathogen. The fungus may also survive in the soil as mycelium, sporangia, zoospore cysts, chlamydospores and oospores, and survival can be extended in the presence of an organic substrate (Weste and Vithanage, 1979). Zoospore cysts can survive for at least 6 weeks at between -5 and -15 bar soil matric potential (MacDonald and Duniway, 1978). P. cinnamomi is heterothallic; oospores are very rare, and are slow to germinate. Varying germination periods may help to maintain a low but continuing population. Chlamydospore survival is also influenced by soil matric potential, and chlamydospores can survive for at least 6 years if soil moisture exceeds 3% (Zentmyer and Mircetich, 1966).

Chlamydospores form in soil, gravel or plant tissue during dry periods, germinate under favourable (moist) conditions and grow to form mycelia and sporangia or more chlamydospores. The latter may, in turn, remain dormant until conditions become suitable, then germinate to produce infective mycelia, sporangia and zoospores, or more chlamydospores. This cycle may continue for at least 5 years, provided there is a nutrient source (organic matter) and a non-competitive soil microflora. Stromata that germinate in planta with hyphae capable of producing oospores and chlamydospores have been observed by Crone et al. (2013).

Although P. cinnamomi was originally mainly reported in tropical and subtropical countries, it can apparently survive and develop in cooler countries, and does not seem to be obviously restricted by growing season or winter temperatures.

The genetic structure of the population, as determined by analysis of four microsatellite loci shows that there are three clonal lineages of P. cinnamomi which appear to have spread throughout the world (Dobrowolski et al., 2003).

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Amanita caesarea Pathogen
Anguillospora pseudolongissima Pathogen
Aspergillus candidus Antagonist South Africa
Bacillus azotoformans Pathogen South Africa
Bacillus megaterium Pathogen South Africa
Boletus bovinoides Pathogen
Byssochlamys lagunculariae Pathogen
Catenaria anguillulae Pathogen
Gliocladium viride Antagonist
Hebeloma cylindrosporum Pathogen
Humicola fuscoatra Pathogen
Hyphochytrium catenoides Pathogen
Laccaria laccata Pathogen
Myrothecium roridum Pathogen
Myrothecium verrucaria Pathogen
Oidiodendron maius Pathogen
Paecilomyces lilacinus Mycoparasite South Africa
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist
Streptomyces griseoalbus Pathogen
Suillus granulatus Pathogen
Trichoderma hamatum Antagonist South Africa
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

On a local scale, the pathogen can be moved naturally by soil-splash, by wind-blown soil or debris, or by water movement and run-off in drainage/irrigation ditches.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Humans and native and feral animals can spread P. cinnamomi in adhering soil (Environment Australia, 2001). A recent study showed that feral pigs (Sus scrofa) have the ability to transport viable P. cinnamomi in their digestive tract (Li et al., 2014).

Accidental Introduction

The most likely means of more distant movement is in contaminated soil, in plant debris and on cryptically infected plants. Propagules can also be carried on machinery used for cultivation or harvesting and on seed. Movement of contaminated road gravel has resulted in initiation of new epidemics in Australia (Weste, 1975; Batini, 1977Colquhoun and Petersen, 1994). Movement of contaminated soil with container-grown ornamentals can spread the pathogen to disease-free areas, and this is the most probable pathway for international spread (Davison et al., 2006).

Seedborne Aspects

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P. cinnamomi has not been shown to be seedborne.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceSpread in soil during road building and mining Yes Batini (1977); Colquhoun and Petersen (1994)
HitchhikerProbably very common Yes Yes
Nursery tradeProbably very common Yes Yes Davison et al. (2006)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Land vehiclesIn moist soil stuck to vehicles Yes Batini (1977); Colquhoun and Petersen (1994)
Machinery and equipmentIn moist soil stuck to equipment Yes Batini (1977); Colquhoun and Petersen (1994)
Plants or parts of plantsProbably very common on cryptically infected plants Yes Yes Davison et al. (2006)
Soil, sand and gravelVery common Yes Batini (1977); Colquhoun and Petersen (1994)
WaterIn rivers and irrigation water Yes Broembsen (1984); MacDonald et al. (1994)

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants fungi/spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Economic Impact

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The most significant food crop losses due to P. cinnamomi root rot occur in avocado (Ploetz, 2013), particularly in California, USA (Coit, 1928), Australia (Allen et al., 1980) and South Africa (Toerien, 1979; Nagel et al., 2013). Pineapple heart and root rot is also important. Severe epidemics of P. cinnamomi have resulted in extensive damage to Eucalyptus forests in Australia (Weste and Taylor, 1971). In temperate areas, P. cinnamomi causes serious damage to high-value ornamental trees and shrubs produced by the nursery stock industry (Smith, 1988). It is also reported to infect trees in amenity plantings, forests or orchards, but there is little or no quantitative record of this, which suggests that losses are only minor.

Environmental Impact

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P. cinnamomi is associated with the widespread death of native plants in southern Australia where it behaves as an aggressive invader (Cahill et al., 2008). Most susceptible species are members of the families Proteaceae, Ericaceae, Fabaceae, Xanthorrhoeacea and Dilleniaceae, some of which are structurally important in vegetation communities. For example the death of some Banksia spp. in the south west of Western Australia has resulted in changes to the structure of vegetation communities from banksia dominated wood- and shrub-lands to areas dominated by herbs (e.g., Shearer et al., 2012). P. cinnamomi infection reduces both the botanical diversity and availability of food (nectar and pollen), nesting sites and protective cover for birds and small mammals that depend on these species (Cahill et al., 2008). As a result of these impacts, P. cinnamomi has been listed by the Australian Government as a threatening process (Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, 1999). The Threatened Species table includes species that are nationally listed as endangered in Australia and known to be threatened by P. cinnamomi either directly by dieback disease or through the habitat destruction it causes (Environment Australia, 2001).

Although the impact of P. cinnamomi on US forests appears less devastating than in Australia, its wide host and distribution ranges pose a threat to native forest trees. It was first recorded there from American chestnut (Castanea dentata) which is one of the most susceptible and severely affected hosts (Balci and Bienapfl, 2013). It is reported to cause patches of mortality in stands of the rare plant Ione manzanita (Arctostaphylos myrtifolia) in California and has been implicated in the decline of white oak (Quercus alba) in the Appalachians (Balci and Bienapfl, 2013).

In southern Europe, P. cinnamomi attacksnative chestnut trees (Castanea sativa) in Portugal, Spain and France and is spreading to the chestnut areas of Italy (Jung et al., 2013). Combined with prolonged periods of intense drought it is also contributing to oak decline in these countries (Thomas, 2008; Jung et al., 2013). At Doñana National Park in south-western Spain, it has been isolated from diseased mature cork oaks (Quercus suber) which is a species of high ecological value (Vita et al., 2012).

P. cinnamomi is also associated with sporadic deaths of Proteaceae and other species in remote areas of undisturbed native vegetation in the South Western Cape Province of South Africa. In these regions it does not appear to be an aggressive invader, and it has been suggested that it is indigenous to this area (Broembsen and Kruger, 1985).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Adenanthos × cunninghamiiNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Adenanthos dobagiiNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Adenanthos pungensNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Andersonia axillifloraNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Arctostaphylos myrtifolia (Ione manzanita)National list(s)CaliforniaPathogenicBalci and Bienapfl (2013)
Banksia browneiNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Banksia cuneataNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Banksia verticillataNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Darwinia collinaNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Darwinia macrostegiaNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Darwinia meeboldiiNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Darwinia oxylepisNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Darwinia squarrosaNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Darwinia wittwerorumNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Daviesia megacalyxNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Daviesia pseudaphyllaNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Dryandra anatonaNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Dryandra montanaNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Dryandra nivea subsp. uliginosaNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Dryandra serratuloidesNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillaceaNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Eucalyptus imlayensis (Imlay mallee)National list(s)New South WalesEnvironment Australia (2001)
Gastrolobium papilioNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Genoplesium rhyoliticum (Rhyolite midge orchid)National list(s)New South WalesEnvironment Australia (2001)
Isoodon obesulus (southern brown bandicoot)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern)AustraliaEnvironment Australia (2001)
Isopogon uncinatusNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Lambertia echinataNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Lambertia fairalliiNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Lambertia orbifoliaNational list(s)Western AustraliaPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Lomatia tasmanicaNational list(s)TasmaniaEnvironment Australia (2001)
Prostanthera askania (Strickland mint-bush)National list(s)New South WalesPathogenicEnvironment Australia (2001)
Prostanthera junonis (Somersby mint-bush)National list(s)New South WalesEnvironment Australia (2001)
Pseudomys fumeus (smoky mouse)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)AustraliaEnvironment Australia (2001)
Pseudomys shortridgei (heath mouse)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)AustraliaEnvironment Australia (2001)
Wollemia nobilisCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)New South WalesEnvironment Australia (2001)

Social Impact

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In addition to the social value of native flora and fauna threatened by P. cinnamomi for landscape and tourism, access to areas of infection or at risk may be restricted and hygiene measures imposed to reduce the spread of the pathogen by humans (e.g., Natural Resource Management Western Australia, 2013).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Diagnosis

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An overview of molecular methods for identifying Phytophthora species is provided by Martin (2013)OEPP/EPPO (2004) gives a diagnostic protocol for P. cinnamomi and a quantitative PCR assay for in planta measurement of P. cinnamomi DNA is described by Eshragi et al. (2011).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

SPS measures

Hygienic precautions can be applied to exclude P. cinnamomi from a place of production (Smith, 1988). Unsterilized soil or growing medium, or farm machinery, should not be brought in. Introduced plants should be kept apart until their phytosanitary status has been checked. All propagation should be done from healthy plants or seed. Cultural measures should be taken to reduce the risk of spread in case of introduction. If land does become infested, incidence of P. cinnamomi can be reduced, if not necessarily eliminated, by leaving the land under non-susceptible crops for at least 4 years, and by applying various control measures.

In southern Australia there is great concern about the impact of P. cinnamomi in areas of native vegetation. A good outline of management practices to reduce its introduction to, and spread within, such areas is given on the Project Dieback website (Natural Resource Management Western Australia, 2013).

Public awareness

A standard dieback signage system is used in Western Australia to indicate the dieback status of an area to help prevent the spread of propagules by humans, see Project Dieback (Natural Resource Management Western Australia, 2013).   

Control

Cultural control

Cultural control measures include alleviation of high soil moisture levels and improving aeration by increasing drainage, and attention to mineral nutrition. Elements of the soil microflora suppress P. cinnamomi in some soils and may be potential biocontrol agents. These factors were reviewed by Weste (1983). Soil solarization also controls P. cinnamomi on young avocado plants (Kotze and Darvas, 1983). Smith et al. (1983) reviewed the combination of measures for controlling the disease in nurseries.

The use of mulches rich in cellulose will often reduce populations of P. cinnamomi. Microorganisms which decompose cellulose also degrade the cell walls of P. cinnamomi, which are composed of cellulose and laminarin (Downer et al., 2001). Composted and uncomposted animal manures suppress P. cinnamomi (Aryantha et al., 2000) but the active ingredient is often ammonia which can be toxic to plant roots. Chitosan also inhibits fungal growth of P. cinnamomi (Napoles et al., 1997). Gypsum amended soil reduced root rot of avocado seedlings (Messenger et al., 2000a, b). In hydroponic conditions, increased copper (Toppe and Thinggaard, 2000), sand filtration (Os et al., 1999) and reduced oxygen (Burgess et al., 1998) significantly reduced disease. Soil solarization, in isolation and with cover crops, significantly reduced P. cinnamomi populations in avocado orchards (Lopez Herrera et al., 1997) and sunlight exposure reduced heart rot of pineapple (Yang RongYang and Zhou Chang, 1998).

Biological control

There are numerous microorganisms which inhibit P. cinnamomi via parasitism, antibiosis and competition. Although none of these microorganisms has yet provided economical control, there is increasing evidence that these organisms play an important role in the natural suppression of P. cinnamomi in certain soils. This topic has been reviewed by Erwin and Ribeiro (1996). Bioenhanced mulches (Costa et al., 1996) and repeated applications of the bacterium Pseudomonas putida (Yang et al., 2001) suppressed P. cinnamomi infection on avocado roots. Earthworms were shown to transport biocontrol agents in potted soil which helped to alleviate avocado root rot (Singer et al., 1999). In vitro inhibition of P. cinnamomi was obtained with Byssochlamys nivea isolated from saline mud in western Australia.

Chemical control

Chemical control is obtained with systemic fungicides, particularly fosetyl-Al (and phosphonic acid) and metalaxyl (e.g. Whiley et al., 1986), applied by soil drench, foliar spray or trunk injection. Addition of elemental sulphur reduced disease incidence in pineapple, apparently through effects on soil pH (Pegg, 1977). P. cinnamomi was reduced in stems of native plants by phosphite foliar sprays in a jarrah forest (Pilbeam et al., 2000), and in other native plant communities (Shearer and Crane, 2009; Natural Resource Mangement Western Australia, 2013).

Host-plant resistance

Field resistance to P. cinnamomi has been found in (among others) species of Eucalyptus (Fagg, 1987; Wardlaw and Palzer, 1988, Stukely and Crane, 1994), Juglans (Matheron and Mircetich, 1985), Banksia (McCredie et al., 1985) and Pinus (Butcher et al., 1984). Some rootstocks of avocado also show tolerance (Kotze and Darvas, 1983).

References

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Acedo A, Cardillo E, Pérez MC, Morales-Rodríguez MC, Rodríguez-Molina MC, Pérez-Sierra A, 2013. First report of Phytophthora cinnamomi associated with mortality of Erica umbellata natural shrubs in Spain. New Disease Reports, 28:8. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/pdfs/028/NDR_028008.pdf

Allen RN, Pegg KG, Forsberg LI, Firth DJ, 1980. Fungicidal control in pineapple and avocado of diseases caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 20(102):119-124

Amna Ali, Nosheen Akhtar, Mirza JH, Rukhsana Bajwa, 2006. Addition to micromycetes of Lahore, Pakistan. Mycopath, 4(2):17-25. http://www.pu.edu.pk/mppl

Ann PaoJen, 2000. New diseases and records of flowering potted plants caused by Phytophthora species in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 9(1):1-10; 35 ref

Aryantha IP, Cross R, Guest DI, 2000. Suppression of Phytophthora cinnamomi in potting mixes amended with uncomposted and composted animal manures. Phytopathology, 90(7):775-782; 26 ref

Balci Y, Bienapfl JC, 2013. Phytophthora in US forests. In: Phytophthora: a global perspective [ed. by Lamour, K.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 135-145. http://www.cabi.org/CABeBooks/default.aspx?site=107&page=45&LoadModule=PDFHier&BookID=763

Barnard, E. L., Webb, R. S., Gilly, S. P., Lante, W. D., 1986. Phytophthora cinnamomi infection in sand pine seedlings in Florida nurseries and effects on outplant survival. USA: Dept. of Research Information, Auburn University.486-495. https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US8912194

Batini F, 1977. Jarrah dieback - a disease of the Jarrah Forest of Western Australia. Bulletin 84, Forests Department Perth, Western Australia

Benson DM, Campbell CL, 1985. Spatial pattern of Phytophthora root rot and dieback of azalea in container-grown nursery stock. Plant Disease, 69(12):1049-1054

Bertetti D, Gullino ML, Poli A, Bizioli L, Garibaldi A, 2012. First report of root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi on Kalmia latifolia L. grown in Italy. (Marciumi radicali causati da Phytophthora cinnamomi su Kalmia latifolia L. coltivata in Italia.) Protezione delle Colture, No.4:65-67. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Bertetti D, Pensa P, Poli A, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2013. Fungal pathogens found on new hosts in Italy: Golovinomyces cichoracearum on Aster novi-belghii, Botryosphaeria dothidea on pear fruit, Phytophthora cinnamomi on Kalmia latifolia. (Parassiti fungini riscontrati su nuovi ospiti in Italia: Golovinomyces cichoracearum su Aster novi-belgii, Botryosphaeria dothidea, su frutti di pero, Phytophthora cinnamomi su Kalmia latifolia.) Protezione delle Colture, No.2:54-55

Bezuidenhout CM, Denman S, Kirk SA, Botha WJ, Mostert L, McLeod A, 2010. Phytophthora taxa associated with cultivated Agathosma, with emphasis on the P. citricola complex and P. capensis sp. nov. Persoonia, 25:32-49. http://www.persoonia.org

Brasier, C. M., Robredo, F., Ferraz, J. F. P., 1993. Evidence for Phytophthora cinnamomi involvement in Iberian oak decline. Plant Pathology, 42(1), 140-145. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.1993.tb01482.x

Broembsen SL von, 1984. Distribution of Phytophthora cinnamomi in rivers of the south western Cape Province of South Africa. Phytophylactica, 16:227-229

Broembsen SL von, Kruger FJ, 1985. Phytophthora cinnamomi associated with mortality of native vegetation in South Africa. Plant Disease, 69(8):715-717

Brown AV, Brasier CM, 2007. Colonization of tree xylem by Phytophthora ramorum, P. kernoviae and other Phytophthora species. Plant Pathology, 56(2):227-241. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

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Burgess T, McComb J, Hardy G, Colquhoun I, 1998. Influence of low oxygen levels in aeroponics chambers on eucalypt roots infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi. Plant Disease, 82(4):368-373; 30 ref

Butcher TB, Stukely MJC, Chester GW, 1984. Genetic variation in resistance of Pinus radiata to Phytophthora cinnamomi. Forest Ecology and Management, 8:197-220

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp

Cahill DM, Rookes JE, Wilson BA, Gibson L, McDougall KL, 2008. Phytophthora cinnamomi and Australia's biodiversity: impacts, predictions and progress towards control. Australian Journal of Botany, 56(4):279-310. http://www.publish.csiro.au/?nid/66

Caruso, F. L., Wilcox, W. F., 1990. Phytophthora cinnamomi as a cause of root rot and dieback of cranberry in Massachusetts. Plant Disease, 74(9), 664-667. doi: 10.1094/PD-74-0664

Cerný K, Tomsovský M, Mrázková M, Strnadová V, 2011. The present state of knowledge on Phytophthora spp. diversity in forest and ornamental woody plants in the Czech Republic. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science [Fifth Meeting of the IUFRO Working Party S07-02-09, Phytophthora Diseases in Forests and Natural Ecosystems, Auckland and Rotorua, New Zealand, 7-12 March 2010.], 41(Suppl.):S75-S82. http://www.scionresearch.com/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/35466/NZJFS-41S2011S75-S82_CERNY.pdf

Chavarriaga, D., Bodles, W. J. A., Leifert, C., Belbahri, L., Woodward, S., 2007. Phytophthora cinnamomi and other fine root pathogens in north temperate pine forests. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 276(1), 67-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2007.00914.x

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Colquhoun IJ, Petersen AE, 1994. The impact of disease on mining. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia, 77:151-158

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Crone M, McComb JA, O'Brien PA, Hardy GEStJ, 2013. Survival of Phytophthora cinnamomi as oospores, stromata, and thick-walled chlamydospores in roots of symptomatic and asymptomatic annual and herbaceous perennial plant species. Fungal Biology, 117(2):112-123. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187861461200205X

DAISIE, 2013. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. DAISIE (online). www.europe-aliens.org

Darvas, J. M., Toerien, J. C., Milne, D. L., 1984. Control of avocado root rot by trunk injection with phosethyl-Al. Plant Disease, 68(8), 691-693. doi: 10.1094/PD-69-691

Davison EM, 2011. How do Phytophthora spp. De Bary kill trees? New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 41S:S25-S37

Davison EM, Drenth A, Kumar S, Mack S, Mackie AE, McKirdy S, 2006. Pathogens associated with nursery plants imported into Western Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 35(4):473-475. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/39.htm

Dobrowolski MP, Tommerup IC, Shearer BL, O'Brien PA, 2003. Three clonal lineages of Phytophthora cinnamomi in Australia revealed by microsatellites. Phytopathology, 93(6):695-704

Ellis, M. A., Miller, S. A., Cochran, K. D., 1993. First report of Phytophthora root rot, caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, on Taxus species in Ohio. Plant Disease, 77(5), 537. doi: 10.1094/PD-77-0537E

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Centre for Phytophthora Science and Management (CPSM)http://www.cpsm-phytophthora.org/The Centre provides science, management and training to underpin the amelioration of the threats posed by Phytophthora in Australia.
Phytophthora cinnamomi diseasehttp://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicshowkeythreat.pl?id=2Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities
Project Diebackhttp://www.dieback.net.au/Concerns the fight against Phytophthora cinnamomi dieback in Western Australia and includes news, management, distribution maps and protected areas and a list of susceptible native species

Organizations

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Australia: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, John Gorton Building, King Edward Terrace, Parkes ACT 2600, http://www.environment.gov.au/

Australia: Natural Resource Management Western Australia, Department of Agriculture and Food, 3 Baron-Hay Court, South Perth, http://www.nrm.wa.gov.au/

Contributors

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Updated 25/09/11 by:

Elaine Davison, Department of Environment and Agriculture, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845, Australia

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