Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phytophthora cactorum
(apple collar rot)

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Datasheet

Phytophthora cactorum (apple collar rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phytophthora cactorum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • apple collar rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Brown decay of rootstock collar just below ground; a common symptom of Phytophthora root, crown and collar rot.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBrown decay of rootstock collar just below ground; a common symptom of Phytophthora root, crown and collar rot.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Brown decay of rootstock collar just below ground; a common symptom of Phytophthora root, crown and collar rot.
SymptomsBrown decay of rootstock collar just below ground; a common symptom of Phytophthora root, crown and collar rot.©Alan L. Jones
TitleStem canker on apple
Caption
Copyright©AgrEvo
Stem canker on apple©AgrEvo
TitleStem canker on Erica
Caption
Copyright©AgrEvo
Stem canker on Erica©AgrEvo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phytophthora cactorum (Lebert & Cohn) J. Schröt.

Preferred Common Name

  • apple collar rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Phytophthora fagi R. Hartig
  • Phytophthora omnivora de Bary

International Common Names

  • English: crown rot: apple; seedling damping-off
  • Spanish: podredumbre del tronco del manzano
  • French: maladie de l'encre du chataignier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fruchtfäule: Japanische Mispel; Kragenfäule: Apfel; Kragenfäule: Japanische Mispel; Lederbeerenkrankheit: Erdbeere; Lederfäule: Erdbeere; Rhizomfäule: Erdbeere; Stammbasisfäule: Apfel; Wurzelhalsfäule: Apfel; Zweigsterben: Rhododendron

EPPO code

  • PHYTCC (Phytophthora cactorum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Peronosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Phytophthora
  •                             Species: Phytophthora cactorum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresent, Few occurrencesEl-Din et al. (1981)
KenyaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
MoroccoPresent, Few occurrencesCABI (Undated)Original citation: Faith & Vanderweyen, 1983
SenegalPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresent, WidespreadWIJERS (1937); EPPO (2020)
TunisiaPresentBoughalleb et al. (2006)
ZimbabwePresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)

Asia

ChinaPresent, WidespreadHo et al. (1984); EPPO (2020)
-HeilongjiangPresentWang JianYing and Zheng XiaoBo (2001)
-YunnanPresentMiao ZuoQing et al. (2006)
GeorgiaPresentEPPO (2020)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadSchwarz (1927); EPPO (2020)
-Himachal PradeshPresentMeenu Gupta and Bhardwaj (2005)
IndonesiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-JavaPresentEPPO (2020)
IranPresent, WidespreadErshad (1971); Nezhad et al. (2010); Amini et al. (2015); EPPO (2020)
IsraelPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
JapanPresent, WidespreadTASUGI and KUMAZAWA (1932); EPPO (2020)
LaosPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
LebanonPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
MalaysiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-SabahPresentEPPO (2020)
-SarawakPresentEPPO (2020)
MyanmarPresentEPPO (2020)
North KoreaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
PakistanPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresent, WidespreadSchwarz (1927); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresent, WidespreadSawada (1927); Kao and Leu (1979); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentIntini et al. (2002); Kurbetlİ and Değİrmencİ (2010)
VietnamPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)

Europe

AustriaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
BelgiumPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
BulgariaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
CroatiaPresentLiović and Županić (2005)
CzechiaPresentCerny et al. (2009); EPPO (2020)
CzechoslovakiaPresent, LocalizedJANCARÍK (1961); EPPO (2014)
DenmarkPresent, LocalizedJorgensen (1934); EPPO (2020)
FinlandPresentLilja et al. (2007); EPPO (2020)
FrancePresent, LocalizedVegh and Berre (1985); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GermanyPresent, Widespread1952Lebert and Cohn (1870); Schwinn (1960); EPPO (2020)
GreecePresent, WidespreadPapaioannoy (1954); EPPO (2020)
HungaryPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
IrelandPresent, WidespreadLAFFERTY and PETHYBRIDOE (1922)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadGaribaldi and Rapetti (1975); EPPO (2020)
LithuaniaPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadSchenk (1926); EPPO (2020)
NorwayPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); Rytkönen et al. (2012)
PolandPresent, WidespreadKozlowska et al. (1961); Meszka and Bielenin (2011); EPPO (2020)
RomaniaPresent, WidespreadTUDOSESCU-BANESCU (1966); EPPO (2020)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Russia (Europe)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
SerbiaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
Serbia and MontenegroPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
SloveniaPresentSeljak (2000)
SpainPresent, WidespreadUnamuno (1911); EPPO (2020)
SwedenPresent, WidespreadLindfors and Holmberg (1941)
SwitzerlandPresent, WidespreadMuller-Thurgau and Osterwalder (1924); EPPO (2020)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadWormald (1919); EPPO (2020)
-EnglandPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-Northern IrelandPresentEPPO (2020)

North America

BermudaPresent, Few occurrencesCABI (Undated)Original citation: Leonian & Greer, 1929
CanadaPresent, LocalizedWELSH (1942); Conners (1955); EPPO (2020)
-AlbertaPresentEPPO (2020)
-British ColumbiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Nova ScotiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentEPPO (2020)
-QuebecPresentEPPO (2020)
-SaskatchewanPresentEPPO (2020)
CubaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
El SalvadorPresent, WidespreadCRANDALL et al. (1951); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentFélix-Gastélum and Mircetich (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, Few occurrencesMassee (1899)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadSMITH and SMITH (1925); Baines (1939); EPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaPresentBrowne and Viveros (2005)
-FloridaPresentRebollar-Alviter et al. (2007)
-MainePresentRebollar-Alviter et al. (2007)
-MichiganPresentHill et al. (2008)
-MinnesotaPresentSchwingle et al. (2007)
-New YorkPresentRebollar-Alviter et al. (2007)
-North CarolinaPresentRebollar-Alviter et al. (2007)
-OhioPresentRebollar-Alviter et al. (2007); Rebollar-Alviter et al. (2005)
-OregonPresentRebollar-Alviter et al. (2007); Weiland (2015)
-South CarolinaPresentRebollar-Alviter et al. (2007)
-TennesseePresentDonahoo and Lamour (2008)
-VirginiaPresentBush et al. (2003)
-WashingtonPresentYamak et al. (2002)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedHardy and Sivasithamparam (1988); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentEPPO (2020)
-South AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020)
-TasmaniaPresentEPPO (2020)
-VictoriaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Western AustraliaPresentHardy and Sivasithamparam (1988); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresent, WidespreadWaters (1916); Tyson et al. (2014); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresent, WidespreadLindquist (1938); Frezzi (1950); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresent, WidespreadFawcett and Bitancourt (1940); EPPO (2020)
ChilePresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); Montealegre et al. (2016)
ColombiaPresentAvila et al. (2002)
PeruPresent, WidespreadCRANDALL and DIEGUEZ (1948); EPPO (2020)
UruguayPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Roots / cortex with lesions
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / internal red necrosis

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus cereus Pathogen
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Enterobacter aerogenes Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite apples
Serratia plymuthica

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Wood

References

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Amini J; Azizi Z; Sheykholeslami M, 2015. Isolation and pathogenicity of fungi associated with root and crown rot of walnut trees in Kermanshah township. Iranian Journal of Plant Protection Science, 46(1):Pe59-Pe67. https://ijpps.ut.ac.ir/article_54721_7394.html

Avila Y; Carreño A; Blanco J; Cotes AM, 2002. Biocontrol of Phytophthora cactorum on apple rootstocks by antagonistic fungi. Bulletin OILB/SROP [IOBC/WPRS Working Group 'Biological Control of Fungal and Bacterial Plant Pathogens'. Proceedings of the 7th working group meeting, Influence of abiotic and biotic factors on biocontrol agents at Pine Bay, Kusadasi, Turkey, 22-25 May 2002.], 25(10):307-310.

Baines RC, 1935. Phytophthora trunk canker of apple. Phytopathology, 25:2.

Baines RC, 1939. Phytophthora trunk canker or collar rot of apple trees. Journal Agricultural Research, 59:159-184.

Banihashemi Z; Mitchell JE, 1975. Use of safflower seedlings for the detection and isolation of Phytophthora cactorum from soil and its application to population studies. Phytopathology, 65(12):1424-1430

Banihashemi Z; Mitchell JE, 1976. Factors affecting oospore germination in Phytophthora cactorum, the incitant of apple collar rot. Phytopathology, 66(4):443-448

Bielenin A, 1977. Collar rot of apple trees. II. Seasonal fluctuations in susceptibility of apple trees to Phytophthora cactorum (Leb. et Cohn.) Schroet. Fruit Science Reports, 4(3):27-39

Boughalleb N; Moulahi A; El-Mahjoub M, 2006. Variability in pathogenicity among Tunisian isolates of Phytophthora cactorum as measured by their ability to cause crown rot on four apple cultivars and MM106 roostock. Journal of Agronomy, 5(2):321-325. http://www.ansinet.org/c4p.php?j_id=ja

Braun H; Nienhaus F, 1959. Fortgeführte Untersuchungen über die Kragenfaüle des Apfels (Phytophthora cactorum). Phytopathology Z, 36:169-208.

Browne GT; Mircetich SM, 1988. Effects of flood duration on the development of Phytophthora root and crown rots of apple. Phytopathology, 78(6):846-851

Browne GT; Mircetich SM, 1993. Relative resistance of thirteen apple rootstocks to three species of Phytophthora. Phytopathology, 83(7):744-749

Browne GT; Viveros MA, 2005. Effects of phosphonate and mefenoxam treatments on development of perennial cankers caused by two Phytophthora spp. on almond. Plant Disease, 89(3):241-249. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Bush EA; Hong CX; Stromberg EL, 2003. Fluctuations of Phytophthora and Pythium spp. in components of a recycling irrigation system. Plant Disease, 87(12):1500-1506.

Cerny K; Strnadova V; Gregorova B; Holub V; Tomsovsky M; Mrazkova M; Gabrielova S, 2009. Phytophthora cactorum causing bleeding canker of common beech, horse chestnut, and white poplar in the Czech Republic. Plant Pathology, 58(2):394. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

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Crandall BS; Abrego L; Patino B, 1951. A check list of the diseases of economic plants of El Salvador, Central America. Plant Disease Reporter, 35:545-554.

Crandall BS; Dieguez CJ, 1948. Phytophthora stem canker of sesame in Peru. Phytopathology, 38:753-755.

Crandall BS; Hartley C, 1938. Phytophthora cactorum associated with seedling diseases in forest nurseries. Phytopathology, 28:358-360.

Darmono TW; Owen ML; Parke JL, 1991. Isolation and pathogenicity of Phytophthora cactorum from forest and ginseng garden soils in Wisconsin. Plant Disease, 75(6):610-612

Darmono TW; Parke JL, 1990. Chlamydospores of Phytophthora cactorum: their production, structure, and infectivity. Canadian Journal of Botany, 68(3):640-645

Donahoo RS; Lamour KH, 2008. Characterization of Phytophthora species from leaves of nursery woody ornamentals in Tennessee. HortScience, 43(6):1833-1837. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/

El-Din G; Ahmed KGM; Fadl FAM; Khatagi YS, 1981. Physiological studies and host range of Phytophthora cactorum - The causal organism of leather rot of fruits and collar rot of strawberry, Fragaria sp., in Egypt. Air Shams University Faculty Agricultural Research Bulletin, 0(1465):1-18.

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Érsek T; Belbahri L; Nagy ZÂ; Bakonyi J; Crovadore J; Lefort F, 2008. Medlar decline caused by Phytophthora cactorum in Hungary. Plant Pathology, 57(4):775. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

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Farih A; Vanderweyen A, 1983. Occurrence of Phytophthora cactorum on strawberry in Morocco. Phytophthora Newsletter, 11:14.

Fawcett HS; Bitancourt AA, 1940. Occurrence, pathogenicity and temperature relations of Phytophthora species on citrus in Brazil and other South American countries. Arq. Inst. Biol. Sao Paulo, Brasil, 11:107-118.

Félix-Gastélum R; Mircetich SM, 2005. Seasonal variation in susceptibility of Lovell peach Prunus persica (L.) Batsch to Phytophthora cactorum (Leb. and Cohn) Schroet., P. cinnamomi Rands, and P. citricola Sawada. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología, 23(3):294-299. http://members.tripod.com/~sociedad/Sociedad.htm

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Hardham AR; Suzaki E; Perkin JL, 1986. Monoclonal antibodies to isolate-, species-, and genus-specific components on the surface of zoospores and cysts of the fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. Canadian Journal of Botany, 64(2):311-321

Hardy GE; Sivasithamparam K, 1988. Phytophthora spp. associated with container-grown plants in nurseries in Western Australia. Plant Disease, 72(5):435-437

Harris DC, 1991. A comparison of dazomet, chloropicrin and methyl bromide as soil disinfestants for strawberries. Journal of Horticultural Science, 66(1):51-58

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Harris DC; Bielenin A, 1986. Evaluation of selective media and bait methods for estimating Phytophthora cactorum in apple orchard soils. Plant Pathology, 35(4):565-574

Hill SN; Hurtado-Gonzales OP; Lamour KH; Hausbeck MK, 2008. First report of mefenoxam sensitivity and pathogenicity of Phytophthora citricola isolated from American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium). Plant Disease, 92(12):1706. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

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Intini M; Gurer M; Ozturk S, 2002. First report of bleeding canker caused by Phytophthora cactorum on horse chestnut in Turkey. Plant Disease, 86(6):697.

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Jeffers SN, 1992. Preplant root treatments to reduce the incidence of Phytophthora species on dormant apple rootstocks. Plant Disease, 76(1):12-19

Jeffers SN; Aldwinckle HS, 1987. Enhancing detection of Phytophthora cactorum in naturally infested soil. Phytopathology, 77(10):1475-1482

Jeffers SN; Aldwinckle HS, 1988. Phytophthora crown rot of apple trees: sources of Phytophthora cactorum and P. cambivora as primary inoculum. Phytopathology, 78(3):328-335

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Kurbetli I; Degirmenci K, 2010. First report of root and crown rot of almond caused by Phytophthora spp. in Turkey. Plant Disease, 94(10):1261. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

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Lilja A; Rytkönen A; Parikka P; Kokkola M; Hantula J, 2007. Alien species in Finnish nurseries, Phytophthora spp. Acta Silvatica & Lignaria Hungarica [Foliage, shoot and stem diseases of forest trees. Proceedings of the conference of IUFRO Working Party 7.02.02, Sopron, Hungary, 21-26 May 2007.], Special:219-227. http://aslh.nyme.hu/fileadmin/dokumentumok/fmk/acta_silvatica/cikkek/VolE3-2007/26_lilja_et_al.pdf

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Rytkönen A, Lilja A, Vercauteren A, Sirkiä S, Parikka P, Soukainen M, Hantula J, 2012. Identity and potential pathogenicity of Phytophthora species found on symptomatic Rhododendron plants in a Finnish nursery. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 34 (2), 255-267. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tcjp20

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Vegh I, Berre A Le, 1985. Some new Phytophthora diseases of ornamental shrubs in France. (Quelques maladies nouvelles á Phytophthora des arbustes d'ornement en France.). Revue Horticole. 35, 37-39.

Wang JianYing, Zheng XiaoBo, 2001. Inheritance of pathogenicity and sensitivity to metalaxyl in Phytophthora cactorum. Mycosystema. 20 (3), 337-341.

Waters R, 1916. Dying of young fruit trees. New Zealand Journal Agriculture. 112-121.

Weiland J E, 2015. First report of Phytophthora cactorum and P. citrophthora causing root rot of Ribes lobbii in Oregon. Plant Disease. 99 (1), 157. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-14-0691-PDN

WELSH M F, 1942. Studies of crown rot of Apple trees. Canadian Journal of Research. 20 (9), 457-490 pp.

WIJERS EVERDINA E, 1937. Phytophthora wilt in Carnation plants. South African Journal of Science. 194-213 pp.

Wormald H, 1919. A Phytophthora rot of apples and pears. Annals of Applied Biology. 89-100.

Yamak F, Peever T L, Grove G G, Boal R J, 2002. Occurrence and identification of Phytophthora spp. pathogenic to pear fruit in irrigation water in the Wenatchee River Valley of Washington State. Phytopathology. 92 (11), 1210-1217. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO.2002.92.11.1210

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