Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phoenix canariensis
(Canary Island date palm)

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Datasheet

Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phoenix canariensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Canary Island date palm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. canariensis has been widely introduced for centuries and is one of the most commonly grown and appreciated ornamental palms of the world. It has recently been noted naturalising and becoming invasive in southe...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Phoenix canariensis in habitat on La Gomera, Canary Islands. December 2006.
TitleHabitat
CaptionPhoenix canariensis in habitat on La Gomera, Canary Islands. December 2006.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Phoenix canariensis in habitat on La Gomera, Canary Islands. December 2006.
HabitatPhoenix canariensis in habitat on La Gomera, Canary Islands. December 2006.©A.R. Pittaway
Phoenix canariensis in habitat on La Gomera, Canary Islands. December 2006.
TitleHabitat
CaptionPhoenix canariensis in habitat on La Gomera, Canary Islands. December 2006.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Phoenix canariensis in habitat on La Gomera, Canary Islands. December 2006.
HabitatPhoenix canariensis in habitat on La Gomera, Canary Islands. December 2006.©A.R. Pittaway
Phoenix canariensis, foliage and fruits. La Gomera, Canary Islands. December 2006.
TitleFoliage and fruits
CaptionPhoenix canariensis, foliage and fruits. La Gomera, Canary Islands. December 2006.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Phoenix canariensis, foliage and fruits. La Gomera, Canary Islands. December 2006.
Foliage and fruitsPhoenix canariensis, foliage and fruits. La Gomera, Canary Islands. December 2006.©A.R. Pittaway
Phoenix canariensis, fruits. La Gomera, Canary Islands. December 2006.
TitleFruits
CaptionPhoenix canariensis, fruits. La Gomera, Canary Islands. December 2006.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Phoenix canariensis, fruits. La Gomera, Canary Islands. December 2006.
FruitsPhoenix canariensis, fruits. La Gomera, Canary Islands. December 2006.©A.R. Pittaway

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phoenix canariensis hort. ex Chabaud (1882)

Preferred Common Name

  • Canary Island date palm

International Common Names

  • English: Canary Island palm; Canary palm
  • French: dattier des Canaries; palmier de Canaries
  • Portuguese: tamareira das Canárias

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Dattelpalme Kanarische
  • Italy: palma delle Canarie
  • Netherlands: dadelpalm Kanarische
  • New Zealand: phoenix palm

EPPO code

  • PHXCA (Phoenix canariensis)

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. canariensis has been widely introduced for centuries and is one of the most commonly grown and appreciated ornamental palms of the world. It has recently been noted naturalising and becoming invasive in southern California and northern New Zealand, mostly in riverine wetland and coastal habitats. Planted widely, seeds are eaten and spread by birds, and can be washed down watercourses where established. However, control is likely to prove less difficult as compared with other invasive plants.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Arecales
  •                         Family: Arecaceae
  •                             Genus: Phoenix
  •                                 Species: Phoenix canariensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The Canary Island endemic palm tree Phoenix canariensis is a distinct member of the genus, even from other Macaronesian endemics such as Phoenix atlantica. It is also known to be able to hybridise naturally with Phoenix dactilifera that was introduced and is widespread in the Canary Islands (Gonzalez-Perez et al., 2004), and thus it may also hybridise with other species.

Description

Top of page P. canariensis is a large palm up to 18 m tall, with a thick erect trunk up to 1.2 m in diameter and a crown occupying the upper 2.5-4.5 m. Leaves up to 1.5-1.8 m long are alternate and pinnately compound, containing lanceolate leaflets 30-45 cm long with sharp spines 5-8 cm long on the lower half of the petiole. Flowers creamy yellow-white and open from a husk-like structure that appears periodically throughout the year, being dioecious with both males and female flowers occurring on dense, hanging bunches, though on separate trees. Fruit is an orange-brown to dark purple fleshy drupe, elliptical and 1-3 cm long, occurring in hanging clusters, each containing a single large seed. Adapted from Gilman and Watson (1994).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

Top of page As one of the world’s most popular ornamental palms, it is evidently much more widespread than indicated in the distribution table, and may even be cosmopolitan in sub-tropical and temperate areas. It is also recorded at higher latitudes under special protected conditions.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedZhang and Lao, 2005
-FujianPresentIntroducedZhang and Lao, 2005
IsraelPresentIntroducedFriedman, 2006
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-KyushuPresentIntroducedYoshitake et al., 2001
TaiwanPresentIntroducedLiao and Chen, 1997

Africa

EgyptPresentIntroduced Not invasive Ferry and Gómez, 2002
South AfricaUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentNative Not invasive Natural USDA-ARS, 2008endemic

North America

USAPresent
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-TexasPresentIntroducedHarrison et al., 2002

Central America and Caribbean

GuadeloupePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
BoliviaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
ColombiaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
PeruPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008

Europe

FrancePresentIntroducedPiry and Gompel, 2002
GreecePresentIntroducedElena, 2005
ItalyPresentIntroducedPane et al., 2007
SpainPresentIntroduced Not invasive Ferry and Gómez, 2002
Yugoslavia (former)Unconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedSummerell et al., 2006
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedSummerell and Gunn, 2001
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedSummerell et al., 2006

History of Introduction and Spread

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P. canariensis was introduced to mainland Europe from the 1600s, and around the Mediterranean including North Africa and West Asia, and was introduced across the Atlantic Ocean from as early as the 1700s as an ornamental palm, first by Spanish missionaries and colonizers, such as to California, Central and South America. It has since then been widely introduced as a popular ornamental palm, to parts of Australasia, Asia and Africa.

Risk of Introduction

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P. canariensis has been designated as a Research Pest in Auckland, New Zealand, and it is on the 2006 Cal-IPC Invasive Plant Inventory for California, USA (DiTomaso and Healy, 2006). However, it is widely available as an ornamental palm, and is available as seed, seedlings, potted plants and planted stock from many nurseries and internet businesses. Risk of introduction is high, though it is likely that it may already be present in most areas having a suitable climate.

Habitat

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In its native range on the Canary Islands, P. canariensis grows on a wide variety of soils, in areas from 200 to 600 m altitude (Santos Guerra, 1994; Morici, 1998). Where introduced, it is a common ornamental in urban and coastal areas, and has spread mainly in disturbed riverine areas, but also to a limited extent in coastal areas and wetlands, such as in southern California (DiTomaso and Healy, 2006).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

P. canariensis has a chromosome number of 36, the same as that of P. dactvlifera, P. reclinata and other species thatare known to be able to hybridise with it (Beal, 1937).

Reproductive Biology

Like P. dactylifera, P. canariensis is dioecious, and may not start to produce fruit until it is at least 5-10 years old. P. canariensis is often described as anemophilous (wind pollinated), though is likely to be pollinated, at least in part, by the weevil Neoderelomus piriformis (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Derelomini)(Meekijjaroenroj, 2004). The fruit ripens in summer. It is interesting to note that this pollinator now appears to be spreading, with first records on P. canariensis from France (Piry and Gompel, 2002), and Israel, where it is also noted as an invasive species (Friedman, 2006). P. canariensis trees, especially in more humid climates.

Physiology and Phenology

It is a very slow growing tree especially in early establishment.

Associations

Various epiphytes are commonly seen growing in the crowns of large P. canariensis trees, especially in more humid climates. Organic matter tends to collect at the bases of fronds thus providing a suitable environment for such plants to grow and thrive.
 

Environmental Requirements

The palms are found growing on a wide variety of soils, and P. canariensis has an extensive root system for finding sub-surface water, and is also resistant to temporary waterlogging caused by sudden rains. In urban environments where P. canariensis is often introduced as an ornamental, this species can thrive in a variety of habitats and soil types (Gilman and Watson, 1994). It can withstand light frosts when mature though it is frost-sensitive as a seedling and during early establishment. It can tolerate high temperatures and salt winds. It is found in its native range from 200-600 m altitude (Santos Guerra, 1994).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration48number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • shallow
  • sodic

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Armillaria tabescens Pathogen Whole plant
Botryotinia fuckeliana Pathogen Whole plant
Candidatus Phytoplasma palmae Pathogen Whole plant
Metamasius hemipterus Herbivore Whole plant
Parlatoria blanchardi Herbivore Whole plant
Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus Parasite Whole plant
Rhynchophorus palmarum Herbivore Whole plant
Trichodorus Parasite Whole plant

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Noting their ability to interbreed, it is likely that many pests and diseases of the date palm (P. dactylifera) could also attack P. canariensis. In the Mediterranean region, the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Rhynchophoridae) has been recently introduced, and which has been observed attacking and severely damaging P. canariensis(Faleiro, 2006). It had already been noted as a pest of P. canariensis in Japan (Yoshitake et al., 2001). It is also reported that the giant palm weevil (Rhynchophorus palmarum) can kill recently transplanted palms or those which are injured, and the palm leaf skeletonizer (Homaledra sabalella) attacked the foliage (Gilman and Watson, 1994).

Fusarium wilt of P. canariensiscaused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.canariensiswas recorded for the first time in Australia first in South Australia (Summerell and Gunn, 2001) and later in Victoria (Summerell et al., 2006). Fusarium oxysporumhas also been seen on P. canariensis in Argentina, and it is spreading in Europe with a recent first record from Greece (Elena, 2005). Also attacking P. canariensis is the dwarf wilt Ceratocystis paradoxaobserved in Fujian, China, (Zhang and Lao, 2005), with a first report of bud rot Phytophthora palmivorain Italy (Pane et al., 2007), Ganoderma applanatum (Gilman and Watson, 1994), and a group phytoplasma causing lethal decline in Texas, USA (Harrison et al., 2002).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

In its native range it is found in riparian areas and thus water is likely to play a role in seed dispersal. Where introduced, it is noted that seed can be dispersed via water through storm drains and then into creeks and rivers (DiTomaso and Healy, 2006).


Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Birds and mammals are dispersal agents for the seeds within the fleshy and edible fruits. Where native, seed dispersal among island habitats by common ravens (Corvus corax) is important (Nogales et al., 1999). Where introduced, birds also ingest and spread the seed (DiTomaso and Healy, 2006).


Intentional Introduction

P. canariensis is planted as an ornamental in many Mediterranean climatic regions of the world (Pane et al., 2007). Its high value as an ornamental means that probably all international introductions were for this purpose, and it is highly likely that further introductions will take place, though it may already be present in all areas where it can grow successfully.


Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Water Yes DiTomaso and Healy, 2006

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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There is significant if unmeasured positive economic impact from sales as an ornamental plant.

Environmental Impact

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P. canariensis can produce a dense mat of seedlings and has been noted as displacing native biodiversity and in one case caused a river to change course leading to the flooding of a site of historical importance in California (DiTomaso and Healy, 2006). It has been noted as a nuisance weed along parts of the San Diego River, and has been the focus of several restoration projects in Los Penasquitos Preserve (DiTomaso and Healy, 2006). However, it is only classified as causing minor ecological impacts by California Invasive Plant Inventory (Cal-IPC, 2006).


Like several invasive trees, its very existence in its native range is under threat, such as another Macronesian endemic, Myrica faya in the Azores. In its native range in the Canary Islands, P. canariensis is under threat from loss of habitat, though the main threat to the status of P. canariensis appears to be hybridization with the introduced P. dactylifera (that is creating hybrids). Some individuals that had been morphologically characterised as pure P. canariensis were shown to be hybrids from molecular analysis, and the possible incidence of introgression in the scarce extant natural populations may be more than realised (Gonzalez-Perez et al., 2004).

Social Impact

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It has a clear social value as a spectacular ornamental palm, however, it is often noted that it should not be planted in areas where children may gather such as schools, as until they reach a suitable height, the very sharp spines on the fronds can cause serious injury. P. canariensis is also a source of bronchial asthma in certain individuals, as palm fronds senesce and dry out (Blanco et al., 1995).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Hybridization
  • Interaction with other invasive species
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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The principle use is as a highly valued ornamental species, and has been successfully grown in urban areas where air pollution, poor drainage, compacted soil, and/or drought are common (Gilman and Watson, 1994). Its large stature means it is unsuitable for small gardens, and is better along avenues, in parks and in and around large open spaces such as squares, car parks, etc.

The fruit is not poisonous, but neither is it regarded as edible, being not particular tasty to very astringent, and is rarely consumed and not commercialized. Flowers are a source of bee forage in its native range.

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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P. canariensis is probably only second in economic importance within the genus to the date palm, P. dactylifera, though can be separated by having a thicker trunk and longer fronds. P. dactylifera is, however, also an invasive species on several Pacific islands including Hawaii, Fiji and New Caledonia and possibly also the Galapagos (PIER, 2008), and P. reclinata is invasive in Bermuda (Kairo et al., 2003).

Prevention and Control

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No specific information has been located on best practices for controlling P. canariensis, although some control has been attempted in California and New Zealand. It is likely, however, that control would be relatively simple, by simply uprooting or hand pulling seedlings, and larger trees would be killed by felling at any height as they do not coppice.

References

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BEAL JM, 1937. Cytological studies in the genus Phoenix. Botanical Gazette, 99:400-07.

Blanco C; Carillo T; Quiralte J; Pascual C; Esteban MM; Castillo R, 1995. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma due to Phoenix canariensis pollen allergy. Allergy, 50(3):277-80.

Brandes D, 2001. Urban flora of Sousse (Tunisia). Braunschweig, Germany: Botanisches Institut und Botanischer Garten der TU Braunschweig. http://opus.tu-bs.de/opus/volltexte/2001/189/pdf/Sousse.pdf

Cal-IPC, 2006. California Invasive Plant Council. http://www.cal-ipc.org/

DiTomaso J; Healy EA, 2006. Weeds of California and Other Western States. UC DANR Publ. #3488.

Elena K, 2005. Fusarium wilt of Phoenix canariensis: first report in Greece. Plant Pathology, 54(2):244. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=ppa

Esler AE; Astridge SJ, 1987. The naturalization of plants in urban Auckland, New Zealand - Records of introduction and naturalization. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 25:523-537.

Faleiro JR, 2006. A review of the issues and management of the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Rhynchophoridae) in coconut and date palm during the last one hundred years. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 26(3):135-154. http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FJTI%2FJTI26_03%2FS1742758407203340a.pdf&code=1deb83cc2eaac3c89ea5704c1f57a0b3

Ferry M; Gómez S, 2002. The red palm weevil in the Mediterranean area. Palms, 46(4):172-178.

Friedman ALL, 2006. Derelomus piriformis Hoffmann (Curculionoidea: Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Derelomini), a new invasive species in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 34(4):357-359. http://www.phytoparasitica.org

Gilman EF; Watson DG, 1994. Phoenix canariensis Canary Island Date Palm. Fact Sheet ST-439. USA: University of Florida, Florida Cooperative Extension Service. http://hort.ifas.edu/trees/PHOCANA.pdf

González-Pérez MA; Caujapé-Castells J; Sosa PA, 2004. Molecular evidence of hybridisation between the endemic Phoenix canariensis and the widespread P. dactylifera with Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 247(3/4):165-175.

Harrison NA; Womack M; Carpio ML, 2002. Detection and characterization of a lethal yellowing (16SrIV) group phytoplasma in Canary Island date palms affected by lethal decline in Texas. Plant Disease, 86(6):676-681.

Kairo M; Ali B; Cheesman O; Haysom K; Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Liao CT; Chen CC, 1997. Primary study of the insect pests, hosts and ecology of weevil attacking ornamental palm seedlings. Bulletin of Taichung District Agricultural Improvement Station, No. 57:43-48.

Meekijjaroenroj A, 2004. Palm (Arecaceae) / pollinator interactions: case study of two palm species, Calamus castaneus, Phoenix canariensis and floral fragrance chemistry. France: Montpellier University.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013. VAScular Tropicos database. Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html

Morici C, 1998. Phoenix canariensis in the wild. Principes, 42(2, April):85-89, 92-93.

National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, 2008. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: USDA-ARS. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search

Nogales M; Hernández EC; Valdés F, 1999. Seed dispersal by common ravens Corvus corax among island habitats (Canarian Archipelago). Écoscience, 6(1):56-61.

Nogales M; Hernßndez EC; ValdTs F, 1999. Seed dispersal by common ravens Corvus corax among island habitats (Canarian Archipelago). Écoscience, 6(1):56-61; 33 ref.

Pane A; Allatta C; Sammarco G; Cacciola SO, 2007. First report of bud rot of Canary Island date palm caused by Phytophthora palmivora in Italy. Plant Disease, 91(8):1059. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

PIER, 2008. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Piry S; Gompel N, 2002. First record of Neoderelomus piriformis (Hoffmann, 1938) from France on Phoenix canariensis Hort., Arecaceae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Derelomini). (Présence en France de Neoderelomus piriformis (Hoffmann, 1938) sur le palmier Phoenix canariensis Hort. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Derelomini).) Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 107(5):529-534.

Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2008. Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Sydney, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens. http://avhtas.tmag.tas.gov.au/

Santos Guerra A, 1994. Distribution of Phoenix canariensis in the Canary Islands. In: Acta Horticulturae [ed. by Demattê MESP], 71-72.

Stace C, 1991. New Flora of the British Isles [ed. by Cambridge University Press]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Summerell BA; Gunn LV, 2001. First record of Fusarium wilt of Phoenix canariensis in South Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 30(1):75.

Summerell BA; Smith DI; Gunn LV; Smith IW; Pascoe IG, 2006. Fusarium wilt of Phoenix canariensis in Victoria. Australasian Plant Pathology, 35(2):289-290. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/39/paper/AP06007.htm

Timmins SM; Braithwaite H, 2002. Early detection of invasive weeds on islands. In: Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species [ed. by Veitch C, Clout M] Gland, Cambridge, Switzerland, UK: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group, 311-318.

USDA-ARS, 2008. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2008. The PLANTS Database, Version 3. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov

Virginia Tech Forestry Department, 2008. Canary Island date palm: Arecaceae, Phoenix canariensis Hort. ex Chabaud. http://www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/Syllabus2/factsheet.cfm?ID=597

Yoshitake H; Masaoka K; Satô S; Nakajima A; Kamitani S; Yukawa J; Kojima H, 2001. Occurrence of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera : Dryophthoridae) on Nokonoshima Island, southern Japan and its possible invasion further north. Kyushu Plant Protection Research, 47:145-150.

Zhang SS; Lao QL, 2005. Identification on pathogen of dwarf wilt of Phoenix canariensis and Washingtonia robusta. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 41(1):98-99.

Contributors

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29/02/08 Original text by:

Nick Pasiecznik, Consultant, France

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