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Datasheet

Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cameraria ohridella
  • Preferred Common Name
  • horsechestnut leafminer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Cameraria ohridella probably originates from remote natural stands of the European horse-chestnut, Aesculus hioppocastanum in Greece, Albania and Macedonia. It was first observed attacking ornamental h...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); adult, in rest posture. Specimen from a moth trap. Essex, UK. May 2014.
TitleAdult
CaptionCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); adult, in rest posture. Specimen from a moth trap. Essex, UK. May 2014.
Copyright©Ben Sale/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); adult, in rest posture. Specimen from a moth trap. Essex, UK. May 2014.
AdultCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); adult, in rest posture. Specimen from a moth trap. Essex, UK. May 2014.©Ben Sale/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); adult. Museum mounted specimen. Wingspan ca.8mm.
TitleAdult
CaptionCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); adult. Museum mounted specimen. Wingspan ca.8mm.
Copyright©Michael Kurz/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0 AT
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); adult. Museum mounted specimen. Wingspan ca.8mm.
AdultCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); adult. Museum mounted specimen. Wingspan ca.8mm.©Michael Kurz/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0 AT
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); larval mine, showing gallery, frass and larva (arrowed). September 2005.
TitleLarval mine
CaptionCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); larval mine, showing gallery, frass and larva (arrowed). September 2005.
Copyright©Georg Slickers/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.5
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); larval mine, showing gallery, frass and larva (arrowed). September 2005.
Larval mineCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); larval mine, showing gallery, frass and larva (arrowed). September 2005.©Georg Slickers/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.5
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); larva on leaf surface, showing mined leaf. June 2014.
TitleLarva
CaptionCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); larva on leaf surface, showing mined leaf. June 2014.
Copyright©Claude Debrauer (Dominique Jacquin)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); larva on leaf surface, showing mined leaf. June 2014.
LarvaCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); larva on leaf surface, showing mined leaf. June 2014.©Claude Debrauer (Dominique Jacquin)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); larva on leaf surface. Note scale.
TitleLarva
CaptionCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); larva on leaf surface. Note scale.
Copyright©Beentree/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); larva on leaf surface. Note scale.
LarvaCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); larva on leaf surface. Note scale.©Beentree/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); mouthparts of a 4th instar larva.
TitleLarval mouthparts
CaptionCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); mouthparts of a 4th instar larva.
Copyright©Václav Skuhravý
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); mouthparts of a 4th instar larva.
Larval mouthpartsCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); mouthparts of a 4th instar larva.©Václav Skuhravý
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); opened mine, showing live pupa. September 2008.
TitlePupa
CaptionCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); opened mine, showing live pupa. September 2008.
Copyright©varel/wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); opened mine, showing live pupa. September 2008.
PupaCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); opened mine, showing live pupa. September 2008.©varel/wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); freshly emerged adult on horse chestnut leaf, with its pupal case protruding from the leafmine. July 2005.
TitleFreshly emerged adult
CaptionCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); freshly emerged adult on horse chestnut leaf, with its pupal case protruding from the leafmine. July 2005.
Copyright©Opuntia/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); freshly emerged adult on horse chestnut leaf, with its pupal case protruding from the leafmine. July 2005.
Freshly emerged adultCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); freshly emerged adult on horse chestnut leaf, with its pupal case protruding from the leafmine. July 2005.©Opuntia/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); adult on horse chestnut leaf, showing leaf mines.
TitleAdult
CaptionCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); adult on horse chestnut leaf, showing leaf mines.
Copyright©Georg Slickers/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.5
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); adult on horse chestnut leaf, showing leaf mines.
AdultCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); adult on horse chestnut leaf, showing leaf mines.©Georg Slickers/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.5
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); vacated leafmines. July 2005.
TitleLeafmines
CaptionCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); vacated leafmines. July 2005.
Copyright©Opuntia/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); vacated leafmines. July 2005.
LeafminesCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); vacated leafmines. July 2005.©Opuntia/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); larval mines, showing abundance on a single leaf.
TitleLarval mines
CaptionCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); larval mines, showing abundance on a single leaf.
Copyright©Georg Slickers/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.5
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); larval mines, showing abundance on a single leaf.
Larval minesCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); larval mines, showing abundance on a single leaf.©Georg Slickers/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.5
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); early stage leaf mines on horsechestnut foliage.
TitleLarval mines
CaptionCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); early stage leaf mines on horsechestnut foliage.
Copyright©Agnieszka Kwiecień/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); early stage leaf mines on horsechestnut foliage.
Larval minesCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); early stage leaf mines on horsechestnut foliage.©Agnieszka Kwiecień/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chesnut) damaged by the fungus Guinargia aesculi. Attack by G. aesculi may occur at the same time as attack by C. ohridella.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chesnut) damaged by the fungus Guinargia aesculi. Attack by G. aesculi may occur at the same time as attack by C. ohridella.
Copyright©Václav Skuhravý
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chesnut) damaged by the fungus Guinargia aesculi. Attack by G. aesculi may occur at the same time as attack by C. ohridella.
Damage symptomsCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chesnut) damaged by the fungus Guinargia aesculi. Attack by G. aesculi may occur at the same time as attack by C. ohridella. ©Václav Skuhravý
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); trees heavily attacked, note two trees without leaves.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); trees heavily attacked, note two trees without leaves.
Copyright©Václav Skuhravý
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); trees heavily attacked, note two trees without leaves.
Damage symptomsCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); trees heavily attacked, note two trees without leaves. ©Václav Skuhravý
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); damaged trees (yellowing) attacked by C. ohridella, between an undamaged tree of Aesculus x carnea.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); damaged trees (yellowing) attacked by C. ohridella, between an undamaged tree of Aesculus x carnea.
Copyright©Václav Skuhravý
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); damaged trees (yellowing) attacked by C. ohridella, between an undamaged tree of Aesculus x carnea.
Damage symptomsCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); damaged trees (yellowing) attacked by C. ohridella, between an undamaged tree of Aesculus x carnea. ©Václav Skuhravý
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); fallen and decaying leaves, with cocoons of C. ohridella on soil surface.
TitleDamaged leaves
CaptionCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); fallen and decaying leaves, with cocoons of C. ohridella on soil surface.
Copyright©Václav Skuhravý
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); fallen and decaying leaves, with cocoons of C. ohridella on soil surface.
Damaged leavesCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); fallen and decaying leaves, with cocoons of C. ohridella on soil surface. ©Václav Skuhravý
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); mined leaves, exhibiting typical damage patterns.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); mined leaves, exhibiting typical damage patterns.
Copyright©Václav Skuhravý
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); mined leaves, exhibiting typical damage patterns.
Damage symptomsCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); mined leaves, exhibiting typical damage patterns.©Václav Skuhravý

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic

Preferred Common Name

  • horsechestnut leafminer

International Common Names

  • English: horse chestnut leaf miner; horse-chestnut leafminer
  • French: mineuse du marronnier

Local Common Names

  • Austria: Rosskastanienminiermotte
  • Czech Republic: Klínenka jírovcová
  • Germany: Rosskastanienminiermotte
  • Hungary: vadgesztenyelevél
  • Italy: minatore fogliare dell'ippocastano
  • Netherlands: paardenkkastanjemineermot
  • Poland: szrotowek kasztanowiaczek
  • Slovakia: ploskacik pagastanovy
  • Switzerland: Rosskastanienminiermotte

EPPO code

  • LITHOD (Cameraria ohridella)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Cameraria ohridella probably originates from remote natural stands of the European horse-chestnut, Aesculus hioppocastanum in Greece, Albania and Macedonia. It was first observed attacking ornamental horse-chestnut trees in Macedonia in the 1970s, then in Serbia in 1987 and Austria in 1989, from where it spread to most of Europe. Since then, in all invaded regions, outbreaks have continued unabated, causing aesthetic damage to horse-chestnut, one of the favourite ornamental trees in European cities. The fast dispersal of the moth in Europe is attributed mainly to human transport. Cars, lorries, trains and other vehicles may carry adults and overwintering pupae in dead leaves. The moth is listed in the 100 worse invasive species in Europe in the DAISIE database (DAISIE, 2009).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Gracillariidae
  •                             Genus: Cameraria
  •                                 Species: Cameraria ohridella

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Cameraria ohridella was described based on material collected at the Ohrid Lake in Macedonia (hence its specific name).

Description

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The morphology of all developmental stages of C. ohridella has been studied mainly by Deschka and Dimic (1986), Skuhravý (1998) and Sefrová and Skuhravý (2000).

Eggs

The eggs are white and 0.2-0.4 mm.

Larvae

There are four, occasionally five, instars of feeding larvae and two instars of spinning larvae. Instars of feeding larvae differ by length and by width of the head capsule (Sefrova and Skuhravy, 2000).

First-instar larvae are 0.5 mm long; head capsule is 0.1-0.17 mm wide.
Second-instar larvae are 1.2 mm long; head capsule is 0.2-0.3 mm wide.
Third-instar larvae are 2.1 mm long; head capsule is 0.36-0.46 mm wide.
Fourth-instar larvae are 3.5 mm long; head capsule is 0.5-0.66 mm wide.

Larval morphology of C. ohridella corresponds to that of the subfamily Lithocolletinae (Kumata, 1963). The body is distinctly constricted between the segments which appear to be convex laterally. Tergites and sternites are formed from extensively sclerotized plates, which enable the caterpillars to move within the mine. The mouthparts, the labrum and labium, are massive, shield-shaped; the flat sickle-shaped mandibles move horizontally. The thoracic legs and the ventral and anal prolegs are completely reduced. The width of the head capsule of the two spinning instar larvae does not change from the fourth feeding instar larva. Mouthparts are complete and the antennae, maxillae and maxillar palpi and spineret are present (Sefrova and Skuhravy, 2000).

Pupae

The pupa is brown and is 2.9-4.5 mm long (3.7 mm on average). Freise and Heitland (1999) describes a method to distinguish between male and female pupae.

Adults

The body is 4-5 mm long. The moth is a rich brown colour with bright white chevrons edged with black.

Distribution

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C. ohridella was first observed attacking Aesculus hippocastanum in Macedonia in the 1970s, and described as a new species in 1986 (Simova-Tosic and Filev, 1985; Deschka and Dimic, 1986). In 1987 it was found in Serbia (Petkovic, 1989) and in 1989 in Austria, from where it spread to most of Europe. Its origin has been a matter of debate. It was first suggested to be a relict species that has survived the Ice Age with its host in south-eastern Europe (Deschka and Dimic, 1986; Grabenweger and Grill, 2000), whereas, according to Holzschuh (1997) and Kenis et al. (2005) it was more likely a non-European species only recently introduced in the Balkans. Hellrigl (2001) suggested that the moth may have shifted from another host tree (e.g. an Acer species) in the Balkans or the Near East. Recent molecular studies and observations of ancient herbarium collections now suggest that the moth originates from some remote natural horse-chestnut stands in the Balkan mountains of Macedonia, Albania and Greece and that it has moved to urban areas in these countries in the second half of the 20th century (Valade et al., 2009; Lees et al., 2011).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

TurkeyRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Cebeci and Acer, 2007; Cebeci et al., 2011; Gözel and Gözel, 2014First observed in 2004.

Europe

AlbaniaWidespreadNative Invasive Simova-Tosic and Filev, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014Probably originates from some native horse chestnut stands but invasive in urban trees.
AustriaWidespreadIntroduced1989 Invasive Puchberger, 1990; Tomiczek, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
BelarusPresentIntroduced2003 Invasive Gninenko and Orlinski, 2004; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumWidespreadIntroduced2000 Invasive Prins and Puplesiene, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Bosnia-HercegovinaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Dautbasic and Dimic, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014First observed in 1993.
BulgariaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Pelov et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014First observed in 1989.
CroatiaWidespreadIntroduced1995 Invasive Maceljski and Bertic, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicWidespreadIntroduced1997 Invasive Liska, 1997; Skuhravý, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkWidespreadIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2003; Karsholt and Kristensen, 2003; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2002.
FinlandRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Buszko, 2006First observed in 2006.
FranceWidespreadIntroduced2000 Invasive Guichard and Augustin, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2003; Augustin et al., 2004; EPPO, 2014
GermanyWidespreadIntroduced1994 Invasive Freise, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
GreeceWidespreadIntroduced1996 Invasive Skuhravý, 1998; Avtzis and Avtzis, 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014Probably originates from some native horse chestnut stands but invasive in urban areas.
HungaryWidespreadIntroduced1994 Invasive Szaboky, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2003; Bodor, 2011; EPPO, 2014
ItalyWidespreadIntroduced1992 Invasive Hellrigl, 1998a; Hellrigl, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentMetla et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaWidespreadIntroduced2002 Invasive Ivinskis and Rim?aite, 2006; Peciulyte and Kacergius, 2012; EPPO, 2014
MacedoniaWidespreadNative Invasive Deschka and Dimic, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014Probably originates from some native horse chestnut stands but invasive in urban areas.
MoldovaPresentIntroduced Invasive Timus and Mihailov, 2005; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2003.
NetherlandsWidespreadIntroduced1999 Invasive Stigter et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
PolandWidespreadIntroduced1998 Invasive Skuhravý, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Sefrová and Lastuvka, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014; Olenici and Duduman, 2016First observed in 1998.
Russian FederationRestricted distributionIntroduced2003 Invasive Gninenko and Orlinski, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
SerbiaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Petkovic, 1989; EPPO, 2014First observed in 1987.
SlovakiaWidespreadIntroduced1996 Invasive Sivicek et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
SloveniaWidespreadIntroduced1995 Invasive Milevoj and Macek, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
SpainRestricted distributionIntroduced2002 Invasive Villalva and Del Estal, 2003; EPPO, 2014
SwedenRestricted distributionIntroduced2002 Invasive Svensson, 2003; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandWidespreadIntroduced1999 Invasive Kenis and Forster, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
UKRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive RHS, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2003; Tilbury et al., 2004; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2002.
-England and WalesRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
UkrainePresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Invasive Akimov et al., 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)WidespreadIntroduced Invasive Deschka and Dimic, 1986; Petkovic, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003First observed in 1987.

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. ohridella was first observed attacking ornamental horse-chestnut trees in Macedonia in the 1970s, and described as a new species in 1986 (Simova-Tosic and Filev, 1985; Deschka and Dimic, 1986). In 1987 it was found in Serbia (Petkovic, 1989) and in 1989 in Austria, from where it spread to most of Europe. Its origin has been a matter of debate. It was first suggested to be a relict species that has survived the Ice Age with its host in south-eastern Europe (Deschka and Dimic, 1986; Grabenweger and Grill, 2000) whereas, according to Holzschuh (1997) and Kenis et al. (2005) it was more likely a non-European species only recently introduced in the Balkans. Hellrigl (2001) suggested that the moth may have shifted from another host tree (e.g. an Acer species) in the Balkans or the Near East. Recent molecular studies and observations of ancient herbarium collections now suggest that the moth originates from some remote natural horse-chestnut stands in the Balkan mountains of Macedonia, Albania and Greece and that it has moved to urban areas in these countries in the second half of the 20th century (Valade et al., 2009; Lees et al., 2011).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Austria 1989 Yes Puchberger, 1990
Belarus 2003 Yes Gninenko and Orlinski, 2004
Belgium 2000 Yes Prins and Puplesiene, 2000
Bosnia-Hercegovina 1993 Yes Dautbasic and Dimic, 1999
Bulgaria 1993 Yes Pelov et al., 1993
Croatia 1995 Yes Maceljski and Bertic, 1996
Czech Republic 1997 Yes Liska, 1997
Denmark 2002 Yes Karsholt and Kristensen, 2003
England and Wales 2002 Yes Tilbury et al., 2004
Finland 2006 Yes Buszko, 2006
France 2000 Yes Guichard and Augustin, 2002
Germany 1994 Yes Freise, 2001
Hungary 1994 Yes Szaboky, 1997
Italy 1992 Yes Hellrigl, 1998a
Lithuania 2003 Yes Gninenko and Orlinski, 2004
Moldova 2003 Yes Timus and Mihailov, 2005
Netherlands 1999 Yes Stigter et al., 2000
Poland 1998 Yes Skuhravý, 1998
Romania 1998 Yes Sefrová and Lastuvka, 2001
Russian Federation 2003 Yes Gninenko and Orlinski, 2004
Serbia 1987 Yes Petkovic, 1989; Sivicek et al., 1997
Slovakia 1996 Yes Sivicek et al., 1997
Slovenia 1995 Yes Milevoj and Macek, 1997
Spain 2002 Yes Villalva and Del Estal, 2003
Sweden 2002 Yes Svensson, 2003
Switzerland 1999 Yes Kenis and Forster, 1998
Turkey 2004 Yes Cebeci and Acer, 2007
UK 2002 Yes Tilbury et al., 2004
Ukraine 2002 Yes Akimov et al., 2003

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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C. ohridella lives primarily on the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum, but successful development is also occasionally observed on Acer pseudoplatanus and Acer platanoides. It also develops on some species of the genus Aesculus, but not on others (Skuhravý, 1998; Hellrigl, 2001; Freise, 2001). Freise et al. (2003a) and Kenis et al. (2005) carried out screening tests on most of the world Aesculus spp. and several Acer spp. to assess the present or potential host range of C. ohridella. The two most suitable hosts were A. hippocastanum and the Japanese horse-chestnut A. turbinata, whereas successful development also occurred on the American species A. glabra, A. sylvatica and A. flava (= A. octandra). In contrast, it did not develop successfully on the Asian A. chinensis, A. assamica and A. indica and on the American A. pavia, A. californica and A. parviflora. Larvae also developed successfully, but often failed to pupate, in the North American A. circinatum and, occasionally, in the European A. pseudoplatanus, A. tataricum and A. heldreichii, and the Asian A. japonicum.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Acer platanoides (Norway maple)AceraceaeOther
Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore)AceraceaeOther
Aesculus flava (yellow buckeye)HippocastanaceaeOther
Aesculus glabra (Texas buckeye)HippocastanaceaeOther
Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut)HippocastanaceaeMain
Aesculus sylvatica (Painted buckeye)HippocastanaceaeOther
Aesculus turbinata (Japanese horse-chestnut)HippocastanaceaeMain

Symptoms

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Larvae of C. ohridella form blotch mines and develop in the parenchyma tissue of leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum. The mines start off small and yellow, later turning brown. Eventually the mines may cover the entire surface of the leaflets, especially from July on, when the second and third generations develop. At sites where dead leaves containing overwintering pupae are not removed in the autumn, trees are usually totally defoliated, year after year.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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Leaves

  • internal feeding
  • yellowed or dead

Biology and Ecology

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C. ohridella overwinters in the pupal stage in a cocoon in dead leaves. The emergence of C. ohridella adults in spring occurs between the beginning of April and the second half of May, depending on climatic conditions (Pschorn-Walcher, 1994; Freise, 2001; Hellrigl, 2001; Girardoz et al., 2007a; Ivanov et al., 2007). Male eclosion starts 2-5 days earlier than for females. At this time both males and females regularly sit on the trunks or on the lower branches of Aesculus. They usually fly from 06:00 h to 12:30 h with a peak at 08:00-09:30 h.

After mating, each female may lay up to 180 eggs (Girardoz et al., 2007a); each egg is laid singly on the upper part of the leaflets, mostly near the veins. Females of the second and third generations lay eggs on all leaflet surfaces.

Larval development lasts 25-35 days with the larva developing through four, occasionally five, feeding instars and two spinning instars (Deschka, 1995; Skuhravý, 1998; Freise and Heitland, 2004). First-instar larvae make only a small gallery. The second- and third-instar larvae develop a round mine of 4-7 mm in average diameter. Special adaptations of the mouth parts enable the caterpillars to cut or scrape the leaf parenchyma inside the mines. The mine of the fourth instar increases to 4-7 cm². The larva digests liquid or pappy food. The larva then goes through two spinning instars (see Images), which may or may not build a true cocoon in the mine. The percentage of larvae which spin true cocoons increases in each of the subsequent generations. In the first generation, only 5-13% of larvae spin cocoons, in the second 20-35% and in the third generation nearly all larvae spin cocoons. Pupae of C. ohridella may survive low temperatures from -19.5-23°C (Kovacz and Lakatos, 1999).  

Adults of the first generation emerge from mid-June to late-July. C. ohridella has two to four generations a year, depending on the temperature conditions. There will only be two generations in higher altitudes and colder conditions whereas, in warmer areas, up to four generations may develop (Pschorn-Walcher, 1994; Hellrigl, 2001; Freise and Heitland, 2004; Girardoz et al., 2007a; Ivanov et al., 2007). During the summer and autumn, the eggs, larvae, pupae and adults occur simultaneously.

Larvae of C. ohridella damage leaves by feeding between the upper and lower parenchyma. The mine starts to turn yellow and later brown. At this time the damage is very visible. Trees with a low number of attacked leaves are not greatly affected, but when the entire surface of leaves is covered with mines, the leaves start to dry out and fall off. However, total defoliation does not seem to affect the growth of mature trees (Salleo et al., 2003).

In the non-overwintering generations, mortality is usually low, which allows populations to grow fast. The main mortality factors occur in the last generation of the year. Firstly, when populations are high, larvae may die from intra-specific competition and leaf senescence that occurs earlier than normal (Pschorn-Walcher, 1994; Freise and Heitland, 2004; Girardoz et al., 2007a). Secondly, synchronization between larval development and leaf fall is often not perfect and, some years, many larvae die because they cannot complete their development before leaf senescence (Girardoz et al., 2007b). Finally, overwintering mortality of pupae in dead leaves is usually very high, because most leaves are destroyed, blown away or eaten by detritivores (Girardoz et al., 2007a).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Preferred Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -34
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 6 18
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 21 33
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -8 6

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration06number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall4001500mm; lower/upper limits

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Baryscapus nigroviolaceus Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Chrysocharis laomedon Parasite Larvae
Chrysocharis nephereus Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Chrysocharis nitetis Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Chrysocharis pentheus Parasite Larvae
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Larvae
Cirrospilus diallus Parasite Larvae
Cirrospilus elegantissimus Parasite Larvae
Cirrospilus pictus Parasite Larvae
Cirrospilus pictus Parasite Larvae
Cirrospilus variegatus Parasite Larvae
Cirrospilus vittatus Parasite Larvae
Cirrospilus vittatus Parasite Larvae
Closterocerus trifasciatus Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Colastes braconius Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Elachertus inunctus Parasite Larvae
Eupelmus urozonus Parasite Pupae
Itoplectis alternans Parasite Pupae
Lecanicillium aphanocladii Pathogen Larvae Peciulyte and Kacergius, 2012
Meconema meridionale Predator Larvae/Pupae
Minotetrastichus frontalis Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Parus caeruleus Predator Larvae/Pupae
Parus major Predator Larvae/Pupae
Pediobius saulius Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Pediobius saulius Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Pnigalio agraules Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Pnigalio agraules Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Pnigalio pectinicornis Parasite Larvae
Pnigalio pectinicornis Parasite Larvae
Pnigalio soemius Parasite Larvae
Pteromalus semotus Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Scambus annulatus Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Sympiesis gordius Parasite Larvae
Sympiesis sericeicornis Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Sympiesis sericeicornis Parasite Larvae/Pupae

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Among natural enemies, parasitoids have been by far the most widely studied (e.g. Hellrigl and Ambrosi, 2000; Freise et al., 2002; Grabenweger, 2003; Grabenweger et al., 2005a; Girardoz et al., 2006; Grabenweger et al., 2010). Over 30 indigenous leaf miner parasitoid species have already been reared from C. ohridella in Europe. The majority are polyphagous species of the family Eulophidae (Chalcidoidea) but Eupelmidae, Pteromalidae, Braconidae and Ichneumonidea are also occasionally recorded. In Western and Central Europe, the main parasitoids are the ectoparasitoid eulophids Minotetrastichus frontalis, Pnigalio agraules and, to a lesser extent, the endoparasitoids Chrysocharis nephereus, Closterocerus trifasciatus and Pediobius saulius. In Eastern Europe and the Balkans, the same species are present, but there the parasitoid complex is usually dominated by the pupal endoparasitoid P. saulius. All these parasitoids are polyphagous parasitoids of leaf miners in Europe, attacking a wide range of hosts in various insect orders, although host-specific biotypes or sibling species cannot be excluded (Girardoz et al., 2007c). Details on the biology of the parasitoids of C. ohridella may be found in various publications, e.g. Freise et al. (2002), Grabenweger (2003, 2004), Grabenweger et al. (2005a), Girardoz et al. (2006) and Volter and Kenis (2006). A key to the parasitoids of C. ohridella in Europe is provided by Grabenweger et al. (2003).

Several methods have been used to calculate parasitism rates of C. ohridella (Volter and Kenis, 2006). However, no matter the method, parasitism rates are usually very low compared to other leaf miners. Total parasitism rates typically vary between 1 and 20% (e.g.Hellrigl, 2001; Freise et al., 2002; Grabenweger, 2003; Freise and Heitland, 2004; Grabenweger et al., 2005a; Girardoz et al., 2006; Volter and Kenis, 2006; Girardoz et al., 2007a, b; Grabenweger et al., 2010). Parasitism is usually higher on spinning stages and pupae than on feeding larvae and does not vary significantly from one generation to another. Girardoz et al. (2006) found no difference in parasitism rate and the composition of the parasitoid complex between forest and urban sites and, in the Balkans, Grabenweger et al. (2005a; 2010) showed that parasitism is similar in natural horse-chestnut stands and on urban trees.

Parasitoids most probably play a minor role in the population dynamics of the moth, including in the probable area of origin in the Balkans (Freise et al., 2002; Grabenweger et al., 2005a; 2010). One reason for the low parasitism in C. ohridella is poor synchronization between parasitoid emergence in spring and the phenology of C. ohridella. The bulk of parasitoids emerge from dead leaves 6-8 weeks before suitable larvae and pupae of C. ohridella are available (Grabenweger, 2004; Girardoz et al., 2006). However, there must be other factors limiting parasitism in C. ohridella. There is no other Cameraria species occurring in Europe, nor any other leaf miner on horse-chestnut. Therefore, there may be physiological or chemical barriers that hamper the full adoption of C. ohridella by native parasitoids. Girardoz et al. (2007c) did not find higher parasitism or more parasitoid species on C. ohridella populations attacking maple, suggesting that host plant is not the major cause for low parasitism.

Predation was investigated by Grabenweger et al. (2005b) and Girardoz et al. (2007a, b) in Austria, Switzerland and Bulgaria. Blue tits (Parus caeruleus), great tits (P. major) and marsh tits (P. palustris) preyed on mature larvae and pupae of C. ohridella. Mines were also commonly opened by invertebrate predators. Various species were found on infested trees, but only the southern oak bushcricket (Meconema meridionale) and the lacewing (Chrysopa carnea) were observed preying on C. ohridella. The bushcricket is probably the most important invertebrate predator of C. ohridella in Austria. In laboratory tests, third- and fourth-instar larvae suffered heavy attacks whereas young larvae, spinning stages and pupae were neglected. In northern Italy, Radeghieri et al. (2004) observed workers of the acrobat ant (Crematogaster scutellaris) preying on larvae and pupae of C. ohridella. Predation rates may vary significantly between studies and countries. Birds caused 2-4% mortality in Austria (Grabenweger et al., 2005b) and 3% in Bulgaria (Girardoz et al., 2007b), but 16% in Switzerland, with up to 41% in some generations (Girardoz et al., 2007b). In contrast, predation by invertebrates was responsible for an average of 10% mortality in Bulgaria and 2% in Switzerland (Girardoz et al., 2007b).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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The fast dispersal of the moth, which spread from Macedonia to most of Europe in less than 20 years, is attributed mainly to human transport. Cars, lorries, trains and other vehicles may carry adults and overwintering pupae in dead leaves (Augustin et al., 2009). Some long-distance jumps have also been attributed to the transportation of infested seedlings (Gilbert et al., 2005). The natural dispersal capacity of adults is poorly known. Long-distance dispersal by wind cannot be excluded although the fact that it has taken so long for the moth to move from natural horse-chestnut stands in the Balkans to planted trees in urban areas in the same region suggests that it does not migrate very easily by itself (Valade et al., 2009). The regional spread of C. ohridella has been analysed in detail in Germany by Gilbert et al. (2004) and in France by Augustin et al. (2004) and Gilbert et al. (2005). They compared the performances of several invasion models and found that the best model to describe the spread of C. ohridella was a stratified dispersal model taking into account the effect of human population density on the probability of long-distance dispersal events. Within cities, the moth probably disperses by flight and in dead leaves that are blown away (Gilbert et al., 2003).

Natural dispersal

The natural dispersal capacity of adults is poorly known. Long-distance passive dispersal cannot be excluded although the fact that it has taken so long for the moth to migrate from natural horse-chestnut stands in the Balkans to planted trees in urban areas in the same region suggest that it does not migrate very easily by itself (Valade et al., 2009). Locally, the moth disperses by flight, in dead leaves that are blown away (Gilbert et al., 2003) and probably also by garden waste disposal.

Accidental introduction

The fast dispersal of the moth, which spread from Macedonia to most of Europe in less than 20 years, is attributed mainly to human transport. Cars, lorries, trains and other vehicles may carry adults and overwintering pupae in dead leaves. Some long-distance jumps have also been attributed to the transportation of infested seedlings. The regional spread of C. ohridella has been analysed in detail in Germany by Gilbert et al. (2004) and in France by Augustin et al. (2004) and Gilbert et al. (2005). They compared the performances of several invasion models and found that the best model to describe the spread of C. ohridella was a stratified dispersal model taking into account the effect of human population density on the probability of long-distance dispersal events.

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Bulk freight or cargo Yes Gilbert et al., 2004; Gilbert et al., 2005
Debris and waste associated with human activities Yes Kehrli and Bacher, 2004
Land vehiclesRailway wagons, TIR (international road transport) vehicles Yes
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes Gilbert et al., 2005

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Impact

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Although outbreaks usually continue unabated, causing severe aesthetic damage to horse-chestnut, studies in Italy showed that there is little or no impact on tree survival and tree growth in urban areas (Salleo et al., 2003). Furthermore, in Macedonia, trees still survive after 30 years of heavy outbreak. This would suggest that there is no immediate danger for the tree. However, in Germany, C. ohridella is suspected to cause the decline of horse-chestnut because defoliation induces a second flowering, decreasing frost hardness (Balder et al., 2004). Social, cultural and economic impacts of C. ohridella are difficult to assess. Despite a low risk for the survival of the trees in urban areas, the aesthetic damage is so severe that many municipalities are replacing this highly valuable tree by other species. In Germany, Reinhardt et al. (2003) estimated that the additional leaf removal caused by C. ohridella costs about 8 million Euro per year. The replacement costs for the all horse-chestnut trees in Germany would be as high as 10.7 billion Euro.

Economic Impact

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Studies in Italy showed that there is little or no impact on tree survival and tree growth in urban areas (Salleo et al., 2003). Furthermore, in the Balkans trees still survive after more than 20 years of heavy outbreak. This would suggest that there is no immediate danger for the tree. However, in Germany, C. ohridella is suspected to cause the decline of horse-chestnut because defoliation induces a second flowering, decreasing frost hardness (Balder et al., 2004). In Germany, Reinhardt et al. (2003) estimated that the additional leaf removal caused by C. ohridella costs about 8 million Euro per year. Despite a low risk for the survival of the trees in urban areas, the aesthetic damage is so severe that many municipalities are replacing this highly valuable tree by other species. The replacement costs for the all horse-chestnut trees in Germany would be as high as 10.7 billion.

Environmental Impact

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The horse-chestnut is endemic to the Balkans. Valade et al. (2009) recently showed, using molecular tools, that C. ohridella probably originates from natural horse-chestnut stands in Macedonia, Albania and Greece. In these stands, damage is often less severe (Ivanov et al., 2007; Tomov et al., 2007). In contrast, the moth is most probably invasive in the only natural stand in Bulgaria, where damage is as severe as in other invaded regions (Girardoz et al., 2007b). In natural forests heavy defoliation may hamper the regeneration process, causing concern for the survival of this rare tree species (Thalmann, 2003; Thalmann et al., 2003). In addition, C. ohridella is occasionally found attacking and developing on maple trees (Acer pseudoplatanus and A. platanoides), on which damage levels may be as high as on horse-chestnut (Hellrigl, 2001; Freise et al., 2003a; Péré et al., 2010a). It cannot be ruled out that the damage on maple will increase with time, considering the constant pressure on the moth to find suitable new host trees when horse-chestnut trees are totally defoliated. Péré et al. (2010b) also found that some native leaf miners are less abundant in the vicinity of heavily infested horse-chestnut trees, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are still unclear (Péré et al., 2011).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut)No DetailsBulgariaHerbivory/grazing/browsingKenis et al., 2005; Thalmann, 2003

Social Impact

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Horse-chestnut is a highly valued ornamental tree in Central European cities. It is often a key element in urban parks and historical areas, including in touristic areas. It is also often used as shade tree in outdoor restaurants and bars. Because of the spectacular damage caused to horse-chestnut in cities, C. ohridella has become one of the best known invasive species in Europe.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing

Impact outcomes

  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values

Invasiveness

  • Abundant in its native range
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult/costly to control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Detection and Inspection

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In spring, adults emerging from overwintering pupae can be detected by pheromone trapping or by inspecting the trunks of Aesculus hippocastanum for moths. Later in the season, mines are usually very numerous and easily detected on the leaves.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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In Europe C. ohridella is the only leaf miner on Aesculus hippocastanum but may be confused with other Gracillariidae, especially Phyllonorycter spp., feeding on Acer spp. The most important differences between the caterpilllars of C. ohridella and those of Phyllonorycter, are presented in Sefrova and Skuhravy (2000).

The leaves of A. hippocastanum may also be attacked by the fungus Guignardia aesculi. Attack by this fungus is characterized by irregular brown blotches with yellow haloes on leaflets (Buczacki and Harris, 2000). The leaflets turn red and brown from the margins and no mines are detected (see Images). Attack by G. aesculi may occur at the same time as attack by C. ohridella.

Prevention and Control

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Chemical Control

C. ohridella can be controlled by aerial spraying of diflubenzuron. It is commonly used in some countries, such as Austria or the Czech Republic, but not registered in others (e.g. Germany, Switzerland). It is especially used on high value trees and touristic and scenic areas. When properly applied on eggs in the first generation, the trees remain green until the end of the summer. The timing can be defined using pheromone traps. However, spraying chemicals on large urban trees is rather expensive and not liked by a significant part of the public. It probably affects other invertebrates, including beneficials. Furthermore, technical problems arise with the treatment of high trees, which require platforms or high pressure spraying machines. Therefore, the spray of diflubenzuron or other chemicals should be restricted to nurseries and highly valuable trees, especially at sites where leaves cannot be not fully removed in autumn; sprays should be always limited to the first generation.

Trees can also be protected by injecting a systemic insecticide in the stem. Stem injection has been tested in many countries, using various equipments and insecticides, but it is not widely registered and not commonly used. Costs are higher than for other control methods and injections tend to injure the trees, through necrosis and secondly infections.

Cultural Control

Leaf removal is the most widely used control method. Dead leaves containing overwintering pupae can be removed in autumn, or even until early spring, and burned or composted (Kehrli and Bacher, 2003, 2004). In favourable conditions (i.e. when all trees are cleaned and all leaves are removed in the near neighbourhood), this method provides a sufficient level of control by itself, and trees may remain green at least until late summer. When possible, bushes at the bottom of the tree should be removed to facilitate leaf removal.

In many regions, city gardeners have already started to replace horse-chestnut by other ornamental trees. It is not always feasible because of the high value of mature urban trees. However, it should be considered for trees that are of little ornamental interest, where leaves are not removed and which can act as reservoir for C. ohridella.

Pheromone-based Methods

Sex pheromones are sensitive and a highly specific monitoring tool (Svatos et al., 1999a, b; Kalinova et al., 2003). However, for the moment, pheromone-based methods by themselves are not likely to provide satisfying control. Mass-trapping (attract-and-kill) methods are hampered by the very high densities of C. ohridella. Sexual confusion methods have been tested (Siekmann et al., 2009) but are hindered by technological problems and the characteristics of urban plantations.

Biological Control

C. ohridella has been adopted by a whole complex of polyphagous parasitoid and predator species (e.g. Hellrigl, 2001; Freise et al., 2002; Grabenweger, 2003; Grabenweger et al., 2005a, b; Girardoz et al., 2007a, b; Grabenweger et al., 2010). Nevertheless, parasitism and predation remain low, even at the type location 30 years after its arrival (Grabenweger et al., 2005a, b; Girardoz et al., 2007b; Grabenweger et al., 2010). Kehrli et al. (2005) have developed a system to augment parasitism at the local scale. They stored dead leaves with overwintering moths in containers that, at emergence, allow the parasitoids to escape without their host. They observed increased parasitism rates at the experimental plots, but no effect on moth populations. Similarly, Klug et al. (2008) could increase parasitism rates by the release of Pnigalio agraules, but no long term effect was observed. In the long run, unless a native European natural enemy suddenly improves its capability of controlling the moth, the only sustainable solution to the C. ohridella problem would be the introduction of an exotic natural enemy. Classical biological control against C. ohridella has long been constrained by the fact that the region of origin of the moth was unknown (Kenis et al., 2005). The recent discovery that the moth originates from remote horse-chestnut stands in the Balkans should encourage the search for new natural enemies in these areas (Valade et al., 2009).

References

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Akimov IA; Zerova MD; Gershenson ZS; Narolsky NB; Kochanez OM; Sviridov SV, 2003. First record of the horse-chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) on Aesculus hippocastanum (Hippocastanaceae) in Ukraine. Vestnik Zoologii, 37(1):3-12, 105; 27 ref.

Augustin S, 2006. Cameraria ohridella. Factsheet. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. DAISIE. http://www.europe-aliens.org/speciesFactsheet.do?speciesId=50948#

Augustin S; Guichard S; Gilbert M, 2004. Pattern of invasion by Cameraria ohridella in France: A comparison with Germany. In: 1st International Cameraria Symposium. Cameraria ohridella and other invasive leaf-miner in Europe. IOCB Prague, March 24-27, 2004, p2.

Augustin S; Guichard S; Heitland W; Freise J; Svatos A; Gilbert M, 2009. Monitoring and dispersal of the invading Gracillariidae Cameraria ohridella. Journal of Applied Entomology, 133(1):58-66. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jen

Augustin S; Guichard S; Svatos A; Gilbert M, 2004. Monitoring the regional spread of the invasive leafminer Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) by damage assessment and pheromone trapping. Environmental Entolmology, 33:1584-1592.

Avtzis N; Avtzis D, 2003. Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lep.: Gracillariidae): A new pest on Aesculus hippocastanum in Greece. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, 394:199-202.

Balazs K; Thuroczy C, 2000. Über den Parasitoidkomplex von Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic, 1986 (Lepidoptera, Lithocolletidae). Entomologica Basiliensia, 22:269-277.

Balder H; Jäckel B; Schmolling S, 2004. Effects of the horse chestnut leaf-miner Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic on the frost hardness of Aesculus hippocastanum L. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Cameraria symposium – Cameraria ohridella and other invasive leaf-miners in Europe, IOCB Prague . March 24-27, 2004.

Bodor J, 2011. Horse chestnut leaf-miner moth (Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic 1986) mines on sycamore trees. (A vadgesztenyelevél-aknázómoly (Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic 1986) hegyi juharon.) Növényvédelem, 47(12):519-521.

Buczacki S; Harris K, 2000. Pests, Diseases and Disorders of Garden Plants. London, UK: Harper Collins Publishers.

Buszko J, 2006. NOBANIS - Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet - Cameraria ohridella. Online Database of the North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species - NOBANIS. www.nobanis.org

Butin H; Fuhrer E, 1994. The horse-chestnut miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic), a new pest of Aesculus hippocastanum. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 46(5):89-91

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Cameraria ohridella. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 641. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cebeci HH; Acer S, 2007. The occurrence of some Lepidopterous species on the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) at Istanbul-Belgrad Forest in Turkey. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 89(1):95-102. http://aas.bf.uni-lj.si/index-en.htm

Cebeci HH; Grabenweger G; Ayberk H, 2011. Eulophid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), from Istanbul, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 35(5):777-780. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/

Clabassi I, 2000. Cameraria ohridella a leaf-miner noxious to horse-chestnut: biology, distribution and monitoring in the province of Trieste. GF 2000. Atti, Giornate Fitopatologiche, Perugia, 16-20 aprile, 2000, volume primo, 413-418; 7 ref.

DAISIE, 2009. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org

Dautbasic M; Dimic N, 1999. Occurence of Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Radovi Works of the Faculty of Forestry, Univ. Sarajevo, 1:11-14.

Deschka G, 1995. Beitrag zur Populationsdynamik der Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic (Gracillariidae, Lepidoptera; Chalcididae, Ichneumonidae, Hymenoptera). Linz. biol. Beitr., 27:255-258.

Deschka G; Dimic N, 1986. Cameraria ohridella sp. n. (Lep., Lithocolletidae) from Macedonia, Yugoslavia. Acta Entomologica Jugoslavica, 22(1-2):11-23

Dimic N; Mihajlovic L, 2000. Development of Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic, 1986 (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae). Entomofauna, 21:5-12.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Freise J, 2001. Untersuchungen zur Biologie and Ökologie der Rosskastanien-miniermotte (Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic, 1986) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Diss. Freising.

Freise J; Heitland W, 1999. A brief note on sexual differences in pupae of the horse-chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (1986) (Lep., Gracillariidae), a new pest in Central Europe on Aesculus hippocastanum. Journal of Applied Entomology, 123(3):191-192; 7 ref.

Freise JF; Heitland W; Sturm A, 2003. Das physiologische Wirtspflanzenspektrum der Rosskastanien-Miniermotte, Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 55:209-211.

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France: INRA, Station de Zoologie Forestière, CS 40001 Ardon 45075, Orléans Cedex 2, http://www.orleans.inra.fr/

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UK: Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham Surrey GU10 4LH, http://www.forestresearch.gov.uk

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20/10/2011 Updated by:

Marc Kenis, CABI Europe - Switzerland, 1 Chemin des Grillons, CH-2800 Delémont, Switzerland

12/05/2009 Updated by:

Marc Kenis, CABI Europe - Switzerland, 1 Chemin des Grillons, CH-2800 Delémont, Switzerland

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