Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Physoderma maydis
(brown spot of corn)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Physoderma maydis (brown spot of corn)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Physoderma maydis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • brown spot of corn
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Chytridiomycota
  •       Class: Chytridiomycetes
  •         Order: Blastocladiales

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Stalk spots on maize.
TitleSymptoms on maize leaf
CaptionStalk spots on maize.
Copyright©CIMMYT
Stalk spots on maize.
Symptoms on maize leafStalk spots on maize.©CIMMYT
A, Infected leaf and leaf sheath of maize x 1.6; B, section of leaf containing resting spores x 125; C, resting spores x 325. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 753. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. (Photo: D W Fry and J C Walker).
TitleInfected leaf, and spores
CaptionA, Infected leaf and leaf sheath of maize x 1.6; B, section of leaf containing resting spores x 125; C, resting spores x 325. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 753. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. (Photo: D W Fry and J C Walker).
CopyrightCAB International
A, Infected leaf and leaf sheath of maize x 1.6; B, section of leaf containing resting spores x 125; C, resting spores x 325. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 753. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. (Photo: D W Fry and J C Walker).
Infected leaf, and sporesA, Infected leaf and leaf sheath of maize x 1.6; B, section of leaf containing resting spores x 125; C, resting spores x 325. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 753. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. (Photo: D W Fry and J C Walker).CAB International

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Physoderma maydis (Miyabe) Miyabe, 1909

Preferred Common Name

  • brown spot of corn

Other Scientific Names

  • Cladochytrium maydis Miyabe, 1903
  • Physoderma zeae-maydis F.J.F. Shaw, 1912 (teleomorph)

International Common Names

  • English: brown spot of maize; maize brown spot; physoderma brown spot; physoderma Disease
  • Spanish: mancha foliar del maiz
  • French: taches brunes du maïs

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Braunfleckenkrankheit: Mais

EPPO code

  • PHYDMA (Physoderma maydis)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Chytridiomycota
  •             Class: Chytridiomycetes
  •                 Order: Blastocladiales
  •                     Family: Physodermataceae
  •                         Genus: Physoderma
  •                             Species: Physoderma maydis

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

CameroonPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent
MalawiPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigeriaPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

BangladeshPresent
BhutanPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent, Widespread
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HenanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-ShandongPresent
-SichuanPresent
-TibetPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresent, Localized
-BiharPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-OdishaPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
JapanPresent
LaosPresent
NepalPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
ThailandPresent

Europe

RussiaPresent, Localized
-Russian Far EastPresent

North America

Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GuatemalaPresent
MexicoPresent
PanamaPresent
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-AlabamaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-DelawarePresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-West VirginiaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Localized
-QueenslandPresent
-VictoriaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

Top of page
Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / lesions on glumes
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Whole plant / dwarfing

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

Top of page

Aujla SS; Chahal AS; Payak MM, 1976. Evaluation of some maize genotypes for resistance to brown leaf spot. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 13(2):127-129

Brewbaker JL, 1975. Physoderma brown spot on corn. Miscellaneous Publication, Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 122:7

Broyles JW, 1956. Observations on time and location of penetration in relation to amount of damage and chemical control of Physoderma maydis. Phytopathology, 46:8.

Broyles JW, 1959. Incidence of brown spot of corn in Mississippi in 1957 and estimations of its effect on yield. Plant Disease Reporter, 43:18-21.

Broyles JW, 1962. Penetration of meristematic tissues of corn by Physoderma maydis. Phytopathology, 52:1013-1016.

Burgos NR; Carillo R; Ortuoste R; Reintar R, 1989. Growth and yield performance of corn varieties as affected by fertilizer levels. USMARC Monitor, 10:6-7.

Burns EE; Shurtleff MC, 1973. Observations of Physoderma maydis in Illinois: effects of tillage practice in field corn. Plant Disease Reporter, 57:630-633.

Eddins, A. H., 1933. Infection of corn plants by Physoderma zeae maydis Shaw. Journal of Agricultural Research, 46, 241-53.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Everett LA; Eta-Ndu JT; Ndioro M; Tabi I; Kim SK, 1994. Registration of 18 first-cycle tropical midaltitude maize germplasm lines. Crop Science, 34(5):1422; 2 ref.

Everett LA; Eta-Ndu JT; Ndioro M; Tabi I; Kim SK, 1994. Registration of 19 second-cycle tropical midaltitude maize germplasm lines. Crop Science, 34(5):1419-1420; 3 ref.

Harlapur SI; Mruthunjaya CW; Anahosur KH; Muralikrishna S, 2000. A report survey and surveillance of maize diseases in North Karnataka. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 13(3):750-751; 2 ref.

Kaiser SAKM, 1987. Evaluation of maize genotypes to brown spot disease. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(2):198-202

Kaiser SAKM; Prodhan HS, 1990. Evaluation for multiple resistance in maize to three major foliar diseases. Environment and Ecology, 8(1A):25-29

Lal BB; Chakravarti BP, 1975. Occurrence, symptomatology of brown spot of maize and survival of the pathogen Physoderma maydis. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 5(2):174-180

Lal BB; Chakravarti BP, 1976. Assessment of loss due to brown spot of maize caused by Physoderma maydis. Indian Phytopathology, 29(4):449-450

Lal BB; Chakravarti BP, 1977. Infection and development of Physoderma maydis under various light conditions. Philippine Agriculturist, 61(1/2):46-54

Lal BB; Chakravarti BP, 1977. Resistance of maize varieties and lines to Physoderma maydis, causal organism of brown spot of maize in Udaipur, India. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(12):1080-1081

Lal BB; Chakravarti BP, 1977. Root and collar inoculation and control of brown spot of maize by post-infection spray and soil application of systemic fungicides. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(4):334-336

Lal BB; Chakravarti BP, 1979. Factors affecting germination of sporangia of maize brown spot fungus Physoderma maydis Shaw. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia, 63:91-96

Lange L; Olson LW, 1980. Germination of the resting sporangia of Physoderma maydis, the causal agent of Physoderma disease of maize. Protoplasma, 102(3/4):323-342

Moll RH; Thompson DL; Harvey PH, 1963. A quantitative genetic study of the inheritance of resistance to brown spot (Physoderma maydis) of corn. Crop Science, 3:389-391.

Olson LW; Lange L, 1978. The meiospore of Physoderma maydis. The causal agent of Physoderma disease of maize. Protoplasma, 97(2/3):275-290

Osunlaja SO, 1989. Effect of organic soil amendments on the incidence of brown spot disease in maize caused by Physoderma maydis. Journal of Basic Microbiology, 29(8):501-505

Poneleit CG; Evans KO, 1972. Kentucky hybrid corn performance test, 1972. Progress Report, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Kentucky, 206:31.

Robertson, A. E., Jesse, L., Munkvold, G., Rojas, E. S., Mueller, D. S., 2015. Physoderma brown spot and stalk rot of corn caused by Physoderma maydis in Iowa. Plant Health Progress, (No.May), PHP-BR-15-0003. https://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/sub/php/volume16/number2/PHP-BR-15-0003.pdf

Shurtleff MC, 1980. Compendium of Corn Diseases. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 37.

Sparrow FK, 1947. Observations on chytridiaceous parasites of phanerogams. II. A preliminary study of the occurrence of ephemeral sporangia in the physoderma disease of maize. American Journal of Botany, 34:94-97.

Tangonan NG; Pedrajas AE, 1988. Physoderma disease: a potential threat to corn growing. SMARC Monitor, Southern Mindanao Agricultural Research Centre, 8(3-4):20

Thompson DL, 1969. Quantitative genetic estimates for brown spot resistance in corn. Crop Science, 9:246-247.

Thompson DL; Rawlings JO; Moll RH, 1963. Inheritance and breeding information pertaining to brown spot resistance in corn. Crop Science, 3:511-514.

Tisdale WH, 1919. Physoderma disease of corn. Journal of Agricultural Research, 16:137-154.

UK CAB International, 1995. Physoderma maydis. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, January (Edition 4). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 106.

Varshney JL; Shamsher Singh; Kulshrestha DD, 1988. Pathogenic fungi recorded in maize crop raised from exotic germplasm. Indian Phytopathology, 41(2):242-244; 6 ref.

Walker JC, 1983. Physoderma maydis. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 753. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Wangmu; Ciyang; Gongbutrishi, 2001. A preliminary regionalization of crop pathogenic fungi in Tibet. Mycosystema, 20(4):556-560; 9 ref.

Distribution References

Brewbaker J L, 1975. Physoderma brown spot on corn. Miscellaneous Publication, Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station. 7.

Burgos N R, Carillo R, Ortuoste R, Reintar R, 1989. Growth and yield performance of corn varieties as affected by fertilizer levels. USMARC Monitor. 10 (3), 6-7.

Burns E E, Shurtleff M C, 1973. Observations of Physoderma maydis in Illinois: effects of tillage practices in field corn. Plant Disease Reporter. 57 (8), 630-633.

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cardwell K F, Schulthess F, Ndemah R, Ngoko Z, 1997. A systems approach to assess crop health and maize yield losses due to pests and diseases in Cameroon. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 65 (1), 33-47. DOI:10.1016/S0167-8809(97)00056-X

Eddins A H, 1933. Infection of corn plants by Physoderma zeae maydis Shaw. Journal of Agricultural Research. 241-53.

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Everett L A, Eta-Ndu J T, Ndioro M, Tabi I, Kim S K, 1994. Registration of 19 second-cycle tropical midaltitude maize germplasm lines. Crop Science. 34 (5), 1419-1420. DOI:10.2135/cropsci1994.0011183X003400050071x

Everett L A, Eta-Ndu J T, Ndioro M, Tabi I, Kim S K, 1994a. Registration of 18 first-cycle tropical midaltitude maize germplasm lines. Crop Science. 34 (5), 1422. DOI:10.2135/cropsci1994.0011183X003400050074x

Harlapur S I, Mruthunjaya C W, Anahosur K H, Muralikrishna S, 2000. A report survey and surveillance of maize diseases in North Karnataka. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 13 (3), 750-751.

Kaiser S A K M, 1987. Evaluation of maize genotypes to brown spot disease. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology. 5 (2), 198-202.

Osunlaja S O, 1983. Effect of tillage on the control of Physoderma brown spot disease of maize in South-West Nigeria. Plant and Soil. 72 (1), 73-76. DOI:10.1007/BF02185095

Poneleit CG, Evans KO, 1972. Kentucky hybrid corn performance test, 1972. In: Progress Report, 206 Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Kentucky. 31.

Robertson A E, Jesse L, Munkvold G, Rojas E S, Mueller D S, 2015. Physoderma brown spot and stalk rot of corn caused by Physoderma maydis in Iowa. Plant Health Progress. PHP-BR-15-0003. https://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/sub/php/volume16/number2/PHP-BR-15-0003.pdf

Tisdale W H, 1919. Physoderma disease of corn. Journal of Agricultural Research. 137-154.

UK, CAB International, 1995. Physoderma maydis. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 106. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20046500106

Wangmu, Ciyang, Gongbutrishi, 2001. A preliminary regionalization of crop pathogenic fungi in Tibet. Mycosystema. 20 (4), 556-560.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: