Phytophthora colocasiae (taro leaf blight)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Plant Trade
- Detection and Inspection
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Phytophthora colocasiae Racib.
Preferred Common Name
- taro leaf blight
International Common Names
- English: blight of dasheen; leaf blight of Colocasia spp.; leaf blight of Gabi; Phytophthora leaf blight
- French: flétrissure des feuilles de taro
Local Common Names
- China: yu yi ping
- PHYTOO (Phytophthora colocasiae)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Chromista
- Phylum: Oomycota
- Class: Oomycetes
- Order: Peronosporales
- Family: Peronosporaceae
- Genus: Phytophthora
- Species: Phytophthora colocasiae
DescriptionTop of page Deciduous sporangia with apical papilla are produced on slender sporangiophores which branch irregularly or sympodially with a swelling at the point of branching. Sporangia are ovoid to ellipsoid, mostly 45-50 x 23 µm with a length-to-width ratio of 1:1.6. Chlamydospores are thick-walled, usually 26-30 µm diameter. Oospores averaging 29 µm diameter are produced in oogonia with amphigynous antheridia attached (Waterhouse, 1963; Stamps et al., 1990). Sex organs of individual isolates can be produced on polycarbonate membranes stimulated by sex hormones produced by the opposite mating type of P. colocasiae or a different species of Phytophthora (Ko, 1988).
DistributionTop of page
P. colocasiae occurs in South-East Asia, its probable area of origin, and has spread from there to many Pacific territories and parts of Oceania. It occurs in Indonesia (Raciborski, 1900), China (Sawada, 1911; Dai, 1927), India (Butlen et al., 1913), the Philippines (Reinking, 1919; Gomez, 1925), Malaysia (Thompson, 1939), Hawaii (Parris, 1941), Papua New Guinea (Shaw, 1963), British Solomon Islands (Jackson et al., 1975) and the Trust Territories of the Pacific (Plucknett et al., 1970; Trujillo, 1971). The report for Equatorial Guinea refers to Bioko Island (Fernando Po) (CABI/EPPO, 2014).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Cameroon||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014)|
|Equatorial Guinea||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Ethiopia||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Ghana||Present||Omane et al. (2012); CABI and EPPO (2014)|
|Nigeria||Present||Bandyopadhyay et al. (2011); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Seychelles||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Bangladesh||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Brunei||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|China||Present, Localized||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Fujian||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)|
|-Guangdong||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Guangxi||Present||Teng (1938); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)|
|-Hainan||Present||Zhang et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Hubei||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Hunan||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)|
|-Jiangsu||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Jiangxi||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Sichuan||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)|
|-Yunnan||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)|
|Hong Kong||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|India||Present, Widespread||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Andhra Pradesh||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Arunachal Pradesh||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Assam||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Bihar||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Chhattisgarh||Present||Yadav and Agrawal (2008); CABI and EPPO (2014)|
|-Himachal Pradesh||Present||Akhilesh Singh (2009); CABI and EPPO (2014)|
|-Karnataka||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Kerala||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Madhya Pradesh||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Maharashtra||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Meghalaya||Present||Yadav et al. (2006); CABI and EPPO (2014)|
|-Nagaland||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014)|
|-Odisha||Present||Misra et al. (2007); CABI and EPPO (2014)|
|-Punjab||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Sikkim||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014)|
|-Tamil Nadu||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Uttar Pradesh||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-West Bengal||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Indonesia||Present, Localized||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Irian Jaya||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Java||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Japan||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Ryukyu Islands||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Malaysia||Present, Widespread||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Peninsular Malaysia||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Sabah||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Sarawak||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Myanmar||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Nepal||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Pakistan||Present, Widespread||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Philippines||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|South Korea||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014)|
|Sri Lanka||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Taiwan||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Thailand||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Turkey||Present||Baysal-Gurel and Cinar (2015)|
|Vietnam||Present||Lebot et al. (2003); CABI and EPPO (2014)|
|Dominican Republic||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Puerto Rico||Present||Rosa-Márquez et al. (2006); CABI and EPPO (2014)|
|United States||Present, Localized||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-Hawaii||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|-North Carolina||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|American Samoa||Present, Localized||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Federated States of Micronesia||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Fiji||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)||CABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)||Original citation: South Pacific Commission, 2008, personal communication|
|Guam||Present, Widespread||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Northern Mariana Islands||Present, Widespread||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Palau||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Papua New Guinea||Present, Widespread||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Samoa||Present, Localized||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Solomon Islands||Present, Widespread||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Argentina||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)|
|Brazil||Present||CABI and EPPO (2014)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page P. colocasiae has been distributed over long distances by means of vegetatively propagated material and probably by soil. Thus, where there is international, national or regional trade in plants and corms, there is a case for the prohibition of movement from diseased to disease-free regions. Where importation is from a region where P. colocasiae is known to occur, planting material may be treated with sterilizing chemicals such as metalaxyl.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage
SymptomsTop of page Affected leaves initially show small dark spots which enlarge rapidly and turn purplish brown with yellowish margins. The lesions frequently form concentric zones and exude drops of yellowish liquid. Some of the diseased tissues may be covered with a whitish fuzz consisting of sporangia. As the disease progresses, the lesions (mostly along the leaf margin) continue to expand and frequently coalesce. Diseased tissues disintegrate, forming holes of irregular size and shape on the affected leaves. Occasionally the pathogen may cause water-soaked lesion on the petioles. Infected leaves collapse within 20 days of unfurling, compared to 40 days for healthy leaves. The normal 6-7 leaves per plant was reduced to 3-4 leaves per plant by severe disease incidence.
After harvest, grey-brown to dark-blue lesions occur on undamaged corms. These lesions enlarge rapidly and coalesce. The boundary between the healthy and diseased tissues is usually indistinct and soft. Affected corms are almost completely decayed at 8 days after harvest in wet conditions.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Leaves / fungal growth|
|Leaves / necrotic areas|
|Stems / mould growth on lesion|
|Vegetative organs / soft rot|
|Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration|
Biology and EcologyTop of page Life Cycle
Hyphae of the fungus generally survive longer in sterilized soil (30 days) than in natural soil (5 days). At >20°C and >55% soil moisture the hyphae disappeared with 5 days of burial in natural soil (Sitansan Pan et al., 1994). Survival of the fungus between crops is less clearly understood. Neither chlamydospores nor oospores have been reported under field conditions although they form readily in agar culture. Thus it is assumed that where the crop is seasonal the fungus survives as mycelium within stored corms used as propagating material for the next season's planting. Oospores may also survive in the corm and leaf tissue left in the field after harvest. In the Philippines sporangia on the leaves were found capable of germination after remaining under field conditions for 3 months (Gomez, 1925).
Free water is needed for sporangial germination and zoospore mobility. Close to 100% RH is needed for infection to occur. The period of leaf wetness, therefore, has a large effect on infection by P. colocasiae. At optimal temperatures of 24-27°C, sporangial germination, release of zoospores and penetration occur after 6-8 hours. The fungus enters the plant through the cuticle and a latent period requires 2-4 days at optimal temperatures of 27-30°C. In wet weather the lesions of infected leaves or petioles may produce many sporangia and zoospores are disseminated by rain splash.
Oospores occur infrequently in nature, and taro leaf blight is thus spread almost exclusively by sporangia from the anamorph. Dissemination via rain splash is the most common dispersal mechanism. Spread of the fungus within a taro planting occurs when sporangia and zoospores are splashed from infected to healthy leaves. The infection of new planting occurs by spores blown in wind-driven rain from adjacent diseased fields or from infected wild taro. Also the fungus has been distributed by means of vegetatively propagated material and probably by soil.
P. colocasiae occurs under conditions of high temperature and humidity, in wet areas and densely planted fields. Epidemics occur frequently between July and September in Hainan, China. Primary leaf infection has been observed following tropical storms.
Natural enemiesTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes||hyphae; spores||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Leaves||hyphae; spores||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||hyphae; spores||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
ImpactTop of page This disease can lead to a 30-40% crop loss in heavily infected taro fields (Jackson et al., 1975). The fungus is widespread in South-East Asia and parts of Oceania, where it causes severe leaf damage and considerable loss of corm yield. For example, in the British Solomon Islands, it has been reported to be a limiting factor on taro production (Barrau, 1958; Plucknett et al., 1970). In the Philippines, yield reductions ranged from 24.4% in resistant to 36.5% in susceptible cultivars (Vasguez, 1990). The fungus is capable of infecting undamaged corm tissues under conditions of high humidity resulting in severe corm decay in the storage stage.
DiagnosisTop of page Diseased tissues (ca 5 x 5 mm) taken from advancing margins of lesions on leaves or petioles are placed between clean paper towels to remove free water, plated on a selective medium (per litre: 50 ml V-8 juice, 50 mg mycostatin, 100 mg ampicillin, 10 mg pentachloronitrobenzene, 20 g agar) (Ko et al., 1979), and incubated at 24-28°C. Mycelia growing from the diseased tissues are transferred to 10% V-8 agar (Ko, 1979; Aun et al., 1986).
Detection and InspectionTop of page Disease symptoms are easily visible in the field (see Symptoms for description). When lesions are unclear or where confirmation is needed, the lesions should be incubated to produce sporangia for identification (see Diagnostic Methods).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Cultivars that are resistant to leaf blight have been the most important method of disease control. In Bangladesh, among 50 lines tested by artificial inoculation in the field, two were highly resistant to P. colocasiae, five resistant, 12 moderately resistant and the rest moderately to highly susceptible (Goswami, 1993). Of 270 Colocasia esculenta lines screened for natural resistance to leaf blight in the field at Trivandrum, India, 119 lines were resistant (Santha-Pillai et al., 1993). In tests carried out in Arunachal Pradesh, India, 23 varieties of taro were screened for resistance to P. colocasiae, five varieties were immune and one was moderately resistant (Chaudhary et al., 1988). Of 11 cultivars screened under natural epiphytotics, Burdwar local was the best for commercial cultivation in west Bengal, India (Ghosh et al., 1991). In the British Solomon Islands, none of the 181 local cultivars tested were highly resistant to the fungus (Gollifer et al., 1974). More than 200 local varieties have been screened for resistance to the fungus and of these only Abrueme has shown promise (Jackson et al., 1975).
Resistance to P. colocasiae was found in a wild taro (Colocasia esculenta) accession introduced from Thailand and designated Bangkok. Data from crosses between Bangkok and local cultivars indicated that resistance is controlled by a single dominant gene (Patel et al., 1984).
Cultural practices towards disease control include minimizing the source of inoculum, use of disease-free plant material, roguing infected leaves, and avoiding excessive levels of moisture.
Fungicidal control is largely practised against P. colocasiae in taro cultivation. Currently widely used products are systemic (metalaxyl) and non-systemic fungicides (copper oxychloride, mancozeb, zineb) applied as foliar sprays. In India spraying metalaxyl at intervals of 15 days was effective in controlling the disease under field conditions and gave maximum net financial return (Ghosh et al., 1991). Good control was obtained with metalaxyl and fair control with copper oxychloride (Aggarwal et al., 1987). Sahu et al. (1989) report that four sprays of zineb at 15-day intervals reduced the incidence of P. colocasiae and increased the yield. In Papua New Guinea five applications of metalaxyl at 3-week intervals resulted in an increase of almost 50% corm yields (Cox et al., 1990). Applications of mancozeb at 7-day intervals gave substantial disease control and increased yields in Hawaii (Bergquist, 1974). But in the Solomon Islands mancozeb did not control the disease or increase corm yields, while mist-blower application of copper oxychloride gave effective control of P. colocasiae and increased corm yield (Jackson et al., 1980).
ReferencesTop of page
Aggarwal A; Mehrotra RS, 1986. Pectolytic and cellulolytic enzymes produced by Phytophthora colocasiae, P. parasitica var. piperina in vitro and in vivo. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 4:74-77.
Aggarwal A; Mehrotra RS, 1986. The effect of certain carbohydrates and amino acids on growth and respiration of Phytophthora colocasiae. Plant Disease Research, 1:11-15.
Aggarwal A; Mehrotra RS, 1988. Effects of various fungicides on mycelial growth, sporangial production, enzyme activity and control of Phytophthora leaf blight of Colocasia esculenta L. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 23(3-4):401-414
Aggarwal A; Narula KL; Kaur G; Mehrotra RS; Hasija SK; Bilgrami KS, 1990. Phytophthora colocasiae Racib - Its taxonomy, phsiology, pathology and control. Perspectives in Mycological Research. Vol II (Eds) by Hasija SK et al., 105-134.
Akhilesh Singh, 2009. Evaluation of fungicides against Phytophthora leaf blight of Colocasia. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 17(1):262-263. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home
Ashok Aggarwal; Gurinderjit Kaur; Mehrotra RS, 1986. Effect of certain metabolic inhibitors on growth and respiration of Phytophthora colocasiae Racib. Indian Botanical Reporter, 5(2):119-122; 20 ref.
Ashok Aggarwal; Gurinderjit Kaur; Mehrotra RS, 1987. Activity of some antibiotics against Phytophthora colocasip incitant of leaf blight of Colocasia esculenta. Journal of the Indian Botanical Society, 66(3-4):301-304
Ashok Aggarwal; Mehrotra RS, 1988. Studies on transeliminases in Phytophthora colocasiae: inhibitory effects of plant growth regulators, phenolics and fungicides. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 6(2):158-163
Bandyopadhyay R; Sharma K; Onyeka TJ; Aregbesola A; Kumar PL, 2011. First report of taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae in Nigeria. Plant Disease, 95(5):618. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis
Bergquist RR, 1972. Effect of fungicides for control of Phytophthora leaf blight of taro. Annals of Botany, 36:281-287.
Bergquist RR, 1974. Effect of fungicide rate, spray interval, timing of spray application, and precipitation in relation to control of Phytophthora leaf blight of taro. Annals of Botany, 38:213-221.
Butler EJ, 1913. Colocasia blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae Racib. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture in India, 5:233-261.
Dai FN, 1923. Phytophthora blight disease of taro. Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 1:1-8.
Desmukh MJ; Chibber KN, 1960. Field resistance to blight (Phytophthora colocasiae Rac.) in Colocasia antiquorum Schott. Current Science, 29:320-321.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Ghosh SK; Sitansu Pan, 1991. Control of leaf blight of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) caused by Phytophthora colocasiae Racib. through fungicides and selection of variety. Journal of Mycopathological Research, 29(2):133-140
Gollifer DE, 1971. Preliminary observations on the performance of cultivars of taxo (Colocasia esculenta L) in the British Solomon Islands with notes on the incidence of taro leaf blight (Phytophthora colocasiae Rac) and other diseases. Tropical Root and Tuber Crops Tomorrow, 2:56-60.
Gollifer DE; Jackson GVH; Newhook FJ, 1980. Survival of inoculum of the leaf blight fungus Phytophthora colocasip infecting taro, Colocasia esculenta in the Solomon Islands. Annals of Applied Biology, 94(3):379-390
Hickes PG, 1967. Resistance of Colocasia esculenta to leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae. Papua New Guinea Agricultural Journal, 19:1-4.
Kulkarni SN; Sharma OP, 1975. Corm rot of Colocasia antiquorum Schoff, due to Phytophthora colocasip Sacc. JNKVV Research Journal, 9(1/2):70
Lebot V; Herail C; Gunua T; Pardales J; Prana M; Thongjiem M; Viet N, 2003. Isozyme and RAPD variation among Phytophthora colocasiae isolates from South-east Asia and the Pacific. Plant Pathology, 52(3):303-313.
Misra RS; Maheshwari SK; Sriram S; Sahu AK, 2007. Variability in Phytophthora colocasiae based on colony characters. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 15(1):271-272. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home
Omane E; Oduro KA; Cornelius EW; Opoku IY; Akrofi AY; Sharma K; Kumar PL; Bandyopadhyay R, 2012. First report of leaf blight of taro (Colocasia esculenta) caused by Phytophthora colocasiae in Ghana. Plant Disease, 96(2):292-293. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis
Pahania KD; Mathur PN, 1961. New host plant of colocasia blight (Phytophthora colocasiae Racib). Current Science, 30:354.
Pahania KD; Mathur PN, 1964. Screening of Colocasia varieties for resistance to Colocasia blight (Phytophthora colocasiae Racib). Science and Culture, 30:44-46.
Parham BEV, 1947. Diseases of taro. Economic Botany Notes 3. Agricultural Journal Department of Agriculture, Fiji, 18:80.
Parris GK, 1941. Diseases of taro in Hawaii and their control, with notes on field production. Circular No. 18. Hawaii Agriculture Experimental Station.
Patel MZ; Splea J; Jackson GVH, 1984. Breeding strategies for controlling diseases of taro in Solomon Islands. Proceedings: sixth symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops, Lima, Peru, 21-26 February, 1983 [edited by Shideler, F.S.; Rincon, H.] Lima, Peru; International Potato Center, 143-149
Rosa-Márquez E; Almodóvar WI; Ortiz CE; Díaz M, 2006. Taro leaf blight (Phytophthora colocasiae): a new disease in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 90(1/2):137-138.
Santha-Pillai V; Thankappan M; Misra RS, 1993. Leaf blight resistant hybrids of taro. Journal of Root Crops, 19:66-68.
Sawada, 1911. Infection of taro. Special Report of the Formoskan Agriculture Experiment Station II.
Teng SC, 1932. Some fungi from Canton. Contribution of the Biological Laboratory, Scientific Society of China, Botanical Series 8:121-128.
Teng SC, 1938. Diseases of economic plants in China I. Sinensis, 9:181-217.
Thankappan M, 1986. Investigation on the disease of aroids. Annual report 1985, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Trivandrum, India Trivandrum, India; Indian Council of Agricultural Research, 93-95
Trujillo EE, 1965. The effect of humidity and temperature of sporangial formation and germination of Phytophthora blight of taro. Phytopathology, 55:183-188.
Trujillo EE, 1967. Diseases of the genus Colocasia in the Pacific area and their Control. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Tropical Root Crops. Trinidad, 2(4):13-19.
Trujillo EE; Aragaki M, 1964. Taro leaf blight and its control. Hawaii Farm Science, 13:11-13.
Yadav VK; Agrawal AP, 2008. Screening of germplasms of Colocasia against Phytophthoro colocasiae. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 16(1):261. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home
Yu DF, 1940. A list of important crop diseases occuring in Kiangsu province (1934-1937). Lingnan Science Journal, 19:67-78.
Yu JY; Chang HS, 1980. Chemical Regulation of Sexual Reproduction in Phytophthora colocasiae. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 21:155-158.
Akhilesh Singh, 2009. Evaluation of fungicides against Phytophthora leaf blight of Colocasia. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 17 (1), 262-263. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home
Bandyopadhyay R, Sharma K, Onyeka T J, Aregbesola A, Kumar P L, 2011. First report of taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae in Nigeria. Plant Disease. 95 (5), 618. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-10-0890
Baysal-Gurel F, Cinar A, 2015. First report of leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae infecting taro in Turkey. Plant Disease. 99 (10), 1445-1446. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-14-1311-PDN
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Lebot V, Herail C, Gunua T, Pardales J, Prana M, Thongjiem M, Viet N, 2003. Isozyme and RAPD variation among Phytophthora colocasiae isolates from South-east Asia and the Pacific. Plant Pathology. 52 (3), 303-313. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3059.2003.00851.x
Misra R S, Maheshwari S K, Sriram S, Sahu A K, 2007. Variability in Phytophthora colocasiae based on colony characters. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 15 (1), 271-272. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home
Omane E, Oduro K A, Cornelius E W, Opoku I Y, Akrofi A Y, Sharma K, Kumar P L, Bandyopadhyay R, 2012. First report of leaf blight of taro (Colocasia esculenta) caused by Phytophthora colocasiae in Ghana. Plant Disease. 96 (2), 292-293. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-11-0789
Rosa-Márquez E, Almodóvar W I, Ortiz C E, Díaz M, 2006. Taro leaf blight (Phytophthora colocasiae): a new disease in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico. 90 (1/2), 137-138.
Yadav R K, Yadav D S, Rai N, Sanwal S K, Pranabjyoti Sarma, 2006. Reaction of colocasia genotypes against leaf blight under Meghalaya condition. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 76 (12), 770-772.
Yadav V K, Agrawal A P, 2008. Screening of germplasms of Colocasia against Phytophthoro colocasiae. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 16 (1), 261. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home
Zhang K M, Zheng F C, Li Y D, Ann P J, Ko W H, 1994. Isolates of Phytophthora colocasiae from Hainan Island in China: evidence suggesting an Asian origin of this species. Mycologia. 86 (1), 108-112. DOI:10.2307/3760724
Distribution MapsTop of page
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/