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Datasheet

Phytophthora colocasiae
(taro leaf blight)

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Datasheet

Phytophthora colocasiae (taro leaf blight)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phytophthora colocasiae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • taro leaf blight
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Phytophthora colocasiae (taro leaf blight); symptoms on a taro leaf  (Colocasia esculenta). St. Louis Heights, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. September 2014.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPhytophthora colocasiae (taro leaf blight); symptoms on a taro leaf (Colocasia esculenta). St. Louis Heights, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. September 2014.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Scot Nelson/via flickr - CC0
Phytophthora colocasiae (taro leaf blight); symptoms on a taro leaf  (Colocasia esculenta). St. Louis Heights, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. September 2014.
SymptomsPhytophthora colocasiae (taro leaf blight); symptoms on a taro leaf (Colocasia esculenta). St. Louis Heights, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. September 2014.Public Domain - Released by Scot Nelson/via flickr - CC0
Phytophthora colocasiae (taro leaf blight); leaf blight on taro (Colocasia esculenta).
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPhytophthora colocasiae (taro leaf blight); leaf blight on taro (Colocasia esculenta).
Copyright©Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
Phytophthora colocasiae (taro leaf blight); leaf blight on taro (Colocasia esculenta).
SymptomsPhytophthora colocasiae (taro leaf blight); leaf blight on taro (Colocasia esculenta).©Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phytophthora colocasiae Racib.

Preferred Common Name

  • taro leaf blight

International Common Names

  • English: blight of dasheen; leaf blight of Colocasia spp.; leaf blight of Gabi; Phytophthora leaf blight
  • French: flétrissure des feuilles de taro

Local Common Names

  • China: yu yi ping

EPPO code

  • PHYTOO (Phytophthora colocasiae)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Peronosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Phytophthora
  •                             Species: Phytophthora colocasiae

Description

Top of page Deciduous sporangia with apical papilla are produced on slender sporangiophores which branch irregularly or sympodially with a swelling at the point of branching. Sporangia are ovoid to ellipsoid, mostly 45-50 x 23 µm with a length-to-width ratio of 1:1.6. Chlamydospores are thick-walled, usually 26-30 µm diameter. Oospores averaging 29 µm diameter are produced in oogonia with amphigynous antheridia attached (Waterhouse, 1963; Stamps et al., 1990). Sex organs of individual isolates can be produced on polycarbonate membranes stimulated by sex hormones produced by the opposite mating type of P. colocasiae or a different species of Phytophthora (Ko, 1988).

Distribution

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P. colocasiae occurs in South-East Asia, its probable area of origin, and has spread from there to many Pacific territories and parts of Oceania. It occurs in Indonesia (Raciborski, 1900), China (Sawada, 1911; Dai, 1927), India (Butlen et al., 1913), the Philippines (Reinking, 1919; Gomez, 1925), Malaysia (Thompson, 1939), Hawaii (Parris, 1941), Papua New Guinea (Shaw, 1963), British Solomon Islands (Jackson et al., 1975) and the Trust Territories of the Pacific (Plucknett et al., 1970; Trujillo, 1971). The report for Equatorial Guinea refers to Bioko Island (Fernando Po) (CABI/EPPO, 2014).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

CameroonPresentCABI and EPPO (2014)
Equatorial GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
EthiopiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
GhanaPresentOmane et al. (2012); CABI and EPPO (2014)
NigeriaPresentBandyopadhyay et al. (2011); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
SeychellesPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)

Asia

BangladeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
BruneiPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-FujianPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-GuangdongPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-GuangxiPresentTeng (1938); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-HainanPresentZhang et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-HebeiPresentEPPO (2020)
-HubeiPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-HunanPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-JiangsuPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-JiangxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-SichuanPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-YunnanPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Hong KongPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-Arunachal PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-AssamPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-BiharPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-ChhattisgarhPresentYadav and Agrawal (2008); CABI and EPPO (2014)
-Himachal PradeshPresentAkhilesh Singh (2009); CABI and EPPO (2014)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-KeralaPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-MaharashtraPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-MeghalayaPresentYadav et al. (2006); CABI and EPPO (2014)
-NagalandPresentCABI and EPPO (2014)
-OdishaPresentMisra et al. (2007); CABI and EPPO (2014)
-PunjabPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-SikkimPresentCABI and EPPO (2014)
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-West BengalPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
IndonesiaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-Irian JayaPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-JavaPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-HonshuPresentEPPO (2020)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
MalaysiaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-SabahPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-SarawakPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
MyanmarPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
NepalPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
PakistanPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentCABI and EPPO (2014)
Sri LankaPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
ThailandPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentBaysal-Gurel and Cinar (2015)
VietnamPresentLebot et al. (2003); CABI and EPPO (2014)

North America

Dominican RepublicPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentRosa-Márquez et al. (2006); CABI and EPPO (2014)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-HawaiiPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

American SamoaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
FijiAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)Original citation: South Pacific Commission, 2008, personal communication
GuamPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
PalauPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
Papua New GuineaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
SamoaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
Solomon IslandsPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresentCABI and EPPO (2014)

Risk of Introduction

Top of page P. colocasiae has been distributed over long distances by means of vegetatively propagated material and probably by soil. Thus, where there is international, national or regional trade in plants and corms, there is a case for the prohibition of movement from diseased to disease-free regions. Where importation is from a region where P. colocasiae is known to occur, planting material may be treated with sterilizing chemicals such as metalaxyl.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Growth Stages

Top of page Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Affected leaves initially show small dark spots which enlarge rapidly and turn purplish brown with yellowish margins. The lesions frequently form concentric zones and exude drops of yellowish liquid. Some of the diseased tissues may be covered with a whitish fuzz consisting of sporangia. As the disease progresses, the lesions (mostly along the leaf margin) continue to expand and frequently coalesce. Diseased tissues disintegrate, forming holes of irregular size and shape on the affected leaves. Occasionally the pathogen may cause water-soaked lesion on the petioles. Infected leaves collapse within 20 days of unfurling, compared to 40 days for healthy leaves. The normal 6-7 leaves per plant was reduced to 3-4 leaves per plant by severe disease incidence.

After harvest, grey-brown to dark-blue lesions occur on undamaged corms. These lesions enlarge rapidly and coalesce. The boundary between the healthy and diseased tissues is usually indistinct and soft. Affected corms are almost completely decayed at 8 days after harvest in wet conditions.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Vegetative organs / soft rot
Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Life Cycle

Hyphae of the fungus generally survive longer in sterilized soil (30 days) than in natural soil (5 days). At >20°C and >55% soil moisture the hyphae disappeared with 5 days of burial in natural soil (Sitansan Pan et al., 1994). Survival of the fungus between crops is less clearly understood. Neither chlamydospores nor oospores have been reported under field conditions although they form readily in agar culture. Thus it is assumed that where the crop is seasonal the fungus survives as mycelium within stored corms used as propagating material for the next season's planting. Oospores may also survive in the corm and leaf tissue left in the field after harvest. In the Philippines sporangia on the leaves were found capable of germination after remaining under field conditions for 3 months (Gomez, 1925).

Free water is needed for sporangial germination and zoospore mobility. Close to 100% RH is needed for infection to occur. The period of leaf wetness, therefore, has a large effect on infection by P. colocasiae. At optimal temperatures of 24-27°C, sporangial germination, release of zoospores and penetration occur after 6-8 hours. The fungus enters the plant through the cuticle and a latent period requires 2-4 days at optimal temperatures of 27-30°C. In wet weather the lesions of infected leaves or petioles may produce many sporangia and zoospores are disseminated by rain splash.

Transmission

Oospores occur infrequently in nature, and taro leaf blight is thus spread almost exclusively by sporangia from the anamorph. Dissemination via rain splash is the most common dispersal mechanism. Spread of the fungus within a taro planting occurs when sporangia and zoospores are splashed from infected to healthy leaves. The infection of new planting occurs by spores blown in wind-driven rain from adjacent diseased fields or from infected wild taro. Also the fungus has been distributed by means of vegetatively propagated material and probably by soil.

Epidemiology

P. colocasiae occurs under conditions of high temperature and humidity, in wet areas and densely planted fields. Epidemics occur frequently between July and September in Hainan, China. Primary leaf infection has been observed following tropical storms.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Streptomyces albidoflavus Pathogen
Streptomyces diastaticus Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact

Top of page This disease can lead to a 30-40% crop loss in heavily infected taro fields (Jackson et al., 1975). The fungus is widespread in South-East Asia and parts of Oceania, where it causes severe leaf damage and considerable loss of corm yield. For example, in the British Solomon Islands, it has been reported to be a limiting factor on taro production (Barrau, 1958; Plucknett et al., 1970). In the Philippines, yield reductions ranged from 24.4% in resistant to 36.5% in susceptible cultivars (Vasguez, 1990). The fungus is capable of infecting undamaged corm tissues under conditions of high humidity resulting in severe corm decay in the storage stage.

Diagnosis

Top of page Diseased tissues (ca 5 x 5 mm) taken from advancing margins of lesions on leaves or petioles are placed between clean paper towels to remove free water, plated on a selective medium (per litre: 50 ml V-8 juice, 50 mg mycostatin, 100 mg ampicillin, 10 mg pentachloronitrobenzene, 20 g agar) (Ko et al., 1979), and incubated at 24-28°C. Mycelia growing from the diseased tissues are transferred to 10% V-8 agar (Ko, 1979; Aun et al., 1986).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Disease symptoms are easily visible in the field (see Symptoms for description). When lesions are unclear or where confirmation is needed, the lesions should be incubated to produce sporangia for identification (see Diagnostic Methods).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Host-Plant Resistance

Cultivars that are resistant to leaf blight have been the most important method of disease control. In Bangladesh, among 50 lines tested by artificial inoculation in the field, two were highly resistant to P. colocasiae, five resistant, 12 moderately resistant and the rest moderately to highly susceptible (Goswami, 1993). Of 270 Colocasia esculenta lines screened for natural resistance to leaf blight in the field at Trivandrum, India, 119 lines were resistant (Santha-Pillai et al., 1993). In tests carried out in Arunachal Pradesh, India, 23 varieties of taro were screened for resistance to P. colocasiae, five varieties were immune and one was moderately resistant (Chaudhary et al., 1988). Of 11 cultivars screened under natural epiphytotics, Burdwar local was the best for commercial cultivation in west Bengal, India (Ghosh et al., 1991). In the British Solomon Islands, none of the 181 local cultivars tested were highly resistant to the fungus (Gollifer et al., 1974). More than 200 local varieties have been screened for resistance to the fungus and of these only Abrueme has shown promise (Jackson et al., 1975).

Resistance to P. colocasiae was found in a wild taro (Colocasia esculenta) accession introduced from Thailand and designated Bangkok. Data from crosses between Bangkok and local cultivars indicated that resistance is controlled by a single dominant gene (Patel et al., 1984).

Cultural Control

Cultural practices towards disease control include minimizing the source of inoculum, use of disease-free plant material, roguing infected leaves, and avoiding excessive levels of moisture.

Chemical Control

Fungicidal control is largely practised against P. colocasiae in taro cultivation. Currently widely used products are systemic (metalaxyl) and non-systemic fungicides (copper oxychloride, mancozeb, zineb) applied as foliar sprays. In India spraying metalaxyl at intervals of 15 days was effective in controlling the disease under field conditions and gave maximum net financial return (Ghosh et al., 1991). Good control was obtained with metalaxyl and fair control with copper oxychloride (Aggarwal et al., 1987). Sahu et al. (1989) report that four sprays of zineb at 15-day intervals reduced the incidence of P. colocasiae and increased the yield. In Papua New Guinea five applications of metalaxyl at 3-week intervals resulted in an increase of almost 50% corm yields (Cox et al., 1990). Applications of mancozeb at 7-day intervals gave substantial disease control and increased yields in Hawaii (Bergquist, 1974). But in the Solomon Islands mancozeb did not control the disease or increase corm yields, while mist-blower application of copper oxychloride gave effective control of P. colocasiae and increased corm yield (Jackson et al., 1980).

References

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Aggarwal A; Kamlesh; Mehrotra RS, 1993. Control of taro blight and corm rot caused by Phytophthora colocasiae homeopathic drugs. Plant Disease Research, 8(2):94-101

Aggarwal A; Mehrotra RS, 1986. Pectolytic and cellulolytic enzymes produced by Phytophthora colocasiae, P. parasitica var. piperina in vitro and in vivo. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 4:74-77.

Aggarwal A; Mehrotra RS, 1986. The effect of certain carbohydrates and amino acids on growth and respiration of Phytophthora colocasiae. Plant Disease Research, 1:11-15.

Aggarwal A; Mehrotra RS, 1987. Control of Phytophthora leaf blight of taro (Colocasia esculenta) by fungicides and roguing. Phytoparasitica, 15(5):299-305

Aggarwal A; Mehrotra RS, 1988. Effects of various fungicides on mycelial growth, sporangial production, enzyme activity and control of Phytophthora leaf blight of Colocasia esculenta L. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 23(3-4):401-414

Aggarwal A; Narula KL; Kaur G; Mehrotra RS; Hasija SK; Bilgrami KS, 1990. Phytophthora colocasiae Racib - Its taxonomy, phsiology, pathology and control. Perspectives in Mycological Research. Vol II (Eds) by Hasija SK et al., 105-134.

Akhilesh Singh, 2009. Evaluation of fungicides against Phytophthora leaf blight of Colocasia. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 17(1):262-263. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Ann PJ; Kao CW; Ko WH, 1986. Mating-type distribution of Phytophthora colocasip in Taiwan. Mycopathologia, 93(3):193-194

Ashok Aggarwal; Gurinderjit Kaur; Mehrotra RS, 1986. Effect of certain metabolic inhibitors on growth and respiration of Phytophthora colocasiae Racib. Indian Botanical Reporter, 5(2):119-122; 20 ref.

Ashok Aggarwal; Gurinderjit Kaur; Mehrotra RS, 1987. Activity of some antibiotics against Phytophthora colocasip incitant of leaf blight of Colocasia esculenta. Journal of the Indian Botanical Society, 66(3-4):301-304

Ashok Aggarwal; Mehrotra RS, 1987. The role of phenolic substances in leaf blight of Colocasia esculenta caused by Phytophthora colocasip. Journal of the Indian Botanical Society, 66(3-4):272-274

Ashok Aggarwal; Mehrotra RS, 1988. Effect of antibiotics on growth, enzyme activity and respiration of Phytophthora colocasip. Plant Disease Research, 3(1):37-42

Ashok Aggarwal; Mehrotra RS, 1988. Effect of systemic and non-systemic fungicides on mycelial growth and respiration of Phytophthora colocasiae. Indian Phytopathology, 41(4):590-593

Ashok Aggarwal; Mehrotra RS, 1988. Studies on transeliminases in Phytophthora colocasiae: inhibitory effects of plant growth regulators, phenolics and fungicides. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 6(2):158-163

Bandyopadhyay R; Sharma K; Onyeka TJ; Aregbesola A; Kumar PL, 2011. First report of taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae in Nigeria. Plant Disease, 95(5):618. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Baysal-Gurel F; Cinar A, 2015. First report of leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae infecting taro in Turkey. Plant Disease, 99(10):1445-1446. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Bergquist RR, 1972. Effect of fungicides for control of Phytophthora leaf blight of taro. Annals of Botany, 36:281-287.

Bergquist RR, 1974. Effect of fungicide rate, spray interval, timing of spray application, and precipitation in relation to control of Phytophthora leaf blight of taro. Annals of Botany, 38:213-221.

Butler EJ, 1913. Colocasia blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae Racib. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture in India, 5:233-261.

CABI/EPPO, 2014. Phytophthora colocasiae. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 466 (Edition 4).

Chaudhary RG; Mathura Rai, 1988. A note on the varietal screening of taro to Phytophthora blight. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 17(3-4):278-279

Cox PG; Kasimani C, 1988. Control of taro leaf blight using metalaxyl. Tropical Pest Management, 34(1):81-84

Cox PG; Kasimani C, 1990. Control of taro leaf blight using metalaxyl: effect of dose rate and application frequency. Papua New Guinea Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 35(1-4):49-55

Cox PG; Kasimani C, 1990. Effect of taro leaf blight on leaf number. Papua New Guinea Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 35(1-4):43-48

Dai FN, 1923. Phytophthora blight disease of taro. Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 1:1-8.

Desmukh MJ; Chibber KN, 1960. Field resistance to blight (Phytophthora colocasiae Rac.) in Colocasia antiquorum Schott. Current Science, 29:320-321.

Dey TK; Ali MS; Bhuiyan MKR; Siddique AM, 1993. Screening of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott lines to leaf blight. Journal of Root Crops, 19(1):62-65; 6 ref.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Firman ID, 1975. Phytophthora and Pythium species and the diseases caused by them in the area of the South Pacific Commission. Fiji Agricultural Journal, 37(1):1-8

Ghosh SK; Sitansu Pan, 1989. A comprehensive account of the fungal diseases of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. Indian Journal of Mycological Research, 27(2):107-119; 101 ref.

Ghosh SK; Sitansu Pan, 1991. Control of leaf blight of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) caused by Phytophthora colocasiae Racib. through fungicides and selection of variety. Journal of Mycopathological Research, 29(2):133-140

Ghosh SK; Sitansu Pan, 1994. Pectolytic and cellulolytic enzyme activity by 3 isolates of Phytophthora colocasiae Racib. with graded virulence. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 28(1):47-51

Giri D; Banerjee K; Laha SK; Khatua DC, 1989. Some diseases of horticultural and field crops. Environment and Ecology, 7(4):821-825

Gollifer DE, 1971. Preliminary observations on the performance of cultivars of taxo (Colocasia esculenta L) in the British Solomon Islands with notes on the incidence of taro leaf blight (Phytophthora colocasiae Rac) and other diseases. Tropical Root and Tuber Crops Tomorrow, 2:56-60.

Gollifer DE; Brown JF, 1974. Phytophthora leaf blight of Colocasia esculenta in the British Solomon Islands. Papua New Guinea Agricultural Journal, 25(1/2):6-11

Gollifer DE; Jackson GVH; Newhook FJ, 1980. Survival of inoculum of the leaf blight fungus Phytophthora colocasip infecting taro, Colocasia esculenta in the Solomon Islands. Annals of Applied Biology, 94(3):379-390

Gomez ET, 1925. Leaf blight of Gabi. Philippines Agriculture, 14:429-440.

Goswami BK; Zahid MI; Haq MO, 1993. Screening of Colocasia esculenta germplasm to Phytophthora leaf blight. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Pathology, 9(1-2):21-24

Hickes PG, 1967. Resistance of Colocasia esculenta to leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae. Papua New Guinea Agricultural Journal, 19:1-4.

Jackson GVH, 1977. Taro leaf blight. Advisory Leaflet, South Pacific Commission, No. 3:4 pp.

Jackson GVH; Gollifer DE, 1975. Disease and pest problems of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) in the British Solomon Islands. PANS, 21(1):45-53

Jackson GVH; Gollifer DE, 1975. Storage rots of taro (Colocasia esculenta) in the British Solomon Islands. Annals of Applied Biology, 80(2):217-230

Jackson GVH; Gollifer DE; Newhook FJ, 1980. Studies on the taro leaf blight fungus Phytophthora colocasip in Solomon Islands: control by fungicides and spacing. Annals of Applied Biology, 96(1):1-10

Ko WH, 1979. Mating-type distribution of Phytophthora colocasip on the island of Hawaii. Mycologia, 71(2):434-437

Kulkarni SN; Sharma OP, 1975. Corm rot of Colocasia antiquorum Schoff, due to Phytophthora colocasip Sacc. JNKVV Research Journal, 9(1/2):70

Lebot V; Herail C; Gunua T; Pardales J; Prana M; Thongjiem M; Viet N, 2003. Isozyme and RAPD variation among Phytophthora colocasiae isolates from South-east Asia and the Pacific. Plant Pathology, 52(3):303-313.

Macfarlane R, 1985. Entomological investigations. Annual report 1984, Research Department, Agriculture Division, Honiara, Solomon Islands: Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, 40-43

Macfarlane R, 1985. Taro beetle (Papuana uninodis). Annual report 1984, Research Department, Agriculture Division Honiara, Solomon Islands; Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, 7-8

Misra RS; Maheshwari SK; Sriram S; Sahu AK, 2007. Variability in Phytophthora colocasiae based on colony characters. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 15(1):271-272. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

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Distribution References

Akhilesh Singh, 2009. Evaluation of fungicides against Phytophthora leaf blight of Colocasia. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 17 (1), 262-263. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Bandyopadhyay R, Sharma K, Onyeka T J, Aregbesola A, Kumar P L, 2011. First report of taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae in Nigeria. Plant Disease. 95 (5), 618. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-10-0890

Baysal-Gurel F, Cinar A, 2015. First report of leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae infecting taro in Turkey. Plant Disease. 99 (10), 1445-1446. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-14-1311-PDN

CABI, EPPO, 2014. Phytophthora colocasiae. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 466 (Edition 4).

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Lebot V, Herail C, Gunua T, Pardales J, Prana M, Thongjiem M, Viet N, 2003. Isozyme and RAPD variation among Phytophthora colocasiae isolates from South-east Asia and the Pacific. Plant Pathology. 52 (3), 303-313. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3059.2003.00851.x

Misra R S, Maheshwari S K, Sriram S, Sahu A K, 2007. Variability in Phytophthora colocasiae based on colony characters. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 15 (1), 271-272. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Omane E, Oduro K A, Cornelius E W, Opoku I Y, Akrofi A Y, Sharma K, Kumar P L, Bandyopadhyay R, 2012. First report of leaf blight of taro (Colocasia esculenta) caused by Phytophthora colocasiae in Ghana. Plant Disease. 96 (2), 292-293. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-11-0789

Rosa-Márquez E, Almodóvar W I, Ortiz C E, Díaz M, 2006. Taro leaf blight (Phytophthora colocasiae): a new disease in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico. 90 (1/2), 137-138.

Teng S C, 1938. Diseases of economic plants in China I. Sinensis. 181-217.

Yadav R K, Yadav D S, Rai N, Sanwal S K, Pranabjyoti Sarma, 2006. Reaction of colocasia genotypes against leaf blight under Meghalaya condition. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 76 (12), 770-772.

Yadav V K, Agrawal A P, 2008. Screening of germplasms of Colocasia against Phytophthoro colocasiae. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 16 (1), 261. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Zhang K M, Zheng F C, Li Y D, Ann P J, Ko W H, 1994. Isolates of Phytophthora colocasiae from Hainan Island in China: evidence suggesting an Asian origin of this species. Mycologia. 86 (1), 108-112. DOI:10.2307/3760724

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