Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phytophthora cactorum
(apple collar rot)

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Datasheet

Phytophthora cactorum (apple collar rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phytophthora cactorum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • apple collar rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Brown decay of rootstock collar just below ground; a common symptom of Phytophthora root, crown and collar rot.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBrown decay of rootstock collar just below ground; a common symptom of Phytophthora root, crown and collar rot.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Brown decay of rootstock collar just below ground; a common symptom of Phytophthora root, crown and collar rot.
SymptomsBrown decay of rootstock collar just below ground; a common symptom of Phytophthora root, crown and collar rot.©Alan L. Jones
TitleStem canker on apple
Caption
CopyrightAgrEvo
Stem canker on appleAgrEvo
TitleStem canker on Erica
Caption
CopyrightAgrEvo
Stem canker on EricaAgrEvo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phytophthora cactorum (Lebert & Cohn) J. Schröt.

Preferred Common Name

  • apple collar rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Phytophthora fagi R. Hartig
  • Phytophthora omnivora de Bary

International Common Names

  • English: crown rot: apple; seedling damping-off
  • Spanish: podredumbre del tronco del manzano
  • French: maladie de l'encre du chataignier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fruchtfäule: Japanische Mispel; Kragenfäule: Apfel; Kragenfäule: Japanische Mispel; Lederbeerenkrankheit: Erdbeere; Lederfäule: Erdbeere; Rhizomfäule: Erdbeere; Stammbasisfäule: Apfel; Wurzelhalsfäule: Apfel; Zweigsterben: Rhododendron

EPPO code

  • PHYTCC (Phytophthora cactorum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Peronosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Phytophthora
  •                             Species: Phytophthora cactorum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaWidespreadHo et al., 1984; EPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentWang and Zheng, 2001
-YunnanPresentMiao et al., 2006
Georgia (Republic of)PresentEPPO, 2014
IndiaWidespreadSchwarz, 1927; EPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentMeenu and Bhardwaj, 2005
IndonesiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-JavaPresentEPPO, 2014
IranWidespreadErshad, 1971; Nezhad et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014; Amini et al., 2015
IsraelRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
JapanWidespreadTasugi and Kumazawa, 1932; EPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofWidespreadEPPO, 2014
LaosWidespreadEPPO, 2014
LebanonWidespreadEPPO, 2014
MalaysiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-SabahPresentEPPO, 2014
-SarawakPresentEPPO, 2014
PakistanWidespreadEPPO, 2014
PhilippinesWidespreadSchwarz, 1927; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanWidespreadSawada, 1927; Kao and Leu, 1979; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentIntini et al., 2002; Kurbetli and Degirmenci, 2010
VietnamRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014

Africa

EgyptPresent, few occurrencesEl-Din et al., 1981
KenyaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresent, few occurrencesFaith & Vanderweyen, 1983
SenegalWidespreadEPPO, 2014
South AfricaWidespreadWijers, 1937; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaPresentBoughalleb et al., 2006
ZimbabweWidespreadEPPO, 2014

North America

BermudaPresent, few occurrencesLeonian & Greer, 1929
CanadaRestricted distributionWelsh, 1942; Conners, 1955; EPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentEPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentEPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentEPPO, 2014
-SaskatchewanPresentEPPO, 2014
MexicoPresentFélix-Gastélum and Mircetich, 2005
USAWidespreadSmith and Smith, 1925; Baines, 1939; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentBrowne and Viveros, 2005
-FloridaPresentRebollar-Alviter et al., 2007
-MainePresentRebollar-Alviter et al., 2007
-MichiganPresentHill et al., 2008
-MinnesotaPresentSchwingle et al., 2007
-New YorkPresentRebollar-Alviter et al., 2007
-North CarolinaPresentRebollar-Alviter et al., 2007
-OhioPresentRebollar-Alviter et al., 2005; Rebollar-Alviter et al., 2007
-OhioPresentRebollar-Alviter et al., 2005; Rebollar-Alviter et al., 2007
-OregonPresentRebollar-Alviter et al., 2007; Weiland, 2015
-South CarolinaPresentRebollar-Alviter et al., 2007
-TennesseePresentDonahoo and Lamour, 2008
-VirginiaPresentBush et al., 2003
-WashingtonPresentYamak et al., 2002

Central America and Caribbean

CubaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
El SalvadorWidespreadCrandall et al., 1951; EPPO, 2014
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, few occurrencesMassee, 1899

South America

ArgentinaWidespreadLindquist, 1938; Frezzi, 1950; EPPO, 2014
BrazilWidespreadFawcett and Bitancourt, 1940; EPPO, 2014
ChileWidespreadEPPO, 2014; Montealegre et al., 2016
ColombiaPresentAvila et al., 2002
PeruWidespreadCrandall and Dieguez, 1948; EPPO, 2014
UruguayWidespreadEPPO, 2014
VenezuelaWidespreadEPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
BelgiumWidespreadEPPO, 2014
BulgariaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
CroatiaPresentLiovic and Zupanic, 2005
Czech RepublicPresentCerny et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)Restricted distribution****Jancarik, 1961; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkRestricted distributionJorgensen, 1934; EPPO, 2014
FinlandPresentLilja et al., 2007; EPPO, 2014
FranceRestricted distributionPrilleux, 1895; Vegh and Berre, 1985; EPPO, 2014
GermanyWidespread1952Lebert and Cohn, 1870; Schwinn, 1960; EPPO, 2014
GreeceWidespreadPapaioannoy, 1954; EPPO, 2014
HungaryWidespreadÉrsek et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
IrelandWidespreadLafferty and Pethybridge, 1922
ItalyWidespreadGaribaldi and Rapetti, 1975; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
NetherlandsWidespreadSchenk, 1926; EPPO, 2014
NorwayWidespreadRytkönen et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
PolandWidespreadKozlowska et al., 1961; Meszka and Bielenin, 2011; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaWidespreadTudosescu-Banescu, 1966; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationRestricted distributionNovotel'Nova, 1974; EPPO, 2014
-Russia (Europe)Restricted distributionEPPO, 2014
SerbiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
SloveniaPresentSeljak, 2000
SpainWidespreadUnamuno, 1911; EPPO, 2014
SwedenWidespreadLindfors and Holmberg, 1941
SwitzerlandWidespreadMuller-Thurgau and Osterwalder, 1924; EPPO, 2014
UKWidespread****Wormald, 1919; EPPO, 2014
-England and WalesWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-Northern IrelandPresentEPPO, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distributionHardy and Sivasithamparam, 1988; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentEPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentTaylor & Washington, 1988; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentHardy and Sivasithamparam, 1988; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandWidespreadWaters, 1916; EPPO, 2014; Tyson et al., 2014

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Roots / cortex with lesions
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / internal red necrosis

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus cereus Pathogen
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Enterobacter aerogenes Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite apples
Serratia plymuthica

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Wood

References

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Amini J; Azizi Z; Sheykholeslami M, 2015. Isolation and pathogenicity of fungi associated with root and crown rot of walnut trees in Kermanshah township. Iranian Journal of Plant Protection Science, 46(1):Pe59-Pe67. https://ijpps.ut.ac.ir/article_54721_7394.html

Avila Y; Carreño A; Blanco J; Cotes AM, 2002. Biocontrol of Phytophthora cactorum on apple rootstocks by antagonistic fungi. Bulletin OILB/SROP [IOBC/WPRS Working Group 'Biological Control of Fungal and Bacterial Plant Pathogens'. Proceedings of the 7th working group meeting, Influence of abiotic and biotic factors on biocontrol agents at Pine Bay, Kusadasi, Turkey, 22-25 May 2002.], 25(10):307-310.

Baines RC, 1935. Phytophthora trunk canker of apple. Phytopathology, 25:2.

Baines RC, 1939. Phytophthora trunk canker or collar rot of apple trees. Journal Agricultural Research, 59:159-184.

Banihashemi Z; Mitchell JE, 1975. Use of safflower seedlings for the detection and isolation of Phytophthora cactorum from soil and its application to population studies. Phytopathology, 65(12):1424-1430

Banihashemi Z; Mitchell JE, 1976. Factors affecting oospore germination in Phytophthora cactorum, the incitant of apple collar rot. Phytopathology, 66(4):443-448

Bielenin A, 1977. Collar rot of apple trees. II. Seasonal fluctuations in susceptibility of apple trees to Phytophthora cactorum (Leb. et Cohn.) Schroet. Fruit Science Reports, 4(3):27-39

Boughalleb N; Moulahi A; El-Mahjoub M, 2006. Variability in pathogenicity among Tunisian isolates of Phytophthora cactorum as measured by their ability to cause crown rot on four apple cultivars and MM106 roostock. Journal of Agronomy, 5(2):321-325. http://www.ansinet.org/c4p.php?j_id=ja

Braun H; Nienhaus F, 1959. Fortgeführte Untersuchungen über die Kragenfaüle des Apfels (Phytophthora cactorum). Phytopathology Z, 36:169-208.

Browne GT; Mircetich SM, 1988. Effects of flood duration on the development of Phytophthora root and crown rots of apple. Phytopathology, 78(6):846-851

Browne GT; Mircetich SM, 1993. Relative resistance of thirteen apple rootstocks to three species of Phytophthora. Phytopathology, 83(7):744-749

Browne GT; Viveros MA, 2005. Effects of phosphonate and mefenoxam treatments on development of perennial cankers caused by two Phytophthora spp. on almond. Plant Disease, 89(3):241-249. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Bush EA; Hong CX; Stromberg EL, 2003. Fluctuations of Phytophthora and Pythium spp. in components of a recycling irrigation system. Plant Disease, 87(12):1500-1506.

Cerny K; Strnadova V; Gregorova B; Holub V; Tomsovsky M; Mrazkova M; Gabrielova S, 2009. Phytophthora cactorum causing bleeding canker of common beech, horse chestnut, and white poplar in the Czech Republic. Plant Pathology, 58(2):394. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Collinge WE, 1912. Plant diseases caused by fungi. Report Economic Biology, 2:41-49.

Conners IL, 1955. Thirty-fourth Annual Report of the Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 1954. 20. [publisher??].

Crandall BS; Abrego L; Patino B, 1951. A check list of the diseases of economic plants of El Salvador, Central America. Plant Disease Reporter, 35:545-554.

Crandall BS; Dieguez CJ, 1948. Phytophthora stem canker of sesame in Peru. Phytopathology, 38:753-755.

Crandall BS; Hartley C, 1938. Phytophthora cactorum associated with seedling diseases in forest nurseries. Phytopathology, 28:358-360.

Darmono TW; Owen ML; Parke JL, 1991. Isolation and pathogenicity of Phytophthora cactorum from forest and ginseng garden soils in Wisconsin. Plant Disease, 75(6):610-612

Darmono TW; Parke JL, 1990. Chlamydospores of Phytophthora cactorum: their production, structure, and infectivity. Canadian Journal of Botany, 68(3):640-645

Donahoo RS; Lamour KH, 2008. Characterization of Phytophthora species from leaves of nursery woody ornamentals in Tennessee. HortScience, 43(6):1833-1837. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/

El-Din G; Ahmed KGM; Fadl FAM; Khatagi YS, 1981. Physiological studies and host range of Phytophthora cactorum - The causal organism of leather rot of fruits and collar rot of strawberry, Fragaria sp., in Egypt. Air Shams University Faculty Agricultural Research Bulletin, 0(1465):1-18.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Érsek T; Belbahri L; Nagy ZÂ; Bakonyi J; Crovadore J; Lefort F, 2008. Medlar decline caused by Phytophthora cactorum in Hungary. Plant Pathology, 57(4):775. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Ershad D, 1971. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Phytophthora Arten in Iran und ihrer Phytopathologischen Bedeutung. Mitt. Biol. Bundesanst. Land u. Forestw. (Berl. - Dahlem) 140.

Erwin DC; Ribeiro OK, 1996. Phytophthora Diseases Worldwide. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society Press.

Farih A; Vanderweyen A, 1983. Occurrence of Phytophthora cactorum on strawberry in Morocco. Phytophthora Newsletter, 11:14.

Fawcett HS; Bitancourt AA, 1940. Occurrence, pathogenicity and temperature relations of Phytophthora species on citrus in Brazil and other South American countries. Arq. Inst. Biol. Sao Paulo, Brasil, 11:107-118.

Félix-Gastélum R; Mircetich SM, 2005. Seasonal variation in susceptibility of Lovell peach Prunus persica (L.) Batsch to Phytophthora cactorum (Leb. and Cohn) Schroet., P. cinnamomi Rands, and P. citricola Sawada. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología, 23(3):294-299. http://members.tripod.com/~sociedad/Sociedad.htm

Forster H; Coffey MD, 1991. Approaches to the taxonomy of Phytophthora using polymorphisms in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. In: Lucas JA, Shattock RC, Shaw DS, Cooke LR, eds. Phytophthora. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Frezzi MJ, 1950. Las especies de `Phytophthora' en la Argentina. Revista de Investigaciones agrfcolas B., Bueno Aires, 4:47-133.

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Gisi U, 1983. Biophysical aspects of the development of Phytophthora. In: Lucas JA, Shattock RC, Shaw DS, Cooke LR, eds. Phytophthora. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hansen EM; Hamm PB; Julis AJ; Roth LF, 1979. Isolation, incidence and management of Phytophthora in forest tree nurseries in the Pacific Northwest. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(7):607-611

Hardham AR; Gubler F; Duniec J; Elliott J, 1991. A review of methods for the production and use of monoclonal antibodies to study zoosporic plant pathogens. Journal of Microscopy, 162(3):305-318

Hardham AR; Suzaki E; Perkin JL, 1986. Monoclonal antibodies to isolate-, species-, and genus-specific components on the surface of zoospores and cysts of the fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. Canadian Journal of Botany, 64(2):311-321

Hardy GE; Sivasithamparam K, 1988. Phytophthora spp. associated with container-grown plants in nurseries in Western Australia. Plant Disease, 72(5):435-437

Harris DC, 1991. A comparison of dazomet, chloropicrin and methyl bromide as soil disinfestants for strawberries. Journal of Horticultural Science, 66(1):51-58

Harris DC, 1991. The Phytophthora diseases of apple. Journal of Horticultural Science, 66(5):513-544

Harris DC; Bielenin A, 1986. Evaluation of selective media and bait methods for estimating Phytophthora cactorum in apple orchard soils. Plant Pathology, 35(4):565-574

Hill SN; Hurtado-Gonzales OP; Lamour KH; Hausbeck MK, 2008. First report of mefenoxam sensitivity and pathogenicity of Phytophthora citricola isolated from American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium). Plant Disease, 92(12):1706. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Ho HH; Lu J; Gong L, 1984. Phytophthora spp. associated with the decline of Cedrus deodara in Nanjing, China. Mycopathologia, 85(1/2):59-64

Intini M; Gurer M; Ozturk S, 2002. First report of bleeding canker caused by Phytophthora cactorum on horse chestnut in Turkey. Plant Disease, 86(6):697.

Irwin JAG; Cahill DM; Drenth A, 1995. Phytophthora in Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 46(7):1311-1337; 137 ref.

Jancarik V, 1961. Damping-off of seedlings in forest nurseries and its control in Czechoslovakia. Za. Sots. Sel.-Khoz. Nauk., 10:87-112.

Jeffers SN, 1992. Preplant root treatments to reduce the incidence of Phytophthora species on dormant apple rootstocks. Plant Disease, 76(1):12-19

Jeffers SN; Aldwinckle HS, 1987. Enhancing detection of Phytophthora cactorum in naturally infested soil. Phytopathology, 77(10):1475-1482

Jeffers SN; Aldwinckle HS, 1988. Phytophthora crown rot of apple trees: sources of Phytophthora cactorum and P. cambivora as primary inoculum. Phytopathology, 78(3):328-335

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Kurbetli I; Degirmenci K, 2010. First report of root and crown rot of almond caused by Phytophthora spp. in Turkey. Plant Disease, 94(10):1261. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Lafferty HA; Pethybridge GH, 1922. On a Phytophthora parasitic on apples which has both amphigynous and paragynous antheridia; and on allied species which show the same phenomenon. Scientific Proceedings Royal Dublin Society, 17:29-43.

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Li MingZhu; Asano T; Suga H; Kageyama K, 2011. A multiplex PCR for the detection of Phytophthora nicotianae and P. cactorum, and a survey of their occurrence in strawberry production areas of Japan. Plant Disease, 95(10):1270-1278. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Liew ECY; Maclean DJ; Irwin JAG, 1998. Specific PCR based detection of Phytophthora medicaginis using the intergenic spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. Mycological Research, 102(1):73-80; 37 ref.

Lilja A; Rytkönen A; Parikka P; Kokkola M; Hantula J, 2007. Alien species in Finnish nurseries, Phytophthora spp. Acta Silvatica & Lignaria Hungarica [Foliage, shoot and stem diseases of forest trees. Proceedings of the conference of IUFRO Working Party 7.02.02, Sopron, Hungary, 21-26 May 2007.], Special:219-227. http://aslh.nyme.hu/fileadmin/dokumentumok/fmk/acta_silvatica/cikkek/VolE3-2007/26_lilja_et_al.pdf

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Montealegre JR; Riquelme D; Ramírez M; León M; Abad-Campos P; Pérez LM, 2016. First report of Phytophthora cactorum causing trunk and stem rot on loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) in Chile. Plant Disease, 100(12):2538. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

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Rebollar-Alviter A; Madden LV; Ellis MA, 2005. Efficacy of azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, potassium phosphite, and mefenoxam for control of strawberry leather rot caused by Phytophthora cactorum. Plant Health Progress, January:1-6. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/

Rebollar-Alviter A; Madden LV; Jeffers SN; Ellis MA, 2007. Baseline and differential sensitivity to two QoI fungicides among isolates of Phytophthora cactorum that cause leather rot and crown rot on strawberry. Plant Disease, 91(12):1625-1637. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Roiger DJ; Jeffers SN, 1991. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. for biological control of Phytophthora crown and root rot of apple seedlings. Phytopathology, 81(8):910-917

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