Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phytophthora cactorum
(apple collar rot)

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Datasheet

Phytophthora cactorum (apple collar rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phytophthora cactorum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • apple collar rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Brown decay of rootstock collar just below ground; a common symptom of Phytophthora root, crown and collar rot.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBrown decay of rootstock collar just below ground; a common symptom of Phytophthora root, crown and collar rot.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Brown decay of rootstock collar just below ground; a common symptom of Phytophthora root, crown and collar rot.
SymptomsBrown decay of rootstock collar just below ground; a common symptom of Phytophthora root, crown and collar rot.©Alan L. Jones
TitleStem canker on apple
Caption
Copyright©AgrEvo
Stem canker on apple©AgrEvo
TitleStem canker on Erica
Caption
Copyright©AgrEvo
Stem canker on Erica©AgrEvo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phytophthora cactorum (Lebert & Cohn) J. Schröt.

Preferred Common Name

  • apple collar rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Phytophthora fagi R. Hartig
  • Phytophthora omnivora de Bary

International Common Names

  • English: crown rot: apple; seedling damping-off
  • Spanish: podredumbre del tronco del manzano
  • French: maladie de l'encre du chataignier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fruchtfäule: Japanische Mispel; Kragenfäule: Apfel; Kragenfäule: Japanische Mispel; Lederbeerenkrankheit: Erdbeere; Lederfäule: Erdbeere; Rhizomfäule: Erdbeere; Stammbasisfäule: Apfel; Wurzelhalsfäule: Apfel; Zweigsterben: Rhododendron

EPPO code

  • PHYTCC (Phytophthora cactorum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Peronosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Phytophthora
  •                             Species: Phytophthora cactorum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 05 Jul 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresent, Few occurrences
KenyaPresent, Widespread
MoroccoPresent, Few occurrencesOriginal citation: Faith & Vanderweyen, 1983
SenegalPresent, Widespread
South AfricaPresent, Widespread
TunisiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent, Widespread

Asia

ChinaPresent, Widespread
-GansuPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-YunnanPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Himachal PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent, Localized
-JavaPresent
IranPresent, Widespread
IsraelPresent, Localized
JapanPresent, Widespread
LaosPresent, Widespread
LebanonPresent, Widespread
MalaysiaPresent, Localized
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MyanmarPresent
North KoreaPresent, Widespread
PakistanPresent, Widespread
PhilippinesPresent, Widespread
South KoreaPresent, Widespread
TaiwanPresent, Widespread
TurkeyPresent
VietnamPresent, Localized

Europe

AustriaPresent, Widespread
BelgiumPresent, Widespread
BulgariaPresent, Localized
CroatiaPresent
CzechiaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent, Localized
DenmarkPresent, Localized
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent, Localized
GermanyPresent, Widespread1952
GreecePresent, Widespread
HungaryPresent, Widespread
IrelandPresent, Widespread
ItalyPresent, Widespread
-SicilyPresent
LithuaniaPresent, Few occurrences
NetherlandsPresent, Widespread
NorwayPresent, Widespread
PolandPresent, Widespread
RomaniaPresent, Widespread
RussiaPresent, Localized
-Russia (Europe)Present, Localized
SerbiaPresent, Widespread
Serbia and MontenegroPresent, Localized
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent, Widespread
-Balearic IslandsPresent
SwedenPresent, Widespread
SwitzerlandPresent, Widespread
United KingdomPresent, Widespread
-EnglandPresent, Widespread
-Northern IrelandPresent

North America

BermudaPresent, Few occurrencesOriginal citation: Leonian & Greer, 1929
CanadaPresent, Localized
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
CubaPresent, Widespread
El SalvadorPresent, Widespread
MexicoPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, Few occurrences
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-MainePresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OregonPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-UtahPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Localized
-New South WalesPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent, Widespread

South America

ArgentinaPresent, Widespread
BrazilPresent, Widespread
ChilePresent, Widespread
ColombiaPresent
PeruPresent, Widespread
UruguayPresent, Widespread
VenezuelaPresent, Widespread

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Roots / cortex with lesions
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / internal red necrosis

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus cereus Pathogen
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Enterobacter aerogenes Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite apples
Serratia plymuthica

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Wood

References

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Amini J; Azizi Z; Sheykholeslami M, 2015. Isolation and pathogenicity of fungi associated with root and crown rot of walnut trees in Kermanshah township. Iranian Journal of Plant Protection Science, 46(1):Pe59-Pe67. https://ijpps.ut.ac.ir/article_54721_7394.html

Avila Y; Carreño A; Blanco J; Cotes AM, 2002. Biocontrol of Phytophthora cactorum on apple rootstocks by antagonistic fungi. Bulletin OILB/SROP [IOBC/WPRS Working Group 'Biological Control of Fungal and Bacterial Plant Pathogens'. Proceedings of the 7th working group meeting, Influence of abiotic and biotic factors on biocontrol agents at Pine Bay, Kusadasi, Turkey, 22-25 May 2002.], 25(10):307-310.

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Baines RC, 1939. Phytophthora trunk canker or collar rot of apple trees. Journal Agricultural Research, 59:159-184.

Banihashemi Z; Mitchell JE, 1975. Use of safflower seedlings for the detection and isolation of Phytophthora cactorum from soil and its application to population studies. Phytopathology, 65(12):1424-1430

Banihashemi Z; Mitchell JE, 1976. Factors affecting oospore germination in Phytophthora cactorum, the incitant of apple collar rot. Phytopathology, 66(4):443-448

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Boughalleb N; Moulahi A; El-Mahjoub M, 2006. Variability in pathogenicity among Tunisian isolates of Phytophthora cactorum as measured by their ability to cause crown rot on four apple cultivars and MM106 roostock. Journal of Agronomy, 5(2):321-325. http://www.ansinet.org/c4p.php?j_id=ja

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