Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Lasiodiplodia theobromae
(diplodia pod rot of cocoa)

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Datasheet

Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia pod rot of cocoa)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 26 March 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lasiodiplodia theobromae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • diplodia pod rot of cocoa
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Stem-end rot of grapefruit.
TitleSymptoms on grapefruit
CaptionStem-end rot of grapefruit.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Stem-end rot of grapefruit.
Symptoms on grapefruitStem-end rot of grapefruit.©Anna L. Snowdon
Finger rot of banana fruit.
TitleSymptoms on banana
CaptionFinger rot of banana fruit.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Finger rot of banana fruit.
Symptoms on bananaFinger rot of banana fruit.©Anna L. Snowdon
Advanced decay of starfruit (Averrhoa carambola).
TitleSymptoms on starfruit
CaptionAdvanced decay of starfruit (Averrhoa carambola).
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Advanced decay of starfruit (Averrhoa carambola).
Symptoms on starfruitAdvanced decay of starfruit (Averrhoa carambola).©Anna L. Snowdon
Immature (white) conidia in the form of 'spore tendrils' exuding from pycnidia.
TitleImmature conidia
CaptionImmature (white) conidia in the form of 'spore tendrils' exuding from pycnidia.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Immature (white) conidia in the form of 'spore tendrils' exuding from pycnidia.
Immature conidiaImmature (white) conidia in the form of 'spore tendrils' exuding from pycnidia.©Anna L. Snowdon
Conidia have matured and darkened.
TitleMature conidia
CaptionConidia have matured and darkened.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Conidia have matured and darkened.
Mature conidiaConidia have matured and darkened.©Anna L. Snowdon
A-B, V. S. of pycnidia; C, conidiogenous cells and conidia; D, conidia. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 519. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleB. theobromae - line drawing
CaptionA-B, V. S. of pycnidia; C, conidiogenous cells and conidia; D, conidia. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 519. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
A-B, V. S. of pycnidia; C, conidiogenous cells and conidia; D, conidia. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 519. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
B. theobromae - line drawingA-B, V. S. of pycnidia; C, conidiogenous cells and conidia; D, conidia. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 519. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.©CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griffiths & Maubl.

Preferred Common Name

  • diplodia pod rot of cocoa

Other Scientific Names

  • Botryodiplodia ananassae (Sacc.) Petr.
  • Botryodiplodia elasticae Petch
  • Botryodiplodia gossypii Ellis & Barthol
  • Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat.
  • Botryodiplodia tubericola (Ellis & Everh.) Petr.
  • Botryosphaeria rhodina (Cooke) Arx
  • Chaetodiplodia grisea Petch
  • Diplodia ananassae Sacc.
  • Diplodia cacaoicola Henn.
  • Diplodia gossypina Cooke
  • Diplodia natalensis Pole-Evans
  • Diplodia theobromae (Pat.) W. Nowell
  • Diplodia tubericola (Ellis & Everh.) Taubenh
  • Lasiodiplodia triflorae B. B. Higgins
  • Lasiodiplodia tubericola Ellis & Everh.
  • Macrophomina vestita Prillinger & Delacr.
  • Physalospora rhodina Berk. & M.A. Curtis

International Common Names

  • English: bot gummosis of Citrus limon; brown pod rot of cocoa; Java black rot (of [stored] sweet potato); stem end rot of papaya
  • Spanish: piña parda del cacao
  • French: pourriture noire des cabosses

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fruchtfäule; Gummose: Zitrus; Kapselfäule: Baumwolle; Kronenfäule: Banane; Stammfäule; Stengelendfäule

EPPO code

  • PHYORH (Botryosphaeria rhodina)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Order: Botryosphaeriales
  •                         Family: Botryosphaeriaceae
  •                             Genus: Lasiodiplodia
  •                                 Species: Lasiodiplodia theobromae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Shamim et al., 2010
BhutanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Brunei DarussalamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Tan et al., 2012
-FujianPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-GansuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Luo et al., 2011; Ji et al., 2017
-GuangxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Xie et al., 2014
-GuizhouPresentLi et al., 2019
-HainanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Zhu et al., 2014; Ma et al., 2016
-Hong KongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-HunanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-JiangsuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-SichuanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Zhou et al., 2015
-YunnanPresentCai ZhiYing et al., 2018
-ZhejiangPresentLi et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2010
Georgia (Republic of)PresentMkervali, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2010
IndiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Latha et al., 2012; Durgadevi et al., 2014; Ritesh et al., 2014
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Andhra PradeshWidespreadReddy and Reddy, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Arunachal PradeshPresentPadmanabhan and Chaudhury, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-AssamPresentTalukdar and Bora, 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-BiharPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Anupam and Jha, 2014
-ChandigarhPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-ChhattisgarhWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2010
-DelhiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-GoaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-GujaratPresentRakholiya et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-HaryanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Himachal PradeshPresentSharma et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Indian PunjabPresentRamandeep et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Jammu and KashmirPresentSharma and Sumbali Geeta, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-KarnatakaPresentKumar and Singh, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-KeralaPresentGunasekaran and Srinivasan, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Madhya PradeshPresentAgarwal and Shashi, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-MaharashtraPresentRao, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-ManipurPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-MeghalayaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-MizoramPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-NagalandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-OdishaPresentRath et al., 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-RajasthanPresentKaul and Bhansali, 1990 (publ. 1992; Kalpna et al., 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Tamil NaduPresentMohan et al., 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2010; Durgadevi et al., 2014
-TripuraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Uttar PradeshPresentVandana and Tripathi, 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-UttarakhandWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2010
-West BengalPresentPandit and Samajpati, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2010; Chakraborty et al., 2011
IndonesiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Irian JayaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-JavaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-SumatraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
IranPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
IsraelPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
JapanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Takushi et al., 2013
Korea, Republic ofPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Nam et al., 2016
LaosPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Sulaiman et al., 2012
-SabahPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Maid et al., 2018
-SarawakPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
MyanmarPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
NepalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
OmanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
PakistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
PhilippinesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
SingaporePresentChua and Chuo, 1980; AVA, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2010
Sri LankaPresentGonawardena et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2010
TaiwanPresentNi et al., 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2010; Fan et al., 2013
ThailandPresentSangchote, 1987; Wang et al., 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2010
TurkeyPresentAri & Oz, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2010; Çeliker and Michailides, 2012; Akgul et al., 2014; Yildiz et al., 2014
United Arab EmiratesPresentBurhan, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2010
VietnamPresentChi et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2010
YemenPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010

Africa

AlgeriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
BeninPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Adandonon et al., 2014
Burkina FasoPresentSereme, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2010
CameroonPresentMbenoun et al., 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2010
ChadPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
ComorosPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
CongoPresentBoher et al., 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2010
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Côte d'IvoirePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
EgyptPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Haggag, 2014
Equatorial GuineaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
EthiopiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Alemu et al., 2014
GabonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
GambiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
GhanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
GuineaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
KenyaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
LibyaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
MadagascarPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
MalawiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
MaliPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
MauritiusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
MoroccoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
MozambiquePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
NigerPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
NigeriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Dugan et al., 2016
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
SenegalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
SeychellesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Sierra LeonePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
SomaliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
South AfricaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
SudanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
SwazilandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
TanzaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
TogoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
TunisiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
UgandaPresentOtim-Nape, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2010
ZambiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
ZimbabwePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010

North America

CanadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-AlbertaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-ManitobaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-OntarioAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2010
-QuebecPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
MexicoPresentNoriega et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2010; Dugan et al., 2016
USAPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-AlabamaPresentFraedrich and Miller, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-AlaskaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-ArizonaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-ArkansasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-CaliforniaPresentSandlin and Ferrin, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010; Chen et al., 2013
-ColoradoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-District of ColumbiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-FloridaPresentFraedrich et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-GeorgiaPresentFraedrich and Miller, 1995; Woodward et al., 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-HawaiiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-IllinoisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-IowaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-KentuckyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-LouisianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-MarylandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-MassachusettsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-MississippiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-NebraskaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-New JerseyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-New MexicoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-New YorkPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-North CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-OhioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-OklahomaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-OregonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-South CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-TennesseePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-TexasPresentBeraha et al., 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
BarbadosPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
BelizePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
British Virgin IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Costa RicaPresentAraya et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2010
CubaPresentArnold and Pérez, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2010
DominicaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Dominican RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
El SalvadorPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
GrenadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
GuatemalaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
HaitiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
HondurasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
JamaicaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
MartiniquePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
NicaraguaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
PanamaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Puerto RicoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Saint LuciaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Cabrera and Cúdom, 2013; Pérez et al., 2018
BoliviaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
BrazilPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Marques et al., 2013; Netto et al., 2014; Borges et al., 2015
-AlagoasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-AmazonasPresentHanada et al., 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-BahiaPresentLima et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-CearaPresentViana et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Espirito SantoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Moreira et al., 2013
-GoiasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-MaranhaoPresentDoihara and Silva, 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Mato GrossoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Minas GeraisPresentBotelho et al., 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-ParaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-ParaibaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-PernambucoPresentDantas et al., 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-PiauiPresentViana et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Rio de JaneiroPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Rio Grande do NortePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-RondoniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-RoraimaPresentHalfeld-Vieira and Nechet, 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Sao PauloPresentFischer et al., 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2010; Fujinawa et al., 2012
-SergipePresentRam, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2010
ChilePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Guajardo et al., 2018
ColombiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
EcuadorPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
GuyanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
ParaguayPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
PeruPresentIcochea et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2010; Rodríguez-Gálvez et al., 2015
SurinamePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
UruguayPresentDelgado-Cerrone et al., 2016
VenezuelaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010

Europe

CyprusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
DenmarkAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2010
FrancePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
GermanyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
ItalyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Garibaldi et al., 2012
-SicilyPresentBurruano et al., 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2010
MaltaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
NetherlandsAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2010
PortugalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Portugal (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
RomaniaPresentSesan and Oprea, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2010
SpainPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Spain (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
SwitzerlandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
UKAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2010
-England and WalesAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2010

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2010
AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-New South WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-QueenslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-South AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
FijiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
GuamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
New CaledoniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
New ZealandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
SamoaPresentGerlach, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2010
Solomon IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
TongaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
VanuatuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Growing point / rot
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / necrotic areas
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / rot
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dead heart
Stems / dieback
Stems / gummosis or resinosis

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Pathogen

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Wood fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants

References

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Adandonon A, Datinon B, Baimey H, Toffa J, 2014. First report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griffon & Maubl causing root rot and collar rot disease of Jatropha curcas L. in Benin. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 79:6873-6877. http://www.m.elewa.org/JABS/2014/79/8.pdf

Aderiye BI, Laleye SA, Ojo B, 1998. Toxicity of citric and succinic acids for the pycnidiospores of Botryodiplodia theobromae. Folia Microbiologica, 43(2):147-150; 16 ref

Agarwal AK, Shashi Chauhan, 1987. Two new records of leaf spot diseases from Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(2):214

Agbeniyi SO, 1999. Efficacy of Milton solution and wood ash in the control of storage rot of kolanut (Cola nitida) (Vent.) Schott and Endl. Nigerian Journal of Tree Crop Research, 3(1):67-75; 13 ref

Akgul DS, Savas NG, Eskalen A, 2014. First report of wood canker caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, Diplodia seriata, Neofusicoccum parvum, and Lasiodiplodia theobromae on grapevine in Turkey. Plant Disease, 98(4):568. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Alemu Gezahgne, Abraham Yirgu, Habtemaria Kassa, 2014. First report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae causing canker on tapped Boswellia papyrifera trees in Ethiopia. New Disease Reports, 29:11. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=029011

ALima GSde, Silva AP, Conserva L, Lopez AMQ, 1996. Effect of foliar extracts from Esenbeckia grandiflora and Eriochloa punctata on germination and mycelial growth of Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. in vitro. Cie^circumflex~ncia Agri^acute~cola, 4:17-23; 11 ref

Allen DJ, 1970. Botryodiplodia fruit rot of giant granadilla in east Africa. Plant Disease Reporter, 54:809-811

Amusa NA, Ayinla MA, 1996. The effect of tecto (thiabendazole) on the activities of yam rot causing fungi and on sprouting of yam setts. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 14(1):113-120; 17 ref

Andrade Lima GSde, Lima NMF, Lopez AMQ, 1996. Effect of aqueous extracts from garlic bulbs (Allium sativum) on germination and mycelial growth of Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. in vitro. Cie^circumflex~ncia Agri^acute~cola, 4:7-15; 14 ref

Anon., 1951. The work of the IRCT during the season of 1949-1950. Cotton Fibres Trop., 6:1-44.

Anupam Kumari, Jha PK, 2014. Piper longum - a new host of two fungal pathogens. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 44(2):212-213. http://www.ismpp.org.in/journal.php

Araujo WTde, Campos HD, Pazzetti GA, 1999. Evaluation of the efficiency of fungicides for treatment of cotton seeds (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Anais II Congresso Brasileiro de Algoda^tilde~o: O algoda^tilde~o no se^acute~culo XX, perspectivas para o se^acute~culo XXI, Ribeira^tilde~o Preto, SP, Brasil, 5-10 Setembro 1999., 680-683; 4 ref

Araya CM, Rivera G, Campos D, 1988. Identification and pathogenicity of fungi associated with tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) from the field and market in Costa Rica. Fitopatología, 23(1):1-4; 14 ref

Arinze AK, Naqui SHZ, Ekundayo, 1975. Storage rot of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) and the effect of fungicides on extracellular cellulolytic and pectolytic enzymes of the causal organism. J. A. Int. Biodeterior. Bull., 11:41-47

Arnold GRW, Pérez Sendín Mde los Â, 1987. Contribution to the knowledge of Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. in Cuba. (Contribución al conocimiento de Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. en Cuba.) Reporte de Investigación del Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agricultura Tropical., 8 pp

Arshad Javaid, Amna Javaid, Noreen Akhtar, 2008. In vitro chemical control of Botryodiplodia theobromae, the cause of dying back disease of mango. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 20(2):195-199

Ataga AE, Umechuruba CI, 1998. Biochemical changes in African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa, (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Harms seeds caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat, Fusarium pallidoroseum (Cooke) Sacc. and Penicillium oxalicum Currie and Thom. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 4(4):381-384; 19 ref

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Banik AK, Kaiser SAKM, Dhua RS, 1996. Evaluation of mango fruits in storage for resistance against anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz) and Diplodia stem end rot (Diplodia natalensis Pole Evans). Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 34(2):121-124; 8 ref

Banik AK, Kaiser SAKM, Dhua RS, 1998. Evaluation of some systemic and nonsystemic fungicides against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Diplodia natalensis causing post harvest fruit rot of mango. Journal of Soils and Crops, 8(2):119-122; 7 ref

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