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Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phyllotreta cruciferae
(crucifer flea beetle)

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Datasheet

Phyllotreta cruciferae (crucifer flea beetle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phyllotreta cruciferae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • crucifer flea beetle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) adults on a cotyledon of oilseed rape.
TitleP. cruciferae adults
CaptionPhyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) adults on a cotyledon of oilseed rape.
CopyrightAgriculture & Agri-Food Canada
Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) adults on a cotyledon of oilseed rape.
P. cruciferae adultsPhyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) adults on a cotyledon of oilseed rape.Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada
Severe Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) feeding damage to a young oilseed canola leaf.
TitleDamage symptoms on oilseed canola leaf
CaptionSevere Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) feeding damage to a young oilseed canola leaf.
CopyrightAgriculture & Agri-Food Canada
Severe Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) feeding damage to a young oilseed canola leaf.
Damage symptoms on oilseed canola leafSevere Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) feeding damage to a young oilseed canola leaf.Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada
Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) adults causing cosmetic damage to a head of broccoli.
TitleDamage symptoms on broccoli
CaptionPhyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) adults causing cosmetic damage to a head of broccoli.
CopyrightAgriculture & Agri-Food Canada
Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) adults causing cosmetic damage to a head of broccoli.
Damage symptoms on broccoliPhyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) adults causing cosmetic damage to a head of broccoli.Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze)

Preferred Common Name

  • crucifer flea beetle

Other Scientific Names

  • Phyllotreta colorea Foud.
  • Phyllotreta columbiana Chittenden
  • Phyllotreta obscurella Illiger
  • Phyllotreta poeciloceras Com.

International Common Names

  • English: flea beetle, cabbage; flea beetle, crucifer; turnip fly
  • Spanish: pulguilla de las crucíferas
  • French: altise des crucifères
  • Russian: senii krestotsvetnii blozhek

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Erdflöhe, Flohkäfer, Gewoehnlicher
  • Israel: chiphushit haparoshit shel hakruv
  • Netherlands: Koolaardvlo, blauwe
  • Spain: escarabajo pulgon

EPPO code

  • PHYECR (Phyllotreta cruciferae)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Chrysomelidae
  •                             Genus: Phyllotreta
  •                                 Species: Phyllotreta cruciferae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentEPPO (2020)
EgyptPresentEPPO (2020)

Asia

IndiaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-AssamPresentSaikia and Nath (2001)
-DelhiPresentEPPO (2020)
-Himachal PradeshPresentRajpal Singh et al. (2004)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentMohamad et al. (2011)
-Madhya PradeshPresentSingh et al. (1980)
-MeghalayaPresentBoopathi et al. (2010)
-RajasthanPresentGupta and Sharma (1971); EPPO (2020)
-Uttar PradeshPresentMonika Tiwari et al. (2005)
-West BengalPresentKarmakar (2003)
IranPresentEPPO (2020)
IraqPresentEPPO (2020)
IsraelPresentEPPO (2020)
JordanPresentEPPO (2020)
KazakhstanPresentEPPO (2020)
LebanonPresentEPPO (2020)
MalaysiaPresentSharom (1980); Waterhouse (1993)
Sri LankaPresentMayoori and Mikunthan (2009)
SyriaPresentEPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentEPPO (2020)

Europe

AustriaPresentEPPO (2020)
BelgiumPresentEPPO (2020)
BulgariaPresentEPPO (2020)
CyprusPresentEPPO (2020)
CzechiaPresentEPPO (2020)
CzechoslovakiaPresentEPPO (2014)
DenmarkPresentEPPO (2020)
FrancePresentGrison et al. (1963); EPPO (2020)
GermanyPresentEPPO (2020)
GreecePresentEPPO (2020)
HungaryPresentEPPO (2020)
IrelandPresentEPPO (2020)
ItalyPresentEPPO (2020)
LatviaPresentSilfverberg (1992)
LithuaniaPresentSilfverberg (1992)
NetherlandsPresentEPPO (2020)
PolandPresentEPPO (2020)
PortugalPresentEPPO (2020)
RomaniaPresentEPPO (2020)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Eastern SiberiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Russia (Europe)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Western SiberiaPresentEPPO (2020)
SerbiaPresentEPPO (2020)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentEPPO (2020)
SlovakiaPresentCagán et al. (2000)
SloveniaPresentTóth et al. (2007)
SpainPresentEPPO (2020)
SwedenPresentSilfverberg (1992)
SwitzerlandPresentEPPO (2020)
UkrainePresentKapustyan and Moiseenko (1974); EPPO (2020)
United KingdomPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Morgan (1984); CABI (Undated)
-EnglandPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)

North America

CanadaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-AlbertaPresentEPPO (2020)
-British ColumbiaPresentMilliron (1953); EPPO (2020)
-ManitobaPresentWylie (1979); EPPO (2020)
-New BrunswickPresentBousquet (1991)
-Nova ScotiaPresentBousquet (1991)
-OntarioPresentKinoshita et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
-QuebecPresentVincent and Stewart (1981); EPPO (2020)
-SaskatchewanPresentBurgess (1981); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Altieri & Gleissman, 1983
-DelawarePresentEPPO (2020)
-IdahoPresentBrown et al. (2004)
-KentuckyPresentAntonious (2002)
-MarylandPresentReed and Byers (1981); EPPO (2020)
-MassachusettsPresentAndersen et al. (2006)
-MinnesotaPresentEPPO (2020)
-MontanaPresentLenssen et al. (2007)
-New JerseyPresentEPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentTahvanainen (1972); EPPO (2020)
-North DakotaPresentMilbrath et al. (1995)
-OregonPresentEPPO (2020)
-PennsylvaniaPresentJung et al. (1986)
-VermontPresentEPPO (2020)
-VirginiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-West VirginiaPresentLatheef and Ortiz (1984)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Roots / external feeding
Seeds / shrivelled
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / external feeding
Whole plant / cut at stem base
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Amphimermis elegans Parasite Adults
Chrysoperla carnea Predator
Collops vittatus Predator
Gryllus pennsylvanicus Predator
Hexamermis albicans Parasite Adults
Howardula phyllotretae Parasite Adults
Microctonus vittatae Parasite Adults
Nabis alternatus Predator
Steinernema feltiae Parasite
Townesilitus bicolor Parasite Adults

References

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Adashkevich BP, 1975. Integrated protection of cabbage. Experiment and problems. Zashchita Rastenii, No.5:27-28

Altieri MA; Gliessman SR, 1983. Effects of plant diversity on the density and herbivory of the flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze, in California collard (Brassica oleracea) cropping systems. Crop Protection, 2(4):497-501

Altieri MA; Wilson RC; Schmidt LL, 1985. The effects of living mulches and weed cover on the dynamics of foliage- and soil-arthropod communities in three crop systems. Crop Protection, 4(2):201-213

Andersen CL; Hazzard R; Driesche Rvan; Mangan FX, 2006. Alternative management tactics for control of Phyllotreta cruciferae and Phyllotreta striolata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Brassica rapa in Massachusetts. Journal of Economic Entomology, 99(3):803-810. http://docserver.esa.catchword.org/deliver/cw/pdf/esa/freepdfs/00220493/v99n3s30.pdf

Anderson MD; Peng CW; Weiss MJ, 1992. Crambe, Crambe abyssinica Hochst., as a flea beetle resistant crop (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(2):594-600

Andow DA; Nicholson AG; Wien HC; Willson HR, 1986. Insect populations on cabbage grown with living mulches. Environmental Entomology, 15(2):293-299.

Antonious GF, 2002. Persistence and performance of esfenvalerate residues on broccoli. Pest Management Science, 58(1):85-91.

Augustin A; Tulisalo U; Korpela S, 1986. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) (Halticinae) on rapeseed and sugar beet in Finland. Journal of Agricultural Science of Finland, 58:69-82.

Bakhetia DRC; Labana KS, 1978. Insect resistance in Brassica crops. Crop Improvement, 5:95-193.

Batra HN; Joshi HC; Doval SL; Mathur BP, 1969. Food plants, bionomics and control of flea beetles. Indian Farming, 19(3):38-40.

Bodnaryk RP, 1991. Developmental profile of sinalbin (p-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate) in mustard seedlings, Sinapis alba L., and its relation to insect resistance. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 17:1543-1556.

Bodnaryk RP, 1992. Leaf epicuticular wax, an antixenotic factor in Brassicaceae that affects the rate and pattern of feeding of flea beetles, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze). Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 72(4):1295-1303

Bodnaryk RP; Lamb RJ, 1991. Influence of seed size in canola, Brassica napus L., and mustard, Sinapis alba L., on seedling resistance against flea beetles Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze). Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 71:397-404.

Boopathi T; Pathak KA; Ngachan SV; Nabajyoti Das, 2010. Evaluation of neem oil and insecticides against Phyllotreta cruciferae on broccoli. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 18(1):236-237. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Bousquet Y, 1991. Checklist of beetles of Canada and Alaska. Ottawa, Canada: Research Branch Agriculture Canada Publication.

Bracken GK; Bucher GE, 1986. Yield losses in canola caused by adult and larval flea beetles, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Canadian Entomologist, 118(4):319-324

Brett CH; Sullivan MJ, 1974. The use of resistant varieties and other cultural practices for control of insects on crucifers in North Carolina. Agricultural Experiment Station, North Carolina State University at Raleigh, USA, Bulletin No. 449.

Brown J; McCaffrey JP; Brown DA; Harmon BL; Davis JB, 2004. Yield reduction in Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and Sinapis alba caused by flea beetle (Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)) infestation in Northern Idaho. Journal of Economic Entomology, 97(5):1642-1647. http://www.esa.catchword.org

Brown WJ, 1967. Notes on the extra-limital distribution of some species of Coleptera. The Canadian Entomologist, 99:85-93.

Burgess L, 1977. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) attacking rape crops in the Canadian prairie provinces. Canadian Entomologist, 109(1):21-32

Burgess L, 1977. Geocoris bullatus, an occasional predator on flea beetles (Hemiptera: Lygpidae). Canadian Entomologist, 109(11):1519-1520

Burgess L, 1980. Predation on adults of the flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae by lacewing larvae (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Canadian Entomologist, 112(7):745-746

Burgess L, 1981. Crucifer-feeding flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurring in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Coleopterists Bulletin, 35(3):307-309

Burgess L, 1981. Winter sampling to determine overwintering sites and estimate density of adult flea beetle pests of rape (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Canadian Entomologist, 113(5):441-447

Burgess L; Hinks CF, 1987. Predation on adults of the crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), by the northern fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus Burmeister (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Canadian Entomologist, 119(5):495-496

Cagán L; Vráblová M; Tóth P, 2000. Flea beetles (Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) species occurring on Amaranthus spp. in Slovakia. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 1(1):14-25. http://www.agr.hr/jcea/issues/jcea1-1/frame.html

Dillard HR; Cobb AC; Lamboy JS, 1998. Transmission of Alternaria brassicicola to cabbage by flea beetles (Phyllotreta cruciferae). Plant Disease, 82(2):153-157; 21 ref.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Feeny P; Paauwe KL; Demong NJ, 1970. Flea beetles and mustard oils: host plant specificity of Phyllotreta cruciferae and P. striolata adults (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 63:832-841.

Gerber GH; Osgood CE, 1975. Collops vittatus (Coleoptera: Melyridae): a predator of flea beetle adults in rapeseed. Manitoba Entomologist, 9:61

Gerst JJ; Stengel B, 1978. Semi-forcage avec baches plastiques a plat. Pepinieristes Horticulteurs Maraichers, 187:27-31.

Grison P; Labeyrie V; Jourdheuil P; RemaudiFre G; Balachowsky AS, 1963. Famille des Chrysomelidae. In: Balachowsky AS, ed. Entomologie Apliquée a l'Agriculture: Traite. Tome 1. Volume 2. Super-Famille des Phytophagoidea. Paris, France: Maisson et Cie.

Gupta BM; Sharma JC, 1971. Efficacy of certain insecticidal control schedules against insect pests of cabbage. Madras Agricultural Journal, 58(12):889-891

Hines R; Hutchison WD, 1997. Flea beetles. VegEdge - Cole Crops. University of Michigan Extension Service. Michigan, USA: University of Michigan.

Hough-Goldstein JA, 1987. Tests of a spun polyester row cover as a barrier against seedcorn maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) and cabbage pest infestations. Journal of Economic Entomology, 80(4):768-772

Jung GA; Byers RA; Panciera MT; Schaffer JA, 1986. Forage dry matter accumulation and quality of turnip, Brassica rapa, swede rape, Brassica napus, Chinses cabbage, Brassica campestris hybrids and kale, Brassica oleracea, in the eastern USA. Agronomy Journal, 78:245-253.

Kapustyan V; Moiseenko A, 1974. Rape and turnip rape need protection. Zemledelie, 5:47-48.

Karmakar K, 2003. Effect of date of sowing on the incidence of insect pests of rape and mustard. Journal of Interacademicia, 7(4):420-425.

Kinoshita GB; Harris CR; Svec HJ; McEwen FL, 1978. Laboratory and field studies on the chemical control of the crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), on cruciferous crops in Ontario. Canadian Entomologist, 110(8):795-803

Kinoshita GB; Svec HJ; Harris CR; McEwen FL, 1979. Biology of the crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in southwestern Ontario. Canadian Entomologist, 111(12):1395-1407

Kostromitin VB, 1978. Damage by crucifer flea-beetles. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 7:36

Lamb RJ, 1980. Hairs protect pods of mustard (Brassica hirta 'Gisilba') from flea beetle feeding damage. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 60(4):1439-1440

Lamb RJ, 1983. Phenology of flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) flight in relation to their invasion of canola fields in Manitoba. Canadian Entomologist, 115(11):1493-1502

Lamb RJ, 1984. Effects of flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp. (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera), on the survival, growth, seed yield and quality of canola, rape and yellow mustard. Canadian Entomologist, 116(2):269-280

Lamb RJ; McVetty PBE; Palaniswamy P; Bodnaryk RP; Jeong SE, 1993. Susceptibility of inbred lines of oilseed rape, Brassica napus, to feeding damage by the crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and its inheritance. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 73(2):615-623

Lamb RJ; Palaniswamy P, 1990. Host discrimination by a crutcher-feeding flea beetle, Phyllotreta striolata (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Canadian Entomologist, 122(9-10):817-824

Lamb RJ; Palaniswamy P; Pivnick KA; Smith MAH, 1993. A selection of oilseed rape, Brassica rapa L., with resistance to flea beetles, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Canadian Entomologist, 125(4):703-713

Lamb RJ; Turnock WJ, 1982. Economics of insecticidal control of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) attacking rape in Canada. Canadian Entomologist, 114(9):827-840

Latheef MA; Ortiz JH, 1984. Influence of companion herbs on Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on collard plants. Journal of Economic Entomology, 77(1):80-82

Latheef MA; Ortiz JH; Sheikh AQ, 1984. Influence of intercropping on Phyllotreta cruficerp (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations on collard plants. Journal of Economic Entomology, 77(5):1180-1184

Lenssen AW; Johnson GD; Blodgett SL; Goosey HB, 2007. Influence of tillage system, oilseed species, and insecticidal seed treatment on flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage, oilseed production, and postharvest residue cover. Journal of Entomological Science, 42(1):1-10.

Loan CC, 1967. Studies on the taxonomy and biology of the Euphorine (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). II. Host relations of six Microctonus species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 60:236-240.

Mayoori K; Mikunthan G, 2009. Damage pattern of cabbage flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and its associated hosts of crops and weeds. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science, 6(3):303-307. http://www.idosi.org/aejaes/jaes6(3)/8.pdf

Milbrath LR; Weiss MJ; Schatz BG, 1995. Influence of tillage system, planting date, and oilseed crucifers on flea beetle populations (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Canadian Entomologist, 127(3):289-293; 16 ref.

Milliron HE, 1953. A European flea beetle injuring crucifers in North America. Journal of Economic Entomology, 46:179.

Mohamad BD; Bhagat RC; Qureshi A, 2011. A survey of insect pests damaging vegetable crops in Kashmir Valley (India), with some new records. Journal of Entomological Research, 35(1):85-91. http://www.indianjournals.com

Monika Tiwari; Singh CP; Rajeev Goel, 2005. Effect of intercropping on the population, dynamics of insect pests and yield of mustard. Shashpa, 12(2):106-110.

Morgan MJ, 1984. Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) in North Wales. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 120(1436/1439):97

Morris ON, 1987. Evaluation of the nematode, Steinernema feltip Filipjev, for the control of the crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Canadian Entomologist, 119(1):95-101

Palanisawamy P; Lamb RJ; Bodnaryk RP, 1997. Antibiosis of preferred and non-preferred host-plants for the flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Canadian Entomologist, 129(1):43-49; 27 ref.

Palaniswamy P; Bodnaryk RP, 1994. A wild Brassica from Sicily provides trichome-based resistance against flea beetles, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Canadian Entomologist, 126(5):1119-1130

Palaniswamy P; Lamb RJ, 1992. Host preferences of the flea beetles Phyllotreta cruciferae and P. striolata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) for crucifer seedlings. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(3):743-752

Putnam LG, 1977. Response of four brassica seed crop species to attack by the crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 57(3):987-989

Rajpal S; Lakhanpal SC; Karkara BK, 2004. Pests of strawberry in Paonta Valley, Himachal Pradesh. Insect Environment, 10(2):81-82.

Reed HE; Byers RA, 1981. Flea beetles attacking forage kale: effect of carbofuran and tillage methods. Journal of Economic Entomology, 74(3):334-337

Rice Mahr SE; Mahr DL; Wyman AJ, 1991. Biological control of insect pests of cabbage and other crucifers. North Central Regional Publication no. 471. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin.

Saikia DK; Nath RK, 2001. Field efficacy of certain plant products against mustard flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze). Journal of the Agricultural Science Society of North-East India, 14(2):188-194.

Saynor M, 1985. Flea beetles. Leaflet, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, UK, No. 109:5 pp.

Sharom MS, 1980. Frequency of insecticide application on sawi (Brassica juncea) production. Malaysian Agricultural Journal, 52(4):8-13

Shelton AM; Hunter JE, 1985. Evaluation of the potential of the flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae to transmit Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, causal agent of black rot of crucifers. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 7(3):308-310

Silfverberg H, 1992. Enumeratio Coleopterorum Fennoscandiae, Daniae et Baltiae. Helsinki, Finland: Helsingin Hyönteisvaihtoyhdistys.

Singh OP; Rawat RR; Choudhary BS, 1980. Efficacy of some granular insecticides against the flea beetle Phylotreta cruciferae on mustard. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 8(1):54-56

Sommer G, 1981. Biologie und Parasitenkomplex der Halticenen Gattung Phyllotreta . PhD thesis. Freiberg, Germany: Albert-Ludwigs University of Freiberg.

Soroka JJ; Pritchard MK, 1987. Effects of flea beetle feeding on transplanted and direct-seeded broccoli. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 67(2):549-557

Stobbs LW; Cerkauskas RF; Lowery T; Driel Lvan, 1998. Occurrence of turnip yellow mosaic virus on Oriental cruciferous vegetables in southern Ontario, Canada. Plant Disease, 82(3):351; 1 ref.

Superak TH, 1976. Insect resistance in crucifers with emphasis on preference of Pieris rapae for cabbage varieties. Dissertation Abstract International, B37:1053B-1054B.

Tahvanainen JO, 1972. Phenology and microhabitat selection of some flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomeliade) on wild and cultivated crucifers in central New York. Entomologica Scandinavica, 3(2):120-138

Tóth M; Csonka É; Bakcsa F; Benedek P; Szarukán I; Gomboc S; Toshova T; Subchev M; Ujváry I, 2007. Species spectrum of flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp., Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) attracted to allyl isothiocyanate-baited traps. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. Section C, Biosciences, 62(9/10):772-778. http://znaturforsch.com/c.htm

Vaughn TT; Hoy CW, 1993. Effect of leaf age, injury, morphology, and cultivars on feeding behavior of Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Environmental Entomology, 22(2):418-424; 12 ref.

Vincent C; Stewart RK, 1981. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) associated with cultivated crucifers in southwestern Quebec. Annales de la Societe Entomologique du Quebec, 26(2):112-118

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Westdal PH; Romanow W, 1972. Observations on the biology of the flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Manitoba Entomologist, 6:35-45

Wylie HG, 1979. Observations on distribution, seasonal life history, and abundance of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) that infest rape crops in Manitoba. Canadian Entomologist, 111(12):1345-1353

Wylie HG, 1982. An effect of parasitism by Microctonus vittatp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on emergence of Phyllotreta cruciferae and Phyllotreta striolata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from overwintering sites. Canadian Entomologist, 114(8):727-732

Wylie HG, 1983. Oviposition and survival of the European parasite Microctonus bicolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in crucifer-infesting flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Manitoba. Canadian Entomologist, 115(1):55-58

Wylie HG, 1988. Release in Manitoba, Canada of Townesilitus bicolor (Hym.: Braconidae), an European parasite of Phyllotreta spp. (Col.: Chrysomelidae). Entomophaga, 33(1):25-32

Wylie HG; Turnock WJ; Burgess L, 1984. Phyllotreta spp., flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). In: Kelleher JS, Hulme MA, eds. Biological Control Programmes against Insects and Weeds in Canada 1969-80. Technical Communication, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, 8:73-76.

Zakharenkova NN, 1996. Howardula phyllotretae (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) - parasite of Phyllotreta flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Russian Journal of Nematology, 4(1):1-6; 7 ref.

Distribution References

Andersen C L, Hazzard R, Driesche R van, Mangan F X, 2006. Alternative management tactics for control of Phyllotreta cruciferae and Phyllotreta striolata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Brassica rapa in Massachusetts. Journal of Economic Entomology. 99 (3), 803-810. http://docserver.esa.catchword.org/deliver/cw/pdf/esa/freepdfs/00220493/v99n3s30.pdf DOI:10.1603/0022-0493-99.3.803

Antonious G F, 2002. Persistence and performance of esfenvalerate residues on broccoli. Pest Management Science. 58 (1), 85-91. DOI:10.1002/ps.420

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